Read and download NCERT Class 12 Sociology The Challenges of Cultural Diversity chapter in NCERT book for Class 12 Sociology. You can download latest NCERT eBooks for 2021 chapter wise in PDF format free from Studiestoday.com. This Sociology textbook for Class 12 is designed by NCERT and is very useful for students. Please also refer to the NCERT solutions for Class 12 Sociology to understand the answers of the exercise questions given at the end of this chapter
The Challenges Of Cultural Diversity Class 12 Sociology NCERT
Class 12 Sociology students should refer to the following NCERT Book chapter The Challenges Of Cultural Diversity in standard 12. This NCERT Book for Grade 12 Sociology will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks
The Challenges Of Cultural Diversity NCERT Class 12
Different kinds of social institutions, ranging from the family to the market, can bring people together, create strong collective identities and strengthen social cohesion, as you learnt in Chapters 3 and 4. But, on the other hand, as Chapters 4 and 5 showed, the very same institutions can also be sources of inequality and exclusion. In this chapter, you will learn about some of the tensions and difficulties associated with cultural diversity. What precisely does ‘cultural diversity’ mean, and why is it seen as a challenge? The term ‘diversity’ emphasises differences rather than inequalities. When we say that India is a nation of great cultural diversity, we mean that there are many different types of social groups and communities living here. These are communities defined by cultural markers such as language, religion, sect, race or caste. When these diverse communities are also part of a larger entity like a nation, then difficulties may be created by competition or conflict between them.
This is why cultural diversity can present tough challenges. The difficulties arise from the fact that cultural identities are very powerful – they can arouse intense passions and are often able to moblise large numbers of people. Sometimes cultural differences are accompanied by economic and social inequalities, and this further complicates things. Measures to address the nequalities or injustices suffered by one community can provoke opposition from other communities. The situation is made worse when scarce resources – like river waters, jobs or government funds – have to be shared. If you read the newspapers regularly, or watch the news on television, you may often have had the depressing feeling that India has no future. There seem to be so many divisive forces hard at work tearing apart the unity and integrity of our country – communal riots, demands for regional autonomy, caste wars… You might have even felt upset that large sections of our population are not being patriotic and don’t seem to feel as intensely for India as you and your classmates do. But if you look at any book dealing with the history of modern India, or books dealing specifically with issues like communalism or regionalism (for example, Brass 1974), you will realise that these problems are not new ones. Almost all the major ‘divisive’ problems of today have been there ever since Independence, or even earlier. But in spite of them India has not only survived as a nation, but is a stronger nation-state today.
As you prepare to read on, remember that this chapter deals with difficult issues for which there are no easy answers. But some answers are better than others, and it is our duty as citizens to try our utmost to produce the best answers that are possible within the limitations of our historical and social context. Remember also that, given the immense challenges presented by a vast and extremely diverse collection of peoples and cultures, India has on the whole done fairly well compared to most other nations. On the other hand, we also have some significant shortcomings. There is a lot of room for improvement and much work needs to be done in order to face the challenges of the future …
THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNITY IDENTITY
Every human being needs a sense of stable identity to operate in this world. Questions like — Who am I? How am I different from others? How do others understand and comprehend me? What goals and aspirations should I have? – constantly crop up in our life right from childhood. We are able to answer many of these questions because of the way in which we are socialised, or taught how to live in society by our immediate families and our community in various senses. (Recall the discussion of socialisation in your Class XI textbooks.) The socialisation process involves a continuous dialogue, negotiation and evenstruggle against significant others (those directly involved in our lives) like our parents, family, kin group and our community. Our community provides us the language (our mother tongue) and the cultural values through which we comprehend the world. It also anchors our self-identity. Community identity is based on birth and ‘belonging’ rather than on some form of acquired qualifications or ‘accomplishment’. It is what we ‘are’ rather than what we have ‘become’. We don’t have to do anything to be born into a community – in fact, no one has any choice about which family or community or country they are born into. These kinds of identities are called ‘ascriptive’ – that is, they are determined by the accidents of birth and do not involve any choice on the part of the individuals concerned. It is an odd fact of social life that people feel a deep sense of security and satisfaction in belonging to communities in which their membership is entirely accidental. We often identify so strongly with communities we have done nothing to ‘deserve’ – passed no xam, demonstrated no skill or competence… This is very unlike belonging to, say, a profession or team. Doctors or architects have to pass exams and demonstrate their competence. Even in sports, a certain level of skill and performance are a necessary pre-condition for membership in a team. But our membership in our families or religious or regional communities is without preconditions, and yet it is total. In fact, most ascriptive identities are very hard to shake off; even if we choose to disown them, others may continue to identify us by those very markers of belonging.
1. What is meant by cultural diversity? Why is India considered to be a very diverse country?
2. What is community identity and how is it formed?
3. Why is it difficult to define the nation? How are nation and state related in modern society?
4. Why are states often suspicious of cultural diversity?
5. What is regionalism? What factors is it usually based on?
6. In your opinion, has the linguistic reorganisation of states helped or harmed India?
7. What is a ‘minority’? Why do minorities need protection from the state?
8. What is communalism?
9. What are the different senses in which ‘secularism’ has been understood in India?
10. What is the relevance of civil society organisations today?
Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 12 Sociology The Challenges of Cultural Diversity
Click for more Sociology Study Material ›
|NCERT Class 12 Sociology Introducing Indian Society|
|NCERT Class 12 Sociology The Demographic Structure of The Indian Society|
|NCERT Class 12 Sociology Social Institutions Continuity and Change|
|NCERT Class 12 Sociology The Market as a Social Institution|
|NCERT Class 12 Sociology Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion|
|NCERT Class 12 Sociology The Challenges of Cultural Diversity|
|NCERT Class 12 Sociology Suggestion for Project Work|
|NCERT Class 12 Sociology Glossary|
|NCERT Class 12 Sociology Structural Change|
|NCERT Class 12 Sociology Cultural Change|
|NCERT Class 12 Sociology The Story of Indian Democracy|
|NCERT Class 12 Sociology Change and Development in Rural Society|
|NCERT Class 12 Sociology Change and Development in Industrial Scoiety|
|NCERT Class 12 Sociology Globalisation and Social Change|
|NCERT Class 12 Sociology Mass Media and Communications|
|NCERT Class 12 Sociology Social Movements|