NCERT Class 12 History Bricks Beads and Bones The Harappan Civilisation

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Bricks Beads And Bones The Harappan Civilisation Class 12 History NCERT

Class 12 History students should refer to the following NCERT Book chapter Bricks Beads And Bones The Harappan Civilisation in standard 12. This NCERT Book for Grade 12 History will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks

Bricks Beads And Bones The Harappan Civilisation NCERT Class 12

The Harappan seal (Fig.1.1) is possibly the most distinctive artefact of the Harappan or Indus valley civilisation. Made of a stone called steatite, seals like this one often contain animal motifs and signs from a script that remains undeciphered. Yet we know a great deal about the lives of the people who lived in the region from what they left behind – their houses, pots, ornaments, tools and seals – in other words, from  archaeological evidence. Let us see what we know about the Harappan civilisation, and how we know about it. We will explore how archaeological material is interpreted and how interpretations sometimes change. Of course, there are some aspects of the civilisation that are as yet unknown and may even remain so.

1. Beginnings
There were several archaeological cultures in the region prior to the Mature Harappan. These cultures were associated with distinctive pottery, evidence of agriculture and pastoralism, and some crafts. Settlements were generally small, and there were virtually no large buildings. It appears that there was a break between the Early Harappan and the Harappan civilisation, evident from large-scale burning at some sites, as well as the abandonment of certain settlements.
2. Subsistence Strategies
If you look at Maps 1 and 2 you will notice that the Mature Harappan culture developed in some of the areas occupied by the Early Harappan cultures. These cultures also shared certain common elements including subsistence strategies. The Harappans ate a wide range of plant and animal products, including fish. Archaeologists have been able to reconstruct dietary practices from finds of charred grains and seeds. These are studied by archaeo-botanists, who are specialists in ancient plant remains. Grains found at Harappan sites include  wheat, barley, lentil, chickpea and sesame. Millets are found from sites in Gujarat. Finds of rice are relatively rare. Animal bones found at Harappan sites include those of cattle, sheep, goat, buffalo and pig. Studies done by archaeo-zoologists or zooarchaeologists indicate that these animals were domesticated.
Bones of wild species such as boar, deer and gharial are also found. We do not know whether the Harappans hunted these animals themselves or obtained meat from other hunting communities. Bones of fish and
fowl are also found.

Excercise

1. List the items of food available to people in Harappan cities. Identify the groups who would have provided these.

2. How do archaeologists trace socio-economic differences in Harappan society? What are the differences that they notice?
3. Would you agree that the drainage system in Harappan cities indicates  town planning? Give reasons for your answer.

4. List the materials used to make beads in the Harappan civilisation.  Describe the process by  which any one kind of bead was made.
5. Look at Fig. 1.30 and describe what you see.  ow is the body placed? What are the objects placed near it? Are there any artefacts on the body? Do these indicate the sex of the skeleton?

6. Describe some of the distinctive features of Mohenjodaro.

7. List the raw materials required for craft production in the Harappan civilisation and discuss how these might have been obtained.
8. Discuss how archaeologists reconstruct the past.


Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 12 History Bricks, Beads And Bones(The Harappan Civilisation)

Theme I Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan Civilisation
NCERT Class 12 History Bricks Beads and Bones The Harappan Civilisation
Theme I Chapter 2 Kings, Farmers and Towns Early States and Economies
NCERT Class 12 History Kings Farmers and Towns Early States and Economies
Theme I Chapter 3 Kinship, Caste and Class Early Societies
NCERT Class 12 History Kinship Caste and Class Early Societies
Theme I Chapter 4 Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings Cultural Developments
NCERT Class 12 History Thinkers Beliefs and Buildings Cultural Developments
Theme II Chapter 6 Bhakti-Sufi Traditions Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional Texts
NCERT Class 12 History Bhakti Sufi Traditions Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional Texts
Theme II Chapter 9 Kings and Chronicles The Mughal Courts
NCERT Class 12 History Kings and Chronicles The Mughal Courts
Theme II Chapter 5 Through the Eyes of Travellers Perceptions of Society
NCERT Class 12 History Through The Eyes Of Travellers Perceptions of Society
Theme II Chapter 7 An Imperial Capital: Vijayanagara
NCERT Class 12 History An Imperial Capital Vijayanagara
Theme II Chapter 8 Peasants, Zamindars and the State Agrarian Society and the Mughal Empire
NCERT Class 12 History Peasants Zamindars And the State Agarian Society And the Mugal Empire
Theme III Chapter 10 Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official Archives
NCERT Class 12 History Colonialism and The Countryside
Theme III Chapter 11 Rebels and the Raj The Revolt of 1857 and its Representations
NCERT Class 12 History Rebels And the Raj The Revolt of 1857 And Its Representations
Theme III Chapter 12 Colonial Cities Urbanisation, Planning and Architecture
NCERT Class 12 History Colonial Cities Urbanisation Planning and Architecture
Theme III Chapter 13 Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement Civil Disobedience and Beyond
NCERT Class 12 History Mahatma Gandhi and The Nationalist Movement Civil Disobedience and Beyond
Theme III Chapter 14 Understanding Partition Politics, Memories, Experiences
NCERT Class 12 History Understanding Partition Politics Memories Experiences
Theme III Chapter 15 Framing the Constitution The Beginning of a New Era
NCERT Class 12 History Framing The Constitution The Beginning Of a New Era