NCERT Class 12 Chemistry The P Block Elements

Read and download NCERT Class 12 Chemistry The P Block Elements chapter in NCERT book for Class 12 Chemistry. You can download latest NCERT eBooks for 2021 chapter wise in PDF format free from Studiestoday.com. This Chemistry textbook for Class 12 is designed by NCERT and is very useful for students. Please also refer to the NCERT solutions for Class 12 Chemistry to understand the answers of the exercise questions given at the end of this chapter

 

In Class XI, you have learnt that the p-block elements are placed in groups 13 to 18 of the periodic table. Their valence shell electronic configuration is ns2np1–6 (except He which has 1s2 configuration). The properties of p-block elements like that of others are greatly influenced by atomic sizes, ionisation enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy and electronegativity. The absence of dorbitals in second period and presence of d and/or f orbitals in heavier elements (starting from third period onwards) have significant effects on the properties of elements. In addition, the presence of all the three types of elements; metals, metalloids and non-metals bring
diversification in chemistry of these elements. Having learnt the chemistry of elements of Groups 13 and 14 of the p-block of periodic table in Class XI, you will learn the chemistry of the elements of subsequent groups in this Unit.

Group 15 includes nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony and bismuth. As we go down the group, there is a shift from non-metallic to metallic through metalloidic character. Nitrogen and phosphorus are non-metals, arsenic and antimony metalloids and bismuth is a typical metal.

Occurrence

Molecular nitrogen comprises 78% by volume of the atmosphere. In the earth’s crust, it occurs as sodium nitrate, NaNO3 (called Chile saltpetre) and potassium nitrate (Indian saltpetre). It is found in the form of proteins in plants and animals. Phosphorus occurs in minerals of the apatite family, Ca9(PO4)6. CaX2 (X = F, Cl or OH) (e.g., fluorapatite Ca9 (PO4)6. CaF2) which are the main components of phosphate rocks. Phosphorus is an essential constituent of animal and plant matter. It is present in bones as well as in living cells. Phosphoproteins are present in milk and eggs. Arsenic, antimony and bismuth are found mainly as sulphide minerals.

Electronic Configuration

The valence shell electronic configuration of these elements is ns2np3. The s orbital in these elements is completely filled and p orbitals are half-filled, making their electronic configuration extra stable.

Atomic and Ionic Radii

Covalent and ionic (in a particular state) radii increase in size down the group. There is a considerable increase in covalent radius from N to P. However, from As to Bi only a small increase in covalent radius is observed. This is due to the presence of completely filled d and/or f orbitals in heavier members.

Ionisation Enthalpy

Ionisation enthalpy decreases down the group due to gradual increase in atomic size. Because of the extra stable half-filled p orbitals electronic configuration and smaller size, the ionisation enthalpy of the group 15 elements is much greater than that of group 14 elements in the corresponding periods.

Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 12 Chemistry The P Block Elements

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