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In normal life we rarely come across pure substances. Most of these are mixtures containing two or more pure substances. Their utility or importance in life depends on their composition. For example, the properties of brass (mixture of copper and zinc) are quite different from those of German silver (mixture of copper, zinc and nickel) or bronze (mixture of copper and tin); 1 part per million (ppm) of fluoride ions in water prevents tooth decay, while 1.5 ppm causes the tooth to become mottled and high concentrations of fluoride ions can be poisonous (for example, sodium fluoride is used in rat poison); intravenous injections are always dissolved in water containing salts at particular ionic concentrations that match with blood plasma concentrations and so on. In this Unit, we will consider mostly liquid solutions and their formation. This will be followed by studying the properties of the solutions, like vapour pressure and colligative properties. We will begin with types of solutions and then various alternatives in which concentrations of a solute can be expressed in liquid solution.
Types of Solutions
Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more than two components. By homogenous mixture we mean that its composition and properties are uniform throughout the mixture. Generally, the component that is present in the largest quantity is known as solvent. Solvent determines the physical state in which solution exists. One or more components present in the solution other than solvent are called solutes. In this Unit we shall consider only binary solutions (i.e.,consisting of two components). Here each component may be solid,liquid or in gaseous state
Expressing Concentration of Solutions
Composition of a solution can be described by expressing its concentration. The latter can be expressed either qualitatively or quantitatively. For example, qualitatively we can say that the solution is dilute (i.e., relatively very small quantity of solute) or it is concentrated (i.e., relatively very large quantity of solute). But in real life these kinds of description can add to lot of confusion and thus the need for a quantitative description of the solution.
Solubility of a Gas in a Liquid
Many gases dissolve in water. Oxygen dissolves only to a small extent in water. It is this dissolved oxygen which sustains all aquatic life. On the other hand, hydrogen chloride gas (HCl) is highly soluble in water. Solubility of gases in liquids is greatly affected by pressure and temperature. The solubility of gases increase with increase of pressure. For solution of gases in a solvent, consider a system as shown in Fig. 2.1 (a). The lower part is solution and the upper part is gaseous system at pressure p and temperature T. Assume this system to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium, i.e., under these conditions rate of gaseous particles entering and leaving the solution phase is the same. Now increase the pressure over the solution phase by compressing the gas to a smaller volume [Fig. 2.1 (b)]. This will increase the number of gaseous particles per unit volume over the solution and also the rate at which the gaseous particles are striking the surface of solution to enter it. The solubility of the gas will increase until a new equilibrium is reached resulting in an increase in the pressure of a gas above the solution and thus its solubility increases.
2.1 Define the term solution. How many types of solutions are formed? Write briefly about each type with an example.
2.2 Suppose a solid solution is formed between two substances, one whose particles are very large and the other whose particles are very small. What kind of solid solution is this likely to be?
2.3 Define the following terms:
(i) Mole fraction (ii) Molality (iii) Molarity (iv) Mass percentage.
2.4 Concentrated nitric acid used in laboratory work is 68% nitric acid by mass in aqueous solution. What should be the molarity of such a sample of the acid if the density of the solution is 1.504 g mL–1?
2.5 A solution of glucose in water is labelled as 10% w/w, what would be the molality and mole fraction of each component in the solution? If the density of solution is 1.2 g mL–1, then what shall be the molarity of the solution?
2.6 How many mL of 0.1 M HCl are required to react completely with 1 g mixture of Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 containing equimolar amounts of both?
2.7 A solution is obtained by mixing 300 g of 25% solution and 400 g of 40% solution by mass. Calculate the mass percentage of the resulting solution.
2.8 An antifreeze solution is prepared from 222.6 g of ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) and 200 g of water. Calculate the molality of the solution. If the density of the solution is 1.072 g mL–1, then what shall be the molarity of the solution?
2.9 A sample of drinking water was found to be severely contaminated with chloroform (CHCl3) supposed to be a carcinogen. The level of contamination was 15 ppm (by mass):
(i) express this in percent by mass
(ii) determine the molality of chloroform in the water sample.
2.10 What role does the molecular interaction play in a solution of alcohol and water?
2.11 Why do gases always tend to be less soluble in liquids as the temperature is raised?
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