NCERT Class 12 Chemistry General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

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A few elements like carbon, sulphur, gold and noble gases, occur in free state while others in combined forms in the earth’s crust. The extraction and isolation of an element from its combined form involves various principles of chemistry. A particular element may occur in a variety of compounds. The process of metallurgy and isolation should be such that it is chemically feasible and commercially viable. Still, some general principles are common to all the extraction processes of metals. For obtaining a particular metal, first we look for minerals which are naturally occurring chemical substances in the earth’s crust obtainable by mining.

 

Out of many minerals in which a metal may be found, only a few are viable to be used as sources of that metal. Such minerals are known as ores. Rarely, an ore contains only a desired substance. It is usually contaminated with earthly or undesired materials known as gangue. The extraction and isolation of metals from ores involve the following major steps:

 

  • Concentration of the ore,
  • Isolation of the metal from its concentrated ore, and
  • Purification of the metal.

 

The entire scientific and technological process used for isolation of the metal from its ores is known as metallurgy.

 

In the present Unit, first we shall describe various steps for effective concentration of ores. After that we shall discuss the principles of some of the common metallurgical processes. Those principles shall include the thermodynamic and electrochemical aspects involved in the effective reduction of the concentrated ore to the metal. Elements vary in abundance. Among metals, aluminium is the most abundant. It is the third most abundant element in earth’s crust (8.3% approx. by weight). It is a major component of many igneous minerals including mica and clays. Many gemstones are impure forms of Al2O3 and the impurities range from Cr (in ‘ruby’) to Co (in ‘sapphire’). Iron is the second most abundant metal in the earth’s crust. It forms a variety of compounds and their various uses make it a very important element. It is one of the essential elements in biological systems as well.

For the purpose of extraction, bauxite is chosen for aluminium. For iron, usually the oxide ores which are abundant and do not produce polluting gases (like SO2 that is produced in case iron pyrites) are taken. For copper and zinc, any of the listed ores (Table 6.1) may be used depending upon availability and other relevant factors. Before proceeding for concentration, ores are graded and crushed to reasonable size. Removal of the unwanted materials (e.g., sand, clays, etc.) from the ore is known as concentration, dressing or benefaction. It involves several steps and selection of these steps depends upon the differences in physical properties of the compound of the metal present and that of the gangue. The type of the metal, the available facilities and the environmental factors are also taken into consideration. Some of the important procedures are described below.

6.1 Copper can be extracted by hydrometallurgy but not zinc. Explain.

6.2 What is the role of depressant in froth floatation process?

6.3 Why is the extraction of copper from pyrites more difficult than that from its oxide ore through reduction?

6.4 Explain: (i) Zone refining (ii) Column chromatography.

6.5 Out of C and CO, which is a better reducing agent at 673 K ?

6.6 Name the common elements present in the anode mud in electrolytic refining of copper. Why are they so present ?

6.7 Write down the reactions taking place in different zones in the blast furnace during the extraction of iron.

6.8 Write chemical reactions taking place in the extraction of zinc from zinc blende.

6.9 State the role of silica in the metallurgy of copper.

6.10 What is meant by the term “chromatography”?

6.11 What criterion is followed for the selection of the stationary phase in chromatography?

 

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