NCERT Class 12 Sociology Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion

Read and download NCERT Class 12 Sociology Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion chapter in NCERT book for Class 12 Sociology. You can download latest NCERT eBooks for 2022 chapter wise in PDF format free from Studiestoday.com. This Sociology textbook for Class 12 is designed by NCERT and is very useful for students. Please also refer to the NCERT solutions for Class 12 Sociology to understand the answers of the exercise questions given at the end of this chapter

Patterns Of Social Inequality And Exclusion Class 12 Sociology NCERT

Class 12 Sociology students should refer to the following NCERT Book chapter Patterns Of Social Inequality And Exclusion in standard 12. This NCERT Book for Grade 12 Sociology will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks

Patterns Of Social Inequality And Exclusion NCERT Class 12

The family, caste, tribe and the market – these are the social institutions that have been considered in the last two chapters. In Chapters 3 and 4, these institutions were seen from the point of view of their role in forming  communities and sustaining society. In this chapter we consider an equally important aspectof such institutions, namely their role in creating and sustaining patterns of inequality and exclusion. For most of us who are bor n and live in India, social inequality and exclusion re facts of life. We see beggars in the streets and on railway platforms. We see young children labouring as domestic workers, construction helpers, cleaners and helpers in streetside restaurants (dhabas) and tea-shops. We are not surprised at the sight of small children, who work as domestic workers in middle class urban homes, carrying the school bags of older children to school. It does not immediately strike us as unjust that some children are denied schooling. Some of us read about caste discrimination against children in schools; some of us face it. Likewise, news reports about violence against women and prejudice against minority groups and the differently abled are part of our everyday lives. This everydayness of social inequality and exclusion often make them appear inevitable, almost natural. They are seen as givens that cannot be changed. If we do sometimes recognise that inequality and exclusion are not inevitable, we often think of them as being ‘deserved’ or ‘justified’ in some sense. Perhaps the poor and marginalised are where they are because they are lacking in ability, or haven’t tried hard enough to improve their situation? We thus tend to blame them for their own plight – if only they worked harder or were more intelligent, they wouldn’t be where they are. A closer examination will show that few work harder than those who are located at the lower ranks of society. As a South American proverb says – “If hard labour were really such a good thing, the rich would keep it all for themselves!” All over the world, back-breaking work like stone breaking, digging, carrying heavy weights, pulling rickshaws or carts is invariably done by the poor. And yet they rarely improve their life chances. How often do we come across a poor construction worker who rises to become even a petty construction contractor? It is only in films that a street child may become an industrialist, but even in films it is often shown that such a dramatic rise requires illegal or unscrupulous methods.

SOCIAL INEQUALITY
In every society, some people have a greater share of valued resources – money, property, education, health, and power – than others. These social resources can be divided into three forms of capital – economic capital in the form of material assets and income; cultural capital such as educational qualifications and status; and social capital in the form of networks of contacts and social associations (Bourdieu 1986). Often, these three forms of capital overlap and one can be converted into the other. For example, a person from a well-off family (economic capital) can afford expensive higher education, and so can acquire cultural or educational capital. Someone with influential relatives and friends (social capital) may – through access to good advice, recommendations or information – manage to get a well-paid job.
Patterns of unequal access to social resources are commonly called social inequality. Some social inequality reflects innate differences between individuals for example, their varying abilities and efforts. Someone may be endowed with exceptional intelligence or talent, or may have worked very hard to achieve their wealth and status. However, by and large, social inequality is not the outcome of innate or ‘natural’ differences between people, but is produced by the society in which they live. Sociologists use the term social stratification torefer to a system by which categories of people in a society are ranked in a hierarchy. This hierarchy then shapes people’s identity and experiences, their relations with others, as well as their access to resources and opportunities.

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Indian Society Chapter 1 Introducing Indian Society
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Introducing Indian Society
Indian Society Chapter 2 The Demographic Structure of the Indian Society
NCERT Class 12 Sociology The Demographic Structure of The Indian Society
Indian Society Chapter 3 Social Institutions Continuity and Change
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Social Institutions Continuity and Change
Indian Society Chapter 4 The Market as a Social Institution
NCERT Class 12 Sociology The Market as a Social Institution
Indian Society Chapter 5 Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion
Indian Society Chapter 6 The Challenges of Cultural Diversity
NCERT Class 12 Sociology The Challenges of Cultural Diversity
Indian Society Chapter 7 Suggestions for Project Work
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Suggestion for Project Work
Indian Society Glossary
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Glossary
Social Change and Development in India Chapter 1 Structural Change
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Structural Change
Social Change and Development in India Chapter 2 Cultural Change
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Cultural Change
Social Change and Development in India Chapter 3 The Story of Indian Democracy
NCERT Class 12 Sociology The Story of Indian Democracy
Social Change and Development in India Chapter 4 Change and Development in Rural Society
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Change and Development in Rural Society
Social Change and Development in India Chapter 5 Change and Development in Industrial Society
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Change and Development in Industrial Scoiety
Social Change and Development in India Chapter 6 Globalisation and Social Change
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Globalisation and Social Change
Social Change and Development in India Chapter 7 Mass Media and Communications
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Mass Media and Communications
Social Change and Development in India Chapter 8 Social Movements
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Social Movements

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