Assignment for Class 12 History Themes In Indian History-I Chapters
Class 12 History students should refer to the following printable assignment in Pdf for Themes In Indian History-I Chapters in standard 12. This test paper with questions and answers for Grade 12 History will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks
Themes In Indian History-I Chapters Class 12 History Assignment
CBSE Class 12 History Ancient India Assignment. Based on CBSE and NCERT guidelines. The students should read these basic concepts to gain perfection which will help him to get more marks in CBSE examination.
Q.1 List the raw materials required for craft production in the Harappan civilisation and discuss how these might have been obtained.
Ans. The variety of materials used to make beads is remarkable: stones like carnelian (of a beautiful red colour), jasper, crystal, quartz and steatite; metals like copper, bronze and gold; and shell, faience and terracotta or burnt clay.
Two methods of procuring materials for craft production :-
1. They established settlements such as Nageshwar, Shortughai and Balakot.
2. They might have sent expeditions to areas such as the Khetri region of Rajasthan (for Copper) and south India (for gold).
Q.2 “Our knowledge about the Indus Valley Civilization is poorer than that of the other Civilizations”. Explain it by your arguments?
Ans. Yes, our knowledge about the Indus Valley Civilization is poorer than that of the other because of the following reasons:-
· The script of that age has hitherto not been deciphered.
· The easy method behind seeking knowledge about other Civilizations such as that of Egypt, Mesopatamia, China etc. was the deciphering of their scripts. Scripts is that sole basis through which we can gather through knowledge about the art, literature, customs, dresses, function and religion etc. of any Civilizations
Q.3 What were the confusions in the mind of Cunningham while studying Harappan civilization ?
Ans. · He used the accounts left by Chinese Buddhist pilgrims who had visited the subcontinent between the fourth and seventh centuries CE.
· He thought that Indian history began with the first cities in the Ganga valley.
· In fact, Cunningham’s main interest was in the archaeology of the Early Historic (c. sixth century BCE-fourth century CE) and later periods.
Q.4 What were the differences in the techniques adopted by Marshall and Wheeler in studying Harappan civilization ?
Ans. · Marshall tended to excavate along regular horizontal units, measured uniformly throughout the mound, ignoring the stratigraphy of the site.
· This meant that all the artefacts recovered from the same unit were grouped together, even if they were found at different stratigraphic layers. As a result, valuable information about the context of these finds was irretrievably lost. R.E.M. Wheeler, rectified this problem. Wheeler recognised that it was necessary to follow the stratigraphy of the mound rather than dig mechanically along uniform horizontal lines
Q. 5 “Burials is a better source to trace social differences prevalent in the Harappan civilization”. Discuss.
Ans. 1. Studying burials is a strategy to find out social differences.
2. At burials in Harappan sites the dead were generally laid in pits. Sometimes, there were differences in the way the burial pit was made – in some instances; the hollowed-out spaces were lined with bricks.
3. Some graves contain pottery and ornaments, perhaps indicating a belief that these could be used in the afterlife. Jewellery has been found in burials of both men and women.
Q. 6 Write a note on the Drainage system of the Harappans.
Ans. One of the striking features of this town was a well planned drainage system. The drains were made of mortar, lime and gypsum. They were covered with big bricks and stones which could be lifted easily to clean the drains. Smaller drains from houses on both the sides of the streets came and joined a brick laid main channel. Bigger drains which cleared the rain water were 2 and half feet to 5 feet in circumference. For sewage from the houses, pits were provided at either side of the street. All this shows that the Indus Valley people took great care to keep their cities neat and clean.
Q. 7 Discuss the functions that may have been performed by rulers in Harappan society.
Ans. · Some archaeologists are of the opinion that Harappan society had no rulers and that everybody enjoyed equal status. Others feel there was no single ruler but several.
· There are indications of extraordinary uniformity of Harappan artefacts as evident in pottery seals weights and bricks.
· Notably bricks though obviously not produced in any single centre, were of a uniform ratio throughout the region, from Jammu to Gujarat.
· Under the guidance and supervision of the rulers plans and layouts of the city were prepared. Big buildings palaces forts, tanks wells, canals, granaries were constructed.
· Roads lanes and drains were also constructed and cleanliness was maintained under the over all supervision of the ruler.
· The ruler might have taken interest in economy of the state or city states. He used to inspire the farmer to increase agricultural production.
· He used to motivate the craftsmen to promote different handicrafts. Internal as well as external trade was promoted by the ruler.
· He used to issue common acceptable coins or seals, weights and measurements.
· During the natural calamity such as flood earthquake, epidemic etc. the ruler used to provide grains and other eatables to the affected people.
· He used to play active role to defend cities or state from foreign attack.
Please refer to attached file for CBSE Class 12 History Ancient India Assignment
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