NCERT Class 10 History The Making of Nationalism in Europe

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The Making Of Nationalism In Europe Class 10 History NCERT

Class 10 History students should refer to the following NCERT Book chapter The Making Of Nationalism In Europe in standard 10. This NCERT Book for Grade 10 History will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks

The Making Of Nationalism In Europe NCERT Class 10

The Making of Nationalism in Europe

If you look at the map of mid-eighteenth-century Europe you will find that there were no ‘nation-states’ as we know them today. What we know today as Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons whose rulers had their autonomous territories. Eastern and Central Europe were under autocratic monarchies within the territories of which lived diverse peoples. They did not see themselves as sharing a collective identity or a common culture. Often, they even spoke different languages and belonged to different ethnic groups.

The Habsburg Empire that ruled over Austria-Hungary, for example, was a patchwork of many different regions and peoples. It included the Alpine regions – the Tyrol, Austria and the Sudetenland – as well as Bohemia, where the aristocracy was predominantly German-speaking. It also included the Italian-speaking provinces of Lombardy and Venetia. In Hungary, half of the population spoke Magyar while the other half spoke a variety of dialects. In Galicia, the aristocracy spoke Polish. Besides these three dominant groups, there also lived within the boundaries of the empire, a mass of subject peasant peoples –Bohemians and Slovaks to the north, Slovenes in Carniola, Croats to the south, and Roumans to the east in Transylvania. Such differences did not easily promote a sense of political unity. The only tie binding these diverse groups together was a common allegiance to the emperor. How did nationalism and the idea of the nation-state emerge?

2.1 The Aristocracy and the New Middle Class

Socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class on the continent. The members of this class were united by a common way of life that cut across regional divisions. They owned estates in the countryside and also town-houses. They spoke French for purposes of diplomacy and in high society. Their families were often connected by ties of marriage. This powerful aristocracy was, however, numerically a small group. The majority of the population was made up of the peasantry. To the west, the bulk of the land was farmed by tenants and small owners, while in Eastern and Central Europe the pattern of landholding was characterised by vast estates which were cultivated by serfs

In Western and parts of Central Europe the growth of industrial production and trade meant the growth of towns and the emergence of commercial classes whose existence was based on production for the market. Industrialisation began in England in the second half of the eighteenth century, but in France and parts of the German states it occurred only during the nineteenth century. In its wake, new social groups came into being: a working-class population, and middle classes made up of industrialists, businessmen, professionals. In Central and Eastern Europe these groups were smaller in number till late nineteenth century. It was among the educated, liberal middle classes that ideas of national unity following the abolition of aristocratic privileges gained popularity.

2.2 What did Liberal Nationalism Stand for?

Ideas of national unity in early-nineteenth-century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. The term ‘liberalism’ derives from the Latin root liber, meaning free. For the new middle classes liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law. Politically, it emphasised the concept of government by consent. Since the French Revolution, liberalism had stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament. Nineteenth-century liberals also stressed the inviolability of private property.

Yet, equality before the law did not necessarily stand for universal suffrage. You will recall that in revolutionary France, which marked the first political experiment in liberal democracy, the right to vote and to get elected was granted exclusively to property-owning men. Men without property and all women were excluded from politicalrights. Only for a brief period under the Jacobins did all adult males enjoy suffrage. However, the Napoleonic Code went back to limited suffrage and reduced women to the status of a minor, subject to the authority of fathers and husbands.


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India and Contemporary World II Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
NCERT Class 10 History The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
India and Contemporary World II Chapter 2 Nationalism in India
NCERT Class 10 History Nationalism in India
India and Contemporary World II Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World
NCERT Class 10 History The Making of a Global World
India and Contemporary World II Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation
NCERT Class 10 History The Age of Industrialisation
Old Chapters
NCERT Class 10 History Before the Industrial Revolution
NCERT Class 10 History Characteristics of the City
NCERT Class 10 History Cities and the Challenge of the Environment
NCERT Class 10 History Differing Strands within the Movement
NCERT Class 10 History Emerging from the Shadow of China
NCERT Class 10 History Factories Come Up
NCERT Class 10 History Hand Labour and Steam Power
NCERT Class 10 History Hygiene Disease and Everyday Resistance
NCERT Class 10 History India and the World of Print
NCERT Class 10 History Industrialisation in the Colonies
NCERT Class 10 History Market for Goods
NCERT Class 10 History Nationalism and Imperialism
NCERT Class 10 History New Forms of Publication
NCERT Class 10 History Novels in the Colonial World
NCERT Class 10 History Politics in the City
NCERT Class 10 History Print and Censorship
NCERT Class 10 History Print Comes to Europe
NCERT Class 10 History Rebuilding a World Economy
NCERT Class 10 History Religion and Anti colonialism
NCERT Class 10 History Religious Reform and Public Debates
NCERT Class 10 History Social Change in the City
NCERT Class 10 History The Age of Revolutions 1830 1848
NCERT Class 10 History The City in Colonial India
NCERT Class 10 History The Communist Movement
NCERT Class 10 History The Dilemma of Colonial Education
NCERT Class 10 History The End of the War
NCERT Class 10 History The First Printed Books
NCERT Class 10 History The First World War
NCERT Class 10 History The Inter war Economy
NCERT Class 10 History The Making of Germany and Italy
NCERT Class 10 History The Making of Nationalism in Europe
NCERT Class 10 History The Nation and Its Heroes
NCERT Class 10 History The Nation and its History
NCERT Class 10 History The Nationalist Movement in Indo China
NCERT Class 10 History The Nineteenth Century
NCERT Class 10 History The Nineteenth Century1
NCERT Class 10 History The Novel Comes to India
NCERT Class 10 History The Peculiarities of Industrial Growth
NCERT Class 10 History The Print Revolution and Its Impact
NCERT Class 10 History The Reading Mania
NCERT Class 10 History The Rise of the Novel
NCERT Class 10 History The Sense of Collective Belonging
NCERT Class 10 History The Vision of Modernisation
NCERT Class 10 History Towards Civil Disobedience
NCERT Class 10 History Visualising the Nation
NCERT Class 10 History Women and the Novel

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