NCERT Class 12 Sociology The Story of Indian Democracy

Read and download NCERT Class 12 Sociology The Story of Indian Democracy chapter in NCERT book for Class 12 Sociology. You can download latest NCERT eBooks for 2022 chapter wise in PDF format free from Studiestoday.com. This Sociology textbook for Class 12 is designed by NCERT and is very useful for students. Please also refer to the NCERT solutions for Class 12 Sociology to understand the answers of the exercise questions given at the end of this chapter

The Story Of Indian Democracy Class 12 Sociology NCERT

Class 12 Sociology students should refer to the following NCERT Book chapter The Story Of Indian Democracy in standard 12. This NCERT Book for Grade 12 Sociology will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks

The Story Of Indian Democracy NCERT Class 12

We are all familiar with the idea that democracy is a government of the people, by the people, and for the people. Democracies fall into two basic categories, direct and representative. In a direct democracy, all citizens, without the intermediary of elected or appointed officials, can participate in making public decisions. Such a system is clearly only practical with relatively small numbers of people – in a community organisation or tribal council, for example, or the local unit of a trade union, where members can meet in a single room to discuss issues and arrive at decisions by consensus or majority vote. Modern society, with its size and complexity, offers few opportunities for direct democracy. Today, the most common form of democracy, whether for a town of 50,000 or nations of 1 billion, is representative democracy, in which citizens elect officials to make political decisions, formulate laws, and administer  rogrammes for the public good. Ours is a representative democracy. Every citizen has the important right to vote her/his representative. People elect their representatives to all levels from Panchayats, Municipal Boards, State Assemblies and Parliament. There has increasingly been a feeling that democracy ought to involve people more regularly and should not just mean casting a vote every five years. Both the concepts of participatory democracy and decentralised governance have thus become popular. Participatory democracy is a system of democracy in which the members of a group or community participate collectively in the taking of major decisions. This chapter will discuss the panchayati raj system as an example of a major initiative towards decentralised and grassroot democracy. Both the procedures as well as the values that inform Indian democracy have developed over the long years of India’s anti-colonial struggle. In the last sixty years, since independence, the success of Indian democracy has been seen as a remarkable feat for a country with such great diversity as well as inequality. This chapter cannot possibly provide a comprehensive account of its rich and complex past and present. In this chapter we, therefore, try and provide only a synoptic view of  democracy in India. We first look at the Indian Constitution, the bedrock of Indian democracy. We focus on its key values, briefly look at the making of the Constitution, drawing upon some snippets of the debates representing different views. Second we look at the grassroot level of functioning democracy, namely the Panchayat Raj system. In both expositions you will notice that there are different groups of people representing  ompeting interest and often also different  political parties. This is an essential part of any functioning democracy. The third part of this chapter seeks to discuss how competing interests function,what the terms interest groups and political parties mean and what their role is in a democratic system such as ours.

THE CORE VALUES OF INDIAN DEMOCRACY


Like so many other features of modern India we need to begin the story about modern Indian democracy from the colonial period. You have just read about the many structural and cultural changes that British colonialism  brought about deliberately. Some of the changes that came about happened in an unintended fashion. The British did not intend to introduce them. For instance, they sought to introduce western education to create a western educated Indian middle class that would help the colonial rulers to continue their rule. A western educated section of Indians did emerge. But, instead of aiding British rule, they used western liberal ideas of democracy, social justice and nationalism to challenge colonial rule. This should not, however, suggest that democratic values and democratic institutions are purely western. Our ancient epics, our diverse folk tales from one corner of the country to another are full of dialogues, discussions and contrasting positions. Think of any folk tale, riddles, folk song or any story from any epic that reveals different viewpoints? We just draw from one  example rom the epic Mahabharata. However, as we saw in chapter 1 and 2 social change in modern India is not just about Indian or western ideas. It is a combination as well as reinterpretation of western and Indian ideas. We saw that in the case of the social reformers. We saw the use of both modern ideas of equality and traditional ideas of justice. Democracy is no exception. In colonial India the undemocratic and discriminatory administrative practice of British colonialism contrasted sharply with the vision of freedom which western theories of democracy espoused and which the western educated Indians read about. The scale of poverty and  intensity of social discrimination within India also led to deeper questioning of the meaning of democracy. Is democracy just about political freedom? Or is it also about economic freedom and social justice? Is it also about equal rights to all irrespective of caste, creed, race and gender? And if that is so how can such equality be realised in an unequal society?

Question

1. Interest groups are part and parcel of a functioning democracy. Discuss.

2. Read the snippets from the debates held in the Constituent Assembly. Identify the interest groups. Discuss what kind of interest groups exist in contemporary India. How do they function?

3. Create a’ phad’ or a scroll with your own mandate when standing for school election. (this could be done in small groups of 5, like a panchayat)

3. Have you heard of Bal Panchayats and Mazdoor Kissan Sanghathan? If not, find out and write a note about them in about 200 words.

4. The 73rd amendment has been monumental in bringing a voice to the people in the villages. Discuss.

5. Write an essay on the ways that the Indian Constitution touches peoples’ everyday life, drawing upon different examples


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Indian Society Chapter 1 Introducing Indian Society
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Introducing Indian Society
Indian Society Chapter 2 The Demographic Structure of the Indian Society
NCERT Class 12 Sociology The Demographic Structure of The Indian Society
Indian Society Chapter 3 Social Institutions Continuity and Change
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Social Institutions Continuity and Change
Indian Society Chapter 4 The Market as a Social Institution
NCERT Class 12 Sociology The Market as a Social Institution
Indian Society Chapter 5 Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion
Indian Society Chapter 6 The Challenges of Cultural Diversity
NCERT Class 12 Sociology The Challenges of Cultural Diversity
Indian Society Chapter 7 Suggestions for Project Work
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Suggestion for Project Work
Indian Society Glossary
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Glossary
Social Change and Development in India Chapter 1 Structural Change
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Structural Change
Social Change and Development in India Chapter 2 Cultural Change
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Cultural Change
Social Change and Development in India Chapter 3 The Story of Indian Democracy
NCERT Class 12 Sociology The Story of Indian Democracy
Social Change and Development in India Chapter 4 Change and Development in Rural Society
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Change and Development in Rural Society
Social Change and Development in India Chapter 5 Change and Development in Industrial Society
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Change and Development in Industrial Scoiety
Social Change and Development in India Chapter 6 Globalisation and Social Change
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Globalisation and Social Change
Social Change and Development in India Chapter 7 Mass Media and Communications
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Mass Media and Communications
Social Change and Development in India Chapter 8 Social Movements
NCERT Class 12 Sociology Social Movements

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