Read and download NCERT Class 10 History The Inter war Economy chapter in NCERT book for Class 10 History. You can download latest NCERT eBooks for 2021 chapter wise in PDF format free from Studiestoday.com. This History textbook for Class 10 is designed by NCERT and is very useful for students. Please also refer to the NCERT solutions for Class 10 History to understand the answers of the exercise questions given at the end of this chapter
The Inter War Economy Class 10 History NCERT
Class 10 History students should refer to the following NCERT Book chapter The Inter War Economy in standard 10. This NCERT Book for Grade 10 History will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks
The Inter War Economy NCERT Class 10
The Inter-war Economy
The First World War (1914-18) was mainly fought in Europe. But its impact was felt around the world. Notably for our concerns in this chapter, it plunged the first half of the twentieth century into a crisis that took overthree decades to overcome. During this period the world experienced widespread economic and political instability, and another catastrophic war.
3.1 Wartime Transformations
The First World War, as you know, was fought between two power blocs. On the one side were the Allies – Britain, France and Russia (later joined by the US); and on the opposite side were the Central Powers – Germany, Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Turkey. When the war began in August 1914, many governments thought it would be over by Christmas. It lasted more than four years. The First World War was a war like no other before. The fighting involved the world’s leading industrial nations which now harnessed the vast powers of modern industry to inflict the greatest possible destruction on their enemies.
This war was thus the first modern industrial war. It saw the use of machine guns, tanks, aircraft, chemical weapons, etc. on a massive scale. These were all increasingly products of modern largescale industry. To fight the war, millions of soldiers had to be recruited from around the world and moved to the frontlines on large ships and trains. The scale of death and destruction – 9 million dead and 20 million injured – was unthinkable before the industrial age, without the use of industrial arms.
Most of the killed and maimed were men of working age. These deaths and injuries reduced the able-bodied workforce in Europe. With fewer numbers within the family, household incomes declined after the war. During the war, industries were restructured to produce war-related goods. Entire societies were also reorganised for war – as men went to battle, women stepped in to undertake jobs that earlier only men were expected to do.
The war led to the snapping of economic links between some of the world’s largest economic powers which were now fighting each other to pay for them. So Britain borrowed large sumsof money from US banks as well as the US public. Thus the war transformed the US from being an international debtor to an international creditor. In other words, at the war’s end, the US and its citizens owned more overseas assets than foreign governments and citizens owned in the US.
3.2 Post-war Recovery
Post-war economic recovery proved difficult. Britain, which was the world’s leading economy in the pre-war period, in particular faced a prolonged crisis. While Britain was preoccupied with war, industries had developed in India and Japan. After the war Britain found it difficult to recapture its earlier position of dominance in the Indian market, and to compete with Japan internationally. Moreover, to finance war expenditures Britain had borrowed liberally from the US. This meant that at the end of the war Britain was burdened with huge external debts.
The war had led to an economic boom, that is, to a large increase in demand, production and employment. When the war boom ended, production contracted and unemployment increased. At the same time the government reduced bloated war expenditures to bring them into line with peacetime revenues. These developments led to huge job losses – in 1921 one in every five British workers was out of work. Indeed, anxiety and uncertainty about work became an enduring part of the post-war scenario.
Many agricultural economies were also in crisis. Consider the case of wheat producers. Before the war, eastern Europe was a major supplier of wheat in the world market. When this supply was disrupted during the war, wheat production in Canada, America and Australia expanded dramatically. But once the war was over, production in eastern Europe revived and created a glut in wheat output. Grain prices fell, rural incomes declined, and farmers fell deeper into debt.
Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 10 History The Inter-war Economy
Click for more Social Science Study Material ›
|NCERT Class 10 Economics Contemporary India Resources and Development|
|NCERT Class 10 Economics Contemporary India Forest and Wildlife Resources|
|NCERT Class 10 Economics Contemporary India Water Resources|
|NCERT Class 10 Economics Contemporary India Agriculture|
|NCERT Class 10 Economics Contemporary India Minerals and Energy Resources|
|NCERT Class 10 Economics Contemporary India Manufacturing Industries|
|NCERT Class 10 Economics Contemporary India Lifelines of National Economy|
|NCERT Class 10 Political Science Power Sharing|
|NCERT Class 10 Political Science Federalism|
|NCERT Class 10 Political Science Democracy and Diversity|
|NCERT Class 10 Political Science Gender Religion and Caste|
|NCERT Class 10 Political Science Popular Struggles and Movements|
|NCERT Class 10 Political Science Political Parties|
|NCERT Class 10 Political Science Outcomes of Democracy|
|NCERT Class 10 Political Science Challenges to Democracy|
|NCERT Class 10 History The Rise of Nationalism in Europe|
|NCERT Class 10 History Nationalism in India|
|NCERT Class 10 History The Making of a Global World|
|NCERT Class 10 History The Age of Industrialisation|
|NCERT Class 10 Economics Development|
|NCERT Class 10 Economics Sectors Of The Indian Economy|
|NCERT Class 10 Economics Money And Credit|
|NCERT Class 10 Economics Globalisation And The Indian Economy|
|NCERT Class 10 Economics Consumer Rights|