Read and download NCERT Class 10 History Cities and the Challenge of the Environment chapter in NCERT book for Class 10 History. You can download latest NCERT eBooks for 2021 chapter wise in PDF format free from Studiestoday.com. This History textbook for Class 10 is designed by NCERT and is very useful for students. Please also refer to the NCERT solutions for Class 10 History to understand the answers of the exercise questions given at the end of this chapter
Cities And The Challenge Of The Environment Class 10 History NCERT
Class 10 History students should refer to the following NCERT Book chapter Cities And The Challenge Of The Environment in standard 10. This NCERT Book for Grade 10 History will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks
Cities And The Challenge Of The Environment NCERT Class 10
Cities and the Challenge of the Environment
City development everywhere occurred at the expense of ecology and the environment. Natural features were flattened out or transformed in response to the growing demand for space for factories, housing and other institutions. Large quantities of refuse and waste products polluted air and water, while excessive noise became a feature of urban life.
The widespread use of coal in homes and industries in nineteenthcentury England raised serious problems. In industrial cities such as Leeds, Bradford and Manchester, hundreds of factory chimneys spewed black smoke into the skies. People joked that most inhabitants of these cities grew up believing that the skies were grey and all vegetation was black! Shopkeepers, homeowners and others complained about the black fog that descended on their towns, causing bad tempers, smoke-related illnesses, and dirty clothes. When people first joined campaigns for cleaner air, the goal was to control the nuisance through legislation. This was not at all easy, since factory owners and steam engine owners did not want to spend on technologies that would improve their machines. By the 1840s, a few towns such as Derby, Leeds and Manchester had laws to control smoke in the city. But smoke was not easy to monitor or measure, and owners got away with small adjustments to their machinery that did nothing to stop the smoke. Moreover, the Smoke Abatement Acts of 1847 and 1853, as they were called, did not always work to clear the air.
Calcutta too had a long history of air pollution. Its inhabitants inhaled grey smoke, particularly in the winter. Since the city was built on marshy land, the resulting fog combined with smoke to generate thick black smog. High levels of pollution were a consequence of the huge population that depended on dung and wood as fuel in their daily life. But the main polluters were the industries and establishments that used steam engines run on coal.
Colonial authorities were at first intent on clearing the place of miasmas, or harmful vapours, but the railway line introduced in 1855 brought a dangerous new pollutant into the picture – coal from Raniganj. The high content of ash in Indian coal was a problem. Many pleas were made to banish the dirty mills from the city, with no effect. However, in 1863, Calcutta became the first Indian city to get smoke nuisance legislation.
In 1920, the rice mills of Tollygunge began to burn rice husk instead of coal, leading residents to complain that ‘the air is filled up with black soot which falls like drizzling rain from morning till night, and it has become impossible to live’. The inspectors of the Bengal Smoke Nuisance Commission finally managed to control industrial smoke. Controlling domestic smoke, however, was far more difficult.
Despite its problems, the city has always been attractive to those seeking freedom and opportunity. Even the gods in Durgacharan’s novel, referred to at the beginning of this chapter, found heaven imperfect, compared with all that they had witnessed and experienced on their visit to Calcutta. Yet all the aspects of city life that upset them were signs of the new routes to social and economic mobility that the city offered to the millions who had made it their home.
Write in brief
1. Give two reasons why the population of London expanded from the middle of the eighteenth century.
2. What were the changes in the kind of work available to women in London between the nineteenth and the twentieth century? Explain the factors which led to this change.
3. How does the existence of a large urban population affect each of the following?
Illustrate with historical examples.
a) A private landlord
b) A Police Superintendent in charge of law and order
c) A leader of a political party
4. Give explanations for the following:
a) Why well-off Londoners supported the need to build housing for the poor in the nineteenth century.
b) Why a number of Bombay films were about the lives of migrants.
c) What led to the major expansion of Bombay’s population in the mid-nineteenth century.
Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 10 History Cities and the Challenge of the Environment
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