NCERT Class 10 History Cities and the Challenge of the Environment

Read and download NCERT Class 10 History Cities and the Challenge of the Environment chapter in NCERT book for Class 10 History. You can download latest NCERT eBooks for 2021 chapter wise in PDF format free from Studiestoday.com. This History textbook for Class 10 is designed by NCERT and is very useful for students. Please also refer to the NCERT solutions for Class 10 History to understand the answers of the exercise questions given at the end of this chapter

Cities And The Challenge Of The Environment Class 10 History NCERT

Class 10 History students should refer to the following NCERT Book chapter Cities And The Challenge Of The Environment in standard 10. This NCERT Book for Grade 10 History will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks

Cities And The Challenge Of The Environment NCERT Class 10

Cities and the Challenge of the Environment

City development everywhere occurred at the expense of ecology and the environment. Natural features were flattened out or transformed in response to the growing demand for space for factories, housing and other institutions. Large quantities of refuse and waste products polluted air and water, while excessive noise became a feature of urban life.

The widespread use of coal in homes and industries in nineteenthcentury England raised serious problems. In industrial cities such as Leeds, Bradford and Manchester, hundreds of factory chimneys spewed black smoke into the skies. People joked that most inhabitants of these cities grew up believing that the skies were grey and all vegetation was black! Shopkeepers, homeowners and others complained about the black fog that descended on their towns, causing bad tempers, smoke-related illnesses, and dirty clothes. When people first joined campaigns for cleaner air, the goal was to control the nuisance through legislation. This was not at all easy, since factory owners and steam engine owners did not want to spend on technologies that would improve their machines. By the 1840s, a few towns such as Derby, Leeds and Manchester had laws to control smoke in the city. But smoke was not easy to monitor or measure, and owners got away with small adjustments to their machinery that did nothing to stop the smoke. Moreover, the Smoke Abatement Acts of 1847 and 1853, as they were called, did not always work to clear the air.

Calcutta too had a long history of air pollution. Its inhabitants inhaled grey smoke, particularly in the winter. Since the city was built on marshy land, the resulting fog combined with smoke to generate thick black smog. High levels of pollution were a consequence of the huge population that depended on dung and wood as fuel in their daily life. But the main polluters were the industries and establishments that used steam engines run on coal.

Colonial authorities were at first intent on clearing the place of miasmas, or harmful vapours, but the railway line introduced in 1855 brought a dangerous new pollutant into the picture – coal from Raniganj. The high content of ash in Indian coal was a problem. Many pleas were made to banish the dirty mills from the city, with no effect. However, in 1863, Calcutta became the first Indian city to get smoke nuisance legislation.

In 1920, the rice mills of Tollygunge began to burn rice husk instead of coal, leading residents to complain that ‘the air is filled up with black soot which falls like drizzling rain from morning till night, and it has become impossible to live’. The inspectors of the Bengal Smoke Nuisance Commission finally managed to control industrial smoke. Controlling domestic smoke, however, was far more difficult.

Conclusion

Despite its problems, the city has always been attractive to those seeking freedom and opportunity. Even the gods in Durgacharan’s novel, referred to at the beginning of this chapter, found heaven imperfect, compared with all that they had witnessed and experienced on their visit to Calcutta. Yet all the aspects of city life that upset them were signs of the new routes to social and economic mobility that the city offered to the millions who had made it their home.

Write in brief

 

1. Give two reasons why the population of London expanded from the middle of the eighteenth century.

 

2. What were the changes in the kind of work available to women in London between the nineteenth and the twentieth century? Explain the factors which led to this change.

 

3. How does the existence of a large urban population affect each of the following?

 

Illustrate with historical examples.

 

a) A private landlord

 

b) A Police Superintendent in charge of law and order

 

c) A leader of a political party

 

4. Give explanations for the following:

 

a) Why well-off Londoners supported the need to build housing for the poor in the nineteenth century.

 

b) Why a number of Bombay films were about the lives of migrants.

 

c) What led to the major expansion of Bombay’s population in the mid-nineteenth century.

 


 

Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 10 History Cities and the Challenge of the Environment

Tags: 

 


Click to View or Download pdf file
Click for more History Study Material
India and Contemporary World II Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
NCERT Class 10 History The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
India and Contemporary World II Chapter 2 Nationalism in India
NCERT Class 10 History Nationalism in India
India and Contemporary World II Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World
NCERT Class 10 History The Making of a Global World
India and Contemporary World II Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation
NCERT Class 10 History The Age of Industrialisation
Old Chapters
NCERT Class 10 History Before the Industrial Revolution
NCERT Class 10 History Characteristics of the City
NCERT Class 10 History Cities and the Challenge of the Environment
NCERT Class 10 History Differing Strands within the Movement
NCERT Class 10 History Emerging from the Shadow of China
NCERT Class 10 History Factories Come Up
NCERT Class 10 History Hand Labour and Steam Power
NCERT Class 10 History Hygiene Disease and Everyday Resistance
NCERT Class 10 History India and the World of Print
NCERT Class 10 History Industrialisation in the Colonies
NCERT Class 10 History Market for Goods
NCERT Class 10 History Nationalism and Imperialism
NCERT Class 10 History New Forms of Publication
NCERT Class 10 History Novels in the Colonial World
NCERT Class 10 History Politics in the City
NCERT Class 10 History Print and Censorship
NCERT Class 10 History Print Comes to Europe
NCERT Class 10 History Rebuilding a World Economy
NCERT Class 10 History Religion and Anti colonialism
NCERT Class 10 History Religious Reform and Public Debates
NCERT Class 10 History Social Change in the City
NCERT Class 10 History The Age of Revolutions 1830 1848
NCERT Class 10 History The City in Colonial India
NCERT Class 10 History The Communist Movement
NCERT Class 10 History The Dilemma of Colonial Education
NCERT Class 10 History The End of the War
NCERT Class 10 History The First Printed Books
NCERT Class 10 History The First World War
NCERT Class 10 History The Inter war Economy
NCERT Class 10 History The Making of Germany and Italy
NCERT Class 10 History The Making of Nationalism in Europe
NCERT Class 10 History The Nation and Its Heroes
NCERT Class 10 History The Nation and its History
NCERT Class 10 History The Nationalist Movement in Indo China
NCERT Class 10 History The Nineteenth Century
NCERT Class 10 History The Nineteenth Century1
NCERT Class 10 History The Novel Comes to India
NCERT Class 10 History The Peculiarities of Industrial Growth
NCERT Class 10 History The Print Revolution and Its Impact
NCERT Class 10 History The Reading Mania
NCERT Class 10 History The Rise of the Novel
NCERT Class 10 History The Sense of Collective Belonging
NCERT Class 10 History The Vision of Modernisation
NCERT Class 10 History Towards Civil Disobedience
NCERT Class 10 History Visualising the Nation
NCERT Class 10 History Women and the Novel

Latest NCERT & CBSE News

Read the latest news and announcements from NCERT and CBSE below. Important updates relating to your studies which will help you to keep yourself updated with latest happenings in school level education. Keep yourself updated with all latest news and also read articles from teachers which will help you to improve your studies, increase motivation level and promote faster learning

CBSE Term 2 Board Examinations

CBSE vide Circular No.Acad-51/2021 dated 5th July, 2021, notified that in the session 2021-2022, Board Examinations would be conducted in two terms, i.e.. Term I and Term II. This decision was taken due to the uncertainty arising out of COVID 19 Pandemic. Term I...

All India Children Educational Audio Video Festival

The Central Institute of Educational Technology (CIET), a constituent unit of National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), is inviting entries for the 26th All India Children’s Educational Audio Video Festival (AICEAVF). This festival showcases the...

Celebration of Matribhasha Diwas Mother Language day

UNESCO has declared 21st February of every year to be celebrated as International Mother Language day to promote dissemination of Mother Language of all, create awareness of linguistic and cultural traditions and diversity across the world and to inspire solidarity...

CBSE Science Challenge 2021 22

Science is inexplicably linked with our lives and helps us to understand the world around us better. Scientific and technological developments contribute to progress and help improve our standards of living. By engaging with this subject, students learn to think, solve...

Board Exams Date Sheet Class 10 and Class 12

Datesheet for CBSE Board Exams Class 10  (Scroll down for Class 12 Datesheet) Datesheet for CBSE Board Exams Class 12

National Youth Day and Birth Anniversary of Swami Vivekananda

Ministry of Education, Govt. of India vide D.O No. 12-4/2021-IS.4 dated 04.01.2022 intimated that 12 January 2022 will be celebrated as “National Youth Day” and “Birth Anniversary of Swami Vivekananda”.   All Schools affiliated to CBSE may celebrate 12 January 2022 as...