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Worksheet for Class 12 Physical Education Sports And Nutrition
Class 12 Physical Education students should refer to the following printable worksheet in Pdf for Sports And Nutrition in Class 12. This test paper with questions and answers for Class 12 will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks
Class 12 Physical Education Worksheet for Sports And Nutrition
SPORTS AND NUTRITION
Q.1 – What is nutrition ?
Ans: Nutrition is a branch of science which refers to all the processes by which an individual gets his food. Nutrition is defined as the science of food and its relationship to health.
Q.2 – What is balanced diet ?
Ans: A balanced diet is that which contains a proper amount of each nutrient. A balanced diet is the diet that contains adequate amounts of all the necessary nutrients required for healthy growth and activitiy.
Q.3 – What are macro-nutrients?
Ans: Those nutrients which are needed in the body in large amount like carbon, hydrogen and oxygen elements are called macro-nutrients. To take these nutrients, we take lots of carbohydrates, proteins, etc.
Q.4 – What is micro-nutrients?
Ans: Those nutrients which are required in less quantity or in traces like zinc, sulphur and copper are called micro-nutrients.
Q.5 – Describe the non-nutritive components of diet.
Ans: Water is an important element of balanced diet. It makes up to almost 70% of our body weight. Life process cannot occur without water. Functions:
(i) In the digestive system, water helps to break down complex food metabolism.
(ii) Water transports foods, wastes and gases through the body.
(iii) It keeps body cool though transpiration.
Q.6 – What do you mean by anorexia nervosa? Explain the causes and management of anorexia in detail.
Ans: Anorexia nervosa is a psychological disorder in which a patient has a distorted body image and an irrational fear of becoming overweight; therefore, they deliberately try to lose weight.
Anorexia is of two types: purging type of anorexia and Restricting type of anorexia.
(a) Purging type of anorexia: Body weight is reduced due to vomiting or by taking laxatives.
(b) Restricting type of Anorexia: Due to restricting calories, individual’s body weight is lost.
Causes of anorexia: There may be various factors, and some of them are mentioned below:
Social Factors: Social pressures to remain thin can lead to anorexia. If an individual wants to participate in gymnastics or modeling, these professions demand to remain thin. In some cases, parents criticize their children’s bodies and appearance. This act of parents can lead the children towards anorexia.
Biological factors: Biological factors are also cause of anorexia. If a female with anorexia has an offspring, that offspring is many times more likely to develop anorexia.
Psychological factors: The affected people with anorexia are usually perfectionists. They do what they are told. They excel in every thing they do and focus themselves on pleasing others. But on the other hand they feel helpless inadequate and valueless. They never feel good enough.
Symptoms of Anorexia
1. The individuals with anorexia are usually afraid of gaining weight.
2. They follow dieting strictly despite being thin. They eat only-calorie foods. They avoid taking fats and carbohydrates in their diet.
3. Such individuals just pretend to eat. They hide or throw away food to avoid eating. They make excuses to get out of meals. They can be heard of saying that they had a huge lunch or dinner or they are having some digestive problems.
4. The individual also with anorexia usually refuse to eat in public places or party. If they eat, they eat in ritualistic ways e.g., chewing food and spitting it out etc.
5. There is a rapid and drastic weight loss of the affected individual without any medial cause. The weight loss may be up to 15 percent of body weight.
6. Such individuals have a feeling of fat however they are underweight. They have a feelingthat they have excess fat deposited on their abdomen, hips and thighs.
7. The affected individuals with anorexia usually take diet pill, laxatives or diuretics. At any cost they remain eager to reduce their body weight.
8. They want to burn their calories more and more. Hence they do excessive exercise. Even when they are injured or ill, they definitely continue their exercise programme.
Prevention of Anorexia
Following points can be taken care of for prevention of anorxia:
1. They should say no to teasing or the teenagers should have concept that it is wrong to say hurtful things about another children’s body sizes.
2. Fitness comes in all sizes. We must provide the knowledge to children about their genetics and body size.
3. Stay away from the persons, places and activities which are related to anorexia.
Management and Treatment of Anorexia
For proper management and treatment the following points should be followed:
1. Generally there are no medicines to treat anorexia effectively. However, antidepressants can help in treating other mental disorders such as depression or anxiety which are related to anorexia.
2. Realize it that you have a problem of anorexia. Admit it that your relentless pursuit of thinness is out of your control.
3. Individual psychotherapy can provide help to the affected person in dealing with the behavior and thoughts that lead to anorexia. He can gain a healthier self-esteem and learn positive ways to cope up with distress.
Q. 7- What is Bulimia? Discuss it’s type, causes, symptoms and treatment in detail.
Ans: Bulimia is a psychological disorder in which patient experiences regular bouts and serious over eating which are always followed by a feeling of guilt which can then lead to extreme reactions such as crash dieting, doing lots of exercise and purging.
Types of Bulimia
There are two types of Bulimia:
1.) Purging Bulimia: In this type of bulimia, the individual regularly engages in self-induced vomiting or the misuse of laxatives, diuretics or enemas. The individual rapidly wants to remove food from the body before it can be digested.
2.) Non-Purging Bulimia: In this type of bulimia, the individual uses other methods to get rid of calories and to prevent weight gain. She/he uses fasting, strict dieting or excessive but does not engage in self-induced vomiting or misuse of laxative, diuretics or enemas.
Causes of Bulimia
1.) Performance pressure in sports: Eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia are common among sportspersons. Usually gymnasts, racers and wrestlers are found to be affected by bulimia Coaches unknowingly contribute to eating disorders by encouraging sportspersons to reduce weight or maintain a low weight for presenting a better performance in sports.
2.) Family history: Family history also plays a role in developing bulimia. Bulimia may develop to an individual whose parent, brother or sister has bulimia. It has some type of genetic link.
3.) Psychological factor: Psychological factors such as low self-esteem, perfectionlism, impulsive behavior, depression and anxiety disorders etc. may be the causes of bulimia.
4.) Social Factors: In fact, the persons who remain in media such as actors, dances and models are at higher risk of eating disorders. Such as bulimia and anorexia
Symptoms of Bulimia
1.) Makes excuses to go to the bathroom immediately after meals
2.) Only eat diet or low-fat foods (except during binges)
3.) Regularly buy laxatives, diuretics, or enemas.
4.) Fear weight gain.
5.) Be intensely unhappy with body size, shape, and weight.
Treatment of Bulimia
1.) Healthcare provider should give a proper plan of physical activity or exercise to the person affected by bulimia. The affected individual should not perform excessive exercises to burn off calories consumed by taking more amounts of food.
2.) Psychological treatment helps in improving symptoms of bulimia. Cognitive behavioral therapy can be used to treat mental ailments such as depression, negative beliefs and behaviors with healthy and positive ones.
3.) In case of bulimia, to come back to a healthy weight should be given top priority. Dietician should prepare an eating plan to help you achieve a healthy weight. He should prepare an eating plan to help you achieve a healthy weight. He should provide education regarding normal eating habits and good nutrition.
4.) Antidepressants may alleviate the symptoms of bulimia along with the psychotherapy or psychological treatment. Fluoxetine is the only antidepressant to treat bulimia.
Q.8- Briefly explain the effects of diet on performance.
Ans: An active lifestyle and exercise routine, along with eating well, is the best way to stay healthy. Eating a good diet with enough fluids can help provide the energy you need to finish a race or just enjoy a casual sport or activity. You are more likely to be tired and perform poorly during sports when you do not get enough calories, carbohydrates, fluids, vitamins, iron and other minerals, and protein.
Daily Training Diet Requirements
1.) Enhance adaptation and recovery between training sessions.
2.) Promote the short and long-term health of athlets.
3.) Provide adequate fluids to ensure maximum hydration before, during and after exercise.
4.) Provide enough energy and nutrients to meet the demands of tainting and exercise.
In your diet, include a wide variety of foods like wholegrain bread and cereals, vegetable (particularly leafy green varieties), fruits, lean meat and low-fat dairy products to enhance long term nutrition habits and behaviors. To know the role of particular diet, it would be better to know the role of essential nutrients on performance. These essential nutrients are described below:
Proteins are a part of our tissues including body fluids such as blood, they are needed for repair and maintenance of body tissues. Proteins are essential for muscular development. All sportsmen require a good amount of protein in their diets. However, sportsmen like boxers and wrestlers require more proteins due to wear and tear of tissues.
Fats are composed of fatty acids. These are a better sources of energy. Fat Provides heat end energy to the body. Athletes and sportsmen require fat from light to moderate proportions, because fat is a source of fuel or energy for the body.
However, high jumpers or gymnasts require only minimum amount of fat, because the extra weight can hinder their performance.
Carbohydrates are specially voluble food when a considerate amount of muscular work to be undertaken. Carbohydrate is an essential component of a sportsman’s diet because less intake of carbohydrates can result in exhaustion. Carbohydrates also provide strength and fuel for muscles. Therefore, an athlete’s diet should be rich in carbohydrates.
Vitamins accelerate the vitality, lightness, buoyancy and resistance of the body. Vitamins are essential for normal functioning of the body and good performance in sports. For example, Vitamin E helps in the treatment of heart diseases. Similarly, Vitamin C helps in the treatment of wounds.
The three Vitamins which have proved significantly are
Vitamin “B-Complex”. Deficiency of vitamin “B-Complex” has shown the decrease on the sports performance. Studies related to excess amount of Vitamin “B-complex” intake show both the improvement in performance and no influence on performance. So, there is further need for research to know the effect of this vitamin on the performance.
Vitamin “C”. Low level of Vitamin ‘C’ intake does not reduce the work performance significantly. Approximately,60 mg of Vitamin ‘C’ intake by non athletes and 300 mg to 500 mg intake by successful athletes do not have any harmful effect on kidneys.
Vitamin ‘E’. Vitamin ‘E’ has been claimed to have beneficial effects in the treatment of many diseases and specially heart diseases. Studies conducted on the use of vitamin ‘E’ have shown little or no effect on the performance.
In the diet of a sportsperson water is required as a solvent, a transport medium, a substrate in hydrolytic reactions and for lubrication. Water is an essential component of diet. Loss of water in the body can lead to nervous system disorder, headache and dizziness, However, excess amount of water does not show any improvement in performance. Thus every athlete/sportsperson should consume a well-balanced diet incorporating all essential nutrients.
Minerals are required in a sportsperson’s body for various functions. Sportsperson’s body requires essential minerals like iodine, iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus etc. During sports performance, sweating can reduce the amount of Sodium from the body. It can be compensated by the intake of salt. However, excessive intake of salt can lead to Potassium loss or water retention. Iodine is also required for the normal functioning of the thyroid gland.
Q.9- What do you mean by healthy weight? Discuss about the method to control healthy body weight for lifetime.
Ans: Weight is a tough mass. The health benefits of staying at a healthy weight are huge and well worth effort. It helps is lowering the risk of heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure.
According to national Institute of Health “ A healthy weight is considered to be one that is between 19 and 25 (BMI). If the BMI is between 25-29 an adult is considered overweight. If the BMI is 30 or greater, the person is considered to be obese”.
Method To Calculate BMI
Methods to control Healthy Body Weight
- Regular Daily Exercise: Exercise burns excessive calories or fat stored in the body. If consumption of calories is less than the numbers of calories burnt by the body, then it will be bad to weight lose. Aerobic exercise should be done.
- Set Small Goals: If one tries to lose too much weight too soon, then the person is likely to get demotivated. Therefore, it is important that small and realistic goals should be set in. Achievement of these goals further motivates the individual to lose weight.
- Cut Your Calories: keep a plan ready to get back on the track if your body weight begins to exceed the required level. It is a simple plan to follow. Just cut or subtract only 100 calories a day. In this way, you can return to your goal weight.
- Avoid junk food and Fizzy drinks: Consumption of junk food (Pizza, burger etc.) items immediately leads to weight gain. Therefore, to control weight consumption of junk food should be avoided. Consumption of fizzy drinks such as soft drinks and hard drinks have high sugar content. Therefore, consuming these drinks leads to weight gain. Instead, one can drinks lemon water which is a natural drinks
- Adopt a healthy life style: Instead of being lazy, we should try to be active. It works wonders in controlling weight. Use stairs instead of elevators or escalators; Walk to a nereby shop instead of using automobile; play outdoor games instead of computer games- all this contributes to healthy lifestyle.
- Adopt Alcohol, Smoking and Drugs: Alcohol, smoking and drugs always tend to increase weight. Alcohol is directly absorbed from the stomach in the blood stream and easily stored as fat. It is also applicable in case of smoking and drugs. So, never use such things, if you want to lose weight.
- Do not Overeat: One should not overeat. You should eat the food according to the requirement of your body. Suppose you require 2000 calories per day, then you should take the food that consists of only 2000 calories. If you take 2100 calories per day, the 100 calories will be accumulated daily as fat in your body. So, you should avoid overeating.
- Don’t Skip Meals: Never skip your meals, such as breakfast, lunch and dinner as far as possible. If you skip your meal, the next time you will definitely do overeating which may lead to obesity. In fact, skipping meals increases hunger and it results in greater food consumption next time.
- Yoga exercises: Yoga exercises are also helpful both for mind and body. Yogic exercises help to reduce weight. In fact, this power yoga is the latest craze. Mediativeasanas also help in relieving the stress and tension.
Q.10- Explain in detail various pitfalls of Dieting.
Ans: The main major pitfalls of dieting are given below:
(1) Most of the persons who go on dieting usually underestimate the number of calories they consume. So, it is essential to be more aware about the number of calories you take in your diet.
(2) If you want to lose your weight, most probably you stress on not to eat more and not on what you drink. In fact, beverages, coffee with cream and sugar, sweetened juice and sodas really contribute to weight gain.
(3) If you reduce more intake of calories it will produce, a huge weight loss. It can be dangerous for you. It will definitely lower your metabolism and as a result of it your body weight will not be reduced properly.
(4) Generally some nutrients like carbohydrates and fats are restricted in dieting. In reality your body needs all types nutrients. If you don’t take all the nutrients in required amounts amounts your proper functioning will be impaired.
Q.11- What do you mean by Food Intolerance? Explain the causes, symptoms and management of food Intolerance and detail
Ans: Food intolerance means when an individual cannot digest certain food properly. It is becoming one of the most likely reasons for ill health today. Food intolerance is often confused with food allergy, but these are both very different. Food intolerance basically affects the digestive system and causes, diarrohea, bloating, stomach cramps and celiac disease.
Causes and Symptoms of Food Intolerance
Causes of Intolerance: Food intolerances are caused by part or complete absence of activity of the enzymes responsible for breaking down for absorbing the food elements. These deficiencies are usually innate.
Symptoms of Intolerance: Food intolerance can cause nausea, stomach pain, diarrohea, vomiting, gas cramps, headaches, irritability etc.
Management of Food Intolerance
Food intolerance can be managed adequately in such a way without the need for professional assistance. If you are not able to know the food which causes problem you should seek expert medical help. Guidance can also be provided by your general practitioner to assist in diagnosis and management. Fructose intolerance therapy, Lactose intolerance therapy and Histamine intolerance therapy can be applied for managing food tolerance.
Q.12- What do you mean by food myths? Explain any five food myths prevailing in contemporary society.
Ans : Food myths are things which are repeated sometimes so much that we are inclined to believe they are true, e.g., high protein diets cause ketosis which reduces hunger.
1.) Drinking while eating makes you fat: The actual fact behind this misconception is that enzymes and their digestive juices will be diluted by drinking water while eating. It will slow down your digestion which may lead to excess body fat. In contrary, there is a scientific fact that drinking water while eating improves digestion.
2.) Fat-free products will help you to Lose weight: If you take at free labeled products they can lead to weight gain. In fact, these foods have more calories. Approximately, these products have same number of calories (may be slightly less) in comparison to other regular food.
3.) Starve yourself if you want to lose weight: Eating a good diet is more important than not to eat when you are on a weight loss programme. Include such food items in your diet which suppress appetite and increase metabolism so that your don’t eat too much. So, there is no need to starve yourself if you want to lose weight.
4.) Exercise makes you to eat more: Exercises burn calories which may increase your hunger. Research studies conducted in this area have not shown that the individual who do exercise, consume more calories than those who don’t exercise. So there is no truth in this statement.
5.) Eggs increase cholesterol levels so avoid them: There is no doubt that eggs are good source of health. An egg provides you various nutrients such as protein, vitamin A, B, D, Zinc, Iron, Calcium and Phosphorus etc. It is as per daily requirement of cholesterol by our bodies. So, if you take one egg daily there is no problem of cholesterol level.
Q.13- What do you mean by sports nutrition?
Ans: Sports nutrition is the study and practice of nutrition and diet as it relates to performance in the field of games and sports. It has a direct relationship with the type and quantity of fluid and food intake by a sportsperson. In fact, it deals with the nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals and water etc.
Q.14- Describe the considerations in meal intake which should be taken before, during and after the completion.
Ans: Food nutrients like carbohydrates, fats and proteins supply us with energy. What an athlete eats on a day to day basis is extremely important for athlete’s training. Athlete’s diet will affect how fast and how well athlete progresses, and how soon he/she reaches to the competitive standards. Once an athlete is read to compete, he/she will have a new concern, his/her competition diet. What should an athlete eat before event, during event and after event is important.
Meal Before Event/Performance
(1) The meal should be taken at least three to four hours and snacks atleast one to two hours before exercise, to give enough time for digestion. The diet should include starches such as cereal, bread and fruit to give him/her a slow, steady release of energy.
(2) Pre-exercise meals and snacks include cereals and low-fat milk, toast/muffins, fruit salad and yogurt, pasta with tomato-based sauce, a low-fat breakfast or low-fat creamed rice.
(3) A high-carbohydrate meal, three to four hours before exercise is thought to have a positive effect on performance.
Meal During Event/Performance
During exercise lasting more than 60 minutes, an intake of carbohydrate is required to top up blood glucose levels and delay fatigue.
(1) Take small sips of water another fluids even if you feel do not thirsty.
(2) Drink liquid glucose to save your own limited stores of glycogen.
(3) During event, 30-60 g of carbohydrate is sufficient and can be consumed in the form of sports gels, low-fat muesli and sports bars or sandwiches with white bread.
(4) It is advisable to consume regular fluid during prolonged exercise to avoid dehydration. Sports drinks, diluted fruit juice and water are suitable choices.
(5) It is important to commence early intake in exercise and to consume regular amounts throughout the exercise period.
Meal After Event/Performance
(1) Drink lots of water and other fluids to replace any losts of fluid.
(2) Fat carbohydrates with a moderate to high level in the first half-an-hour or so after exercise be consumed to top up glycogen stores. This should be continued until the normal meal pattern resumes.
(3) Carbohydrate foods and fluids should be consumed after exercise, particularly in the first 1-2 hours after exercise.
(4) The food should be rich in carbohydrate within an hour of exercising even if we do not feel hungry, to restore glycogen stores quickly.
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CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Sports And Nutrition Worksheet
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Worksheet for Physical Education CBSE Class 12 Sports And Nutrition
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Sports And Nutrition worksheet Physical Education CBSE Class 12
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Sports And Nutrition CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Worksheet
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Worksheet for CBSE Physical Education Class 12 Sports And Nutrition
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