CBSE Class 12 Informatics Practices PL SQL

Read and download CBSE Class 12 Informatics Practices PL SQL chapter in NCERT book for Class 12 Informatics Practices. You can download latest NCERT eBooks for 2022 chapter wise in PDF format free from This Informatics Practices textbook for Class 12 is designed by NCERT and is very useful for students. Please also refer to the NCERT solutions for Class 12 Informatics Practices to understand the answers of the exercise questions given at the end of this chapter

Pl Sql Class 12 Informatics Practices NCERT

Class 12 Informatics Practices students should refer to the following NCERT Book chapter Pl Sql in standard 12. This NCERT Book for Grade 12 Informatics Practices will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks

Pl Sql NCERT Class 12

Chapter – 1


(Informatics Practices)

PL/SQL = Procedural Language extensions to SQL

An Oracle-specific language combining features of:

  • modern, block-structured programming language
  • database interaction via SQL

Designed to overcome declarative SQL's inability to specify control aspects of DB interaction.

Used to add procedural capabilities to Oracle tools.

PL/SQL is implemented via a PL/SQL engine (cf. JVM)

  • which can be embedded in clients (e.g. Forms, SQL*Plus)
  • which is also usually available in the Oracle server


Consider trying to implement the following in SQL (SQL*Plus):

If a user attempts to withdraw more funds than they have from their account, then

indicate "Insufficient Funds", otherwise update the account

A possible implementation:

ACCEPT person PROMPT 'Name of account holder: '

ACCEPT amount PROMPT 'How much to withdraw: '

UPDATE Accounts

SET balance = balance - &amount

WHERE holder = '&person' AND balance > &amount;

SELECT 'Insufficient Funds'

FROM Accounts

WHERE holder = '&person' AND balance < = &amount;

Two problems:

  • doesn't express the "business logic" nicely
  • performs both actions when (balance-amount < amount)

We could fix the second problem by reversing the order (SELECT then UPDATE).

But in SQL there's no way to avoid executing both the SELECT and the UPDATE

PL/SQL allows us to specify the control more naturally:

-- A sample PL/SQL procedure

PROCEDURE withdrawal(person IN varchar(20), amount IN REAL ) IS

current REAL;


    SELECT balance INTO current

    FROM Accounts

    WHERE holder = person;

     IF (amount > current)

    dbms_output.put_line('Insufficient Funds');


    UPDATE Accounts

    SET balance = balance - amount

    WHERE holder = person AND balance > amount;


    END IF;


And package it up into a useful function, which could be used as:

SQL> EXECUTE withdrawal('John Shepherd', 100.00);

Please refer to attached file for CBSE Classs 12 Informatics Practices PL-SQL



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