CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Training in Sports Assignment

Read and download free pdf of CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Training in Sports Assignment. Get printable school Assignments for Class 12 Physical Education. Standard 12 students should practise questions and answers given here for Physical Education in Grade 12 which will help them to strengthen their understanding of all important topics. Students should also download free pdf of Printable Worksheets for Class 12 Physical Education prepared as per the latest books and syllabus issued by NCERT, CBSE, KVS and do problems daily to score better marks in tests and examinations

Training In Sports Class 12 Physical Education Assignment Pdf

Class 12 Physical Education students should refer to the following printable assignment in Pdf for Training In Sports in standard 12. This test paper with questions and answers for Grade 12 Physical Education will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks

Class 12 Physical Education Assignment for Training In Sports

Ques 1. What are pace races?
Ans. Pace races are an effective training method for improving speed endurance. A pace race generally means running race of 800 metres or more at a uniform speed, with another athlete running 10-15 metres ahead of the other athletes who sets the pace of running. This uniform speed running is repeated at intervals fixed according to the standard of the athlete.
 
Ques 2. Define cardiovascular endurance,
Ans. It is the ability of the heart, lungs and blood vessels to supply a sufficient amount of oxygen and nutrients to the cells to meet demands of activities for prolonged performance or large muscle dynamic exercises at moderate to high levels of intensity.
 
Ques 3. What is the interval training method?
Ans. Interval training method is called terrace training. It is a training of the heart through endurance training and based upon the effort and recovery principle.
 
Ques 4. What is sports training?
Ans. Sports training is a specialized process of all round physical conditioning aimed at the preparation of sportspersons for improving performance in games and sports.
 
Ques 5. What is speed?
Ans. Speed is the ability of an individual to perform a movement of the same pattern at faster rate.
 
Ques 6. What is flexibility?
Ans. Flexibility is the range of movement of joints. Flexibility can be defined as the ability to execute movement with greater amplitude or range.
 
Ques 7. Write any two dentitions of sports training.
Ans. According to Mathew, "Sports training is the basic form of preparation of a sportsman. According to Martin, 'It is a planned and controlled process to achieve goals in which the changes of motor performance and behavior are made through measures of content , methods and organization.
 
Ques 8. List any four training methods.
Ans. Some useful training methods are (any four)
(I) Circuit training
(II) Interval training
(III) Continuous training
(IV) Fartlek training
(v) Weight training
 
Ques 9. What are the methods for developing flexibility?
Ans. Methods for developing flexibility are
(i) Ballistic method
(ii) Static stretching method
(iii) Dynamic stretching method
(iv) Proprioceptive neuron muscular facilitation technique
 
Ques 10. Suggest different ways to improve reaction ability of a player.
Ans. Improved reaction ability is a performance prerequisite to do motor actions under given conditions in minimum time. There are two methods for improving this. They are
(i) Acceleration Runs: They test the ability to achieve high speed of locomotion from a stationary position or from a slow moving position. Acceleration ability is improved indirectly by improving on explosive strength, technique and movement frequency.
ii) Short Sprints For direct improvement of acceleration, short sprints of 25 to 80 m are the best means.
The maximum speed achieved by a sprinter from a stationary start is for about 6 sec. various researches have shown that during a sprint run the speed also increases with time.
At the end of 1st sec the approximate speed is 55Tb of maximum.
At the end of 3rd sec the approximate speed is 91 To of maximum.
At the end of 5th sec. the, approximate speed is 99Y'0 of maximum.
 
Ques 11. Briefly explain the advantages of fartlek training.
Ans.Advantages of fartlek training are 
i) It is good for increasing strength and cardio respiratory endurance.
ii) Several athletics can take part in the training programme at a time.
(iii) It does not require any equipment and can be organized easily.
(iv) This training method is not rigid ; it is flexible in nature.
(v) It improves the efficiency of the heart and lungs.
(vi) It provides experience of nature.
 
Ques 12. Elucidate any two principles of sports training.
Ans. Two principles of sports training are
i) Principle of Progression: The principle of progression also makes us realise the nod for proper rest and recovery. The overload should not be increased too rapidly. If the overload is increased too rapidly, it may result in injury or muscle damage.
ii) Principle of Specificity: Principle of specificity states that exercising a certain part or component of the body primarily develops that part. It means that to become better at a particular exercise or skill, you must perform that exercise or skill.
 
Ques 13. Discuss two types of flexibility.
Ans. Two Types of flexibilities are
i) Active Flexibility : It is the ability to do movement for a longer distance without external help e. g. Exercise without partner. Ability to do movement for a greater distance with external help.
(ii) Passive Flexibility exercise with the help of a partner. It is always more than active flexibility.
 
Ques 14. What are various factors of speed?
Or
Explain the types of speed,
Ans. The various factors of speed are
(ì) Reaction Time: Time taken to respond to a given stimulus, e. g. start in races.
ii) Acceleration Ability: Ability of the body to achieve maximum possible speed in minimum possible time e. g. 50 m run, 60 m run, 80 m run etc.
(iii) Speed of Movement Time: taken by a muscle or group of muscles to complete a movement e. g. 100 m race from start to finish.
iv) Locomotors Ability: Ability of the body to maintain maximum speed for maximum duration e. g. maintenance phase in 100 m race.
(V) Speed Endurance Ability of the body to perform any movement speedily under the condition of fatigue e. g. pace races.
 
Ques 15. Explain the concept of fartlek training.
Ans. Fartlek is a Swedish term which means speed play. In such type of training, an athlete can adopt any pace as per his wish and ability to complete a specific distance. The main aspect of this training is that he has to cover the distance in fixed time. He can also change his speed or pace according to the various geographical surroundings like hills, rivers, forests, muddy roads and grassy grounds etc. During fartlek training, the rate of heartbeat should range between 140-180 beats/min. It improves the
efficiency of the lungs and heart for an activity for duration of not less than 15 min.
 
Ques 16.  How would you train for developing speed?
Or
Explain the various methods of speed development.
Ans. Speed is the ability of moving a body part or the whole body with the greatest possible speed or velocity. To develop speed, we can use-the following methods
(i) Acceleration runs (sprints)
ii) Pace races (speed endurance)
For developing speed in sprinting and running over distances of 800 m or more
(ì) An athlete should commence his training with around 75% of his maximum speed.
(ii) He should move gradually towards 100°6 of his maximum speed.
(iii) The total number of runs per unit (in one day) should be between 6 and 12, depending upon the capacity of the athlete.
(iv) Acceleration runs should be started after proper warming up.
(v) Training at maximum speed in early morning should be avoided.
(vi) In case of pain or cramp in muscles, training should be discontinued.
 
Ques 17. Explain the term warming up'. What are its advantages? 
Ans. Warming up is a process in which muscles are warmed up by running, jogging and performing some freehand exercises prior to training or competition. A warming up session is divided into two parts
(i) General warming up
(ii) Specific warming up
Warming up should not be less than 15 min and not more than 40 min.
Advantages
(i) It raises the body temperature.
(ii) It creates tension in the muscles and makes the joints comparatively active.
(iii) It improves metabolic reaction.
(ìv) It reduces the chances of muscular injuries.
 
Ques 18. What is strength? Discuss any two types of exercises used for strength development.
Ans. Stren8th It is the ability of muscles to overcome resistance, It is the ability of an individual to work against resistance. e. g. various throws and jump events, swimming etc.
Types of exercises for strength development are
(ì) lsometric Exercises or Static Contraction: The literal meaning of the word isometric is constant length.
i. e. Iso means constant and metric means length.
In this contraction, muscles work against a resistance but there is no change in the length of, muscle. No external movement is visible to a third person, e. g. Ieg press, pushing a wall, squat position, holding leg at 45°
lso Kinetic Exercises The literal meaning of the term isokinetic is constant speed, i. e, iso means constant and kinetic means motion, is defined as maximal contraction with constant speed over the full range of movement, e : g. cycling, arm stroke in butterfly style swimming etc,
 
Ques 19. Draw ten stations circuit training programme for improving the jumping ability of a Player.
Ans. S. Circuit training is a very popular and effective method of training for the improvement of physical fitness components. In circuit training, several exercises are done one after the other. Completion of one set of each exercise in rotation is called one round. There are normally. Three or more rounds in circuit training which consists of 7-12 exercises generally. The exercises in a circuit are arranged in such a manner that different muscle groups are exercised in rotation. A specific circuit, however,-can consist of several exercises involving the same middle groups. An example of circuit training is given below.
 
Ques 20. Define the term strength. Draw 8 stations circuit training program : ie for upper body strength.
Ans. Strength It is the ability to resist stress. It is the ability of the muscles to overcome resistance, Strength of the body can be measured in pounds or dynes.
 
Ques 21. Define strength. Explain the details of strength training methods with the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Ans: Strength is the ability of our muscles to overcome resistance. We use the following methods of strength development
(i) lsometric Exercises They are those exercises in which the length of the muscles remain the same during workout. No external movement is visible to a third person. During an isometric contraction, the muscle develops tension but does not change its length. Ïn isometric exercises, special instruments may be used, e. g. power rack.
 
Advantages
 
(a) They can be performed anywhere.
(b) In these exercises, less time is required.
(c) In these exercises, less equipment is required.
(d) They develop a high level of static and maximum strength.
 
Disadvantage
 
i) It raises the blood pressure, and therefore it is not recommended for heart patients.
ii) Isotonic Exercise: These exercises in which movements are clearly visible in the concerned body part.
Length of the muscles changes and work done is clearly visible. These exercises help muscles to also improve their flexibility along with developing strength in them.
 
Isotonic contractions are of two types
 
(a) Concentric
b) Eccentric
 
Advantages
 
They develop dynamic strength.
They contribute to hypertrophy of muscles.
 
Disadvantages
 
(a) In these exercises, there are chances of strain and stress injuries.
(b) In these exercises, usually some equipment is required.
(iii) lsokinetic Exercises: In these exercises, there is movement along with continuous tension in both flexor and extensor muscles. Here, both the flexor and extensor muscles develop tension along with full range of movement (may be upward or downward) simultaneously. These require special equipment, e. g. cycling upward, swimming, weight training machines etc.
 
Advantages
 
(a) They develop a high level of dynamic as well as explosive strength.
(b) These are effective for almost every game.
 
Disadvantages

(a) They require special types of equipment.
(b) They must be performed under observation of a coach.
 
Ques 22. Define flexibility and explain the methods of flexibility development
Ans. Flexibility is the range of movement. It is the ability of joints to move in the maximum range.
 
Types of Flexibility
 
(ì) Active Flexibility It is performed without external help or self-movement of a part to the maximum range. Passive Flexibility It is the ability of joints to move in their maximum range with external help.
 
Developing Methods of Flexibility
 
(i) Ballistic Method In ballistic method, the movement is performed with a swing in a rhythmic way.
(ii) Static Stretching Method In this method, the joint is stretched and held for 10 to 30 sec.
(iii) Dynamic Stretching Method this method, activities are performed with a motion or movement in a full range.
(iv) Post lsometric Stretch or PNF Technique This method is based on the principle of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation. PNF is a more advanced technique that involves both stretching (static + dynamic) techniques and contraction of the muscle groups being targeted. For gaining flexibility in the shortest possible time, PNF technique is the most appropriate method for developing flexibility.
 
 

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