NCERT Class 12 History Kings Farmers and Towns Early States and Economies

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Kings Farmers And Towns Early States And Economies Class 12 History NCERT

Class 12 History students should refer to the following NCERT Book chapter Kings Farmers And Towns Early States And Economies in standard 12. This NCERT Book for Grade 12 History will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks

Kings Farmers And Towns Early States And Economies NCERT Class 12

There were several developments in different parts of the  subcontinent during the long span of 1,500 years following the end of the Harappan civilisation. This was also the period during which the Rigveda was  composed by peopleliving along the Indus and its tributaries. Agricultural settlements emerged in many parts of the subcontinent, including north India, the Deccan Plateau, and parts of Karnataka. Besides, there is evidence of pastoral  populations in the Deccan and further south. New modes of disposal of the dead, including the making of elaborate stone structures known as megaliths, emerged in central and south India from the first  millennium BCE. In many cases, the dead were buried with a rich range of iron tools and weapons.

From c. sixth century BCE, there is evidence that there were other trends as well. Perhaps the most visible was the emergence of early states, empires and kingdoms. Underlying these political processes were other changes, evident in the ways in which agricultural  production was organised. Simultaneously, new towns appeared almost throughout the subcontinent. Historians attempt to understand these developments by drawing on a range of sources – inscriptions, texts,  coins and visual material. As we will see, this is a complex process. You will also notice that these sources do not  tell the entire story.

Kings, Farmers and Towns  Early States and Economies (c. 600 BCE-600 CE) Epigraphy is the study of inscriptions.

1. Prinsep and Piyadassi
Some of the most momentous developments in Indian  epigraphy took place in the 1830s. This was when James Prinsep, an officer in the mint of the East India Company, deciphered Brahmi and Kharosthi, two scripts used in the earliest inscriptions and  coins. He found that most of these mentioned a king referred to as Piyadassi – meaning “pleasant to behold”; there were a few inscriptions which also referred to the king as Asoka, one of the most famous  rulers known from Buddhist texts. This gave a new direction to investigations into early Indian political history as European and Indian scholars used inscriptions and texts composed in a variety of languages to reconstruct  the lineages of major dynasties that had ruled the subcontinent. As a result, the broad contours of political history were in place by the early decades of the twentieth century. Subsequently, scholars began to shift their focus  to the context of political history, investigating whether there were connections between political changes and economic and social developments. It was soon realised that while there were links, these  were not always simple or direct.


1. Discuss the evidence of craft production in Early Historic cities. In what ways is this different from the evidence from Harappan cities?
2. Describe the salient features of mahajanapadas.
3. How do historians reconstruct the lives of ordinary people?
4. Compare and contrast the list of things given to the Pandyan chief (Source 3) with those produced in the village of Danguna (Source 8). Do you notice any similarities or differences?
5. List some of the problems faced by epigraphists.

6. Discuss the main features of Mauryan administration. Which of these elements are evident in the Asokan inscriptions that you have studied?
7. This is a statement made by one of the best-known epigraphists of the twentieth century, D.C. Sircar: “There is no aspect of life, culture and activities of the Indians that is not reflected in inscriptions.” Discuss.
8. Discuss the notions of kingship that developed in the post-Mauryan period.
9. To what extent were agricultural practices transformed in the period under consideration?

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Theme I Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan Civilisation
NCERT Class 12 History Bricks Beads and Bones The Harappan Civilisation
Theme I Chapter 2 Kings, Farmers and Towns Early States and Economies
NCERT Class 12 History Kings Farmers and Towns Early States and Economies
Theme I Chapter 3 Kinship, Caste and Class Early Societies
NCERT Class 12 History Kinship Caste and Class Early Societies
Theme I Chapter 4 Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings Cultural Developments
NCERT Class 12 History Thinkers Beliefs and Buildings Cultural Developments
Theme II Chapter 6 Bhakti-Sufi Traditions Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional Texts
NCERT Class 12 History Bhakti Sufi Traditions Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional Texts
Theme II Chapter 9 Kings and Chronicles The Mughal Courts
NCERT Class 12 History Kings and Chronicles The Mughal Courts
Theme II Chapter 5 Through the Eyes of Travellers Perceptions of Society
NCERT Class 12 History Through The Eyes Of Travellers Perceptions of Society
Theme II Chapter 7 An Imperial Capital: Vijayanagara
NCERT Class 12 History An Imperial Capital Vijayanagara
Theme II Chapter 8 Peasants, Zamindars and the State Agrarian Society and the Mughal Empire
NCERT Class 12 History Peasants Zamindars And the State Agarian Society And the Mugal Empire
Theme III Chapter 10 Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official Archives
NCERT Class 12 History Colonialism and The Countryside
Theme III Chapter 11 Rebels and the Raj The Revolt of 1857 and its Representations
NCERT Class 12 History Rebels And the Raj The Revolt of 1857 And Its Representations
Theme III Chapter 12 Colonial Cities Urbanisation, Planning and Architecture
NCERT Class 12 History Colonial Cities Urbanisation Planning and Architecture
Theme III Chapter 13 Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement Civil Disobedience and Beyond
NCERT Class 12 History Mahatma Gandhi and The Nationalist Movement Civil Disobedience and Beyond
Theme III Chapter 14 Understanding Partition Politics, Memories, Experiences
NCERT Class 12 History Understanding Partition Politics Memories Experiences
Theme III Chapter 15 Framing the Constitution The Beginning of a New Era
NCERT Class 12 History Framing The Constitution The Beginning Of a New Era

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