CBSE Class 11 Biology Plant Kingdom Notes

Download CBSE Class 11 Biology Plant Kingdom Notes in PDF format. All Revision notes for Class 11 Biology have been designed as per the latest syllabus and updated chapters given in your textbook for Biology in Class 11. Our teachers have designed these concept notes for the benefit of Class 11 students. You should use these chapter wise notes for revision on daily basis. These study notes can also be used for learning each chapter and its important and difficult topics or revision just before your exams to help you get better scores in upcoming examinations, You can also use Printable notes for Class 11 Biology for faster revision of difficult topics and get higher rank. After reading these notes also refer to MCQ questions for Class 11 Biology given on studiestoday

Revision Notes for Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom

Class 11 Biology students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom in Class 11. These exam notes for Class 11 Biology will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks

Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom Notes Class 11 Biology

3. Plant Kingdom



Artificial System of Classification 

• Used superficial morphological characters.

• Based on a few characteristics like habit, colors, number and shape of leaf.

• Mainly based on vegetative characters.

• Such system developed by Linnaeus.

Natural System of Classification :

• Based on natural affinities among organisms

• Included external as well as internal features like anatomy, embryology and phytochemistry.

• Developed by George Bentham and J. D. Hooker

Phylogenetic System of Classification :

• Based on evolutionary relationships between the various organisms.

• Organism belongs to same taxa have a common ancestors.

• Developed by Hutchinson.

Numerical Taxonomy :

• Carried out using computers

• Based on all observable characteristics

• Data processed after assigning number and codes to all the characters.

Cytotaxonomy :

• Based on cytological information.

• Gives importance to chromosome number, structure and behaviour.

Chemotaxonomy :

• Based on chemical constituents of the plants.


• Chlorophyll bearing, simple, thalloid, autotrophic and mostly aquatic organisms. Moist stone, soils and wood are the other habitat.

• The size ranges from microscopic unicellular forms like Chlamydomonas, to colonial forms like Volvox and to filamentous forms like Ulothrix and Spirogyra. A few marine forms such as kelps, form massive plant bodies.

• Reproduce vegetatively by fragmentation.

• Reproduce asexually mostly by producing motile spore called zoospores.

• Reproduce sexually by producing gametes.

• Isogamous: both gametes are same size and motile

• Anisogamous: both gametes are dissimilar in size but motile.

• Oogamous: male gamete is smaller but motile, female gamete is large and non- motile.

Importance of Algae :

• At least half of the total carbon dioxide fixation on earth carried out by them.

• Increase oxygen level in the environment.

• Many species like Laminaria, Sargassum etc. are used as food.

• Agar obtained from Gelidium and Gracilaria is used in ice-creams and jellies and also used to culture bacteria.

• Algin obtained from brown algae and carrageen from red algae used commercially.

• Chlorella and Spirullina are unicellular algae, rich in protein and used as food supplement even by space travelers.

Algae divided into 3 classes :

Chlorophyceae :

• Commonly known as Green algae.

• Main pigment is chlorophyll ‘a’ and ‘b’.

• Unicellular, colonial or filamentous.

• Cell wall has inner layer of cellulose and outer layer of pectose.

• Have pyrenoid as the storage body for starch and proteins.

e.g., Chlamydomonas, Volvox, Spirogyra.

Phaeophyceae :

• Commonly known as Brown algae and mainly found in marine habitat.

• They possess chlorophyll a, c, carotenoid, xanthophylls and fucoxanthin.

• Cell wall has cellulose and lignin or gelatinous coating of algin.

• Has mannitol and laminarin as reserve food material.

• Body divisible into holdfast, stipe and frond.

• Reproduce asexually by biflagellate pear-shaped zoospores.

e.g., Ectocarpus, Fucus, Laminaria.

Rhodophyceae :

• Commonly known as red algae.

• Red color is due to predominance of red pigment r-phycoerythrin in their body along with chlorophyll a, d.

• Found on surface as well as great depths in oceans.

• Cell wall made of cellulose, pectin and polysulphate esters.

• Reserve food material is floridean starch similar to amylopectin and glycogen in structure.

• Reproduce asexually by non motile spores and sexually by non motile gametes (Oogamous type)

e.g., Polysiphonia, Porphyra, Gelidium.

BRYOPHYTES : Amphibians of plant kingdom

• Occur in damp, humid places.

• Lack true roots, stem or leaves.

• Plant body attached to the soil by unicellular or multicellular rhizoids.

• Main plant body is haploid (n), or gametophytic.


• Vegetative reproduction by fragmentation.

• Asexual reproduction by gemmae formed in gemma cups. 

 Sexual reproduction :

• Main plant body is gametophyte.

• The sex organs in bryophytes are multicellular.

• Male sex organ is called antheridium which produces biflagellate antherozoids as male gamete.

• Female sex organ is archegonium is flask shaped and produces a single egg.

• Fertilization takes place in water results in formation of zygote.

• The zygote developed into a multicellular body called sporophyte which remains parasitic on female gametophyte.

• The sporophyte differentiated into foot, seta and capsule.

• Some cells of the capsule undergo meiotic division to produce haploid spores. These spores germinated into an independent gametophyte.

• Moss gametophyte consists of two stages

• First stage is called protonema stage which developed from the spore and is creeping, green, branched.

• Second stage is leafy stage which developed from the protonema stage as a lateral bud. They consist of upright, slender axes bearing spirally arranged leaves.

Economic Importance :

• Food for herbaceous animals.

• Sphagnum in form of peat is used as fuel and also used for trans-shipment of living material as it has water holding capacity, prevent soil erosion, along with lichens are first colonizers on barren rocks.

• They decompose rocks making substrate for the growth of higher plant.


• First terrestrial plant possesses vascular tissue like xylem and phloem.

• The plant body differentiated into true root, stem and leaf.

• The main plant body is sporophytic.

• Leaves may be small (microphyll) as in Selaginella or large (macrophyll) as in ferns.

• Sporangia having spores are subtended by leaf-like appendages called sporophylls. (Sporophylls may be arranged to form strobili or cones.)

• In Sporangia, the spore mother cells give rise to spores after meiosis.

• Spores germinate to form haploid gametophytic structure called prothallus which is free living, small, multicellular and photosynthetic.

• Prothallus bears antheridia and archegonia which bear antherozoids and egg cell respectively which on fertilization form zygote.

• Zygote developed into multicellular, well differentiated sporophyte.

• Most of pteridophytes produce similar kinds of spores hence called homosporous.

• Genera like Selaginella and Salvinia which produce two kind of spores, macro (large) and small (micro) spores are known as heterosporous. Microspore and macrospore germinate and gives rise to male and female gametophyte respectively.

• The female gametophytes in these plants are retained on the parent sporophyte for variable period. The development of zygote into young embryo takes place within the female gametophytes. This events is a precursor to the seed habits considered an important steps in evolution

• Pteridophytes further classified into four classes: Psilopsida (Psilotum), Lycopsida (Selaginella), Sphenopsida (Equisetum) and Pteropsida (Pteris).


• Have naked seeds as the ovules are not enclosed by any ovary wall and remain exposed both before and after fertilization.

• Gymnosperm includes medium-sized trees or tall trees and shrub.

• Root is generally tap root. May be associated with myorrhiza.

• Stem is branched (Pinus), or unbranched (Cycas).

• Leaves may be simple or compound.


• Gymnosperms are heterosporous. They produce haploid microspores and megaspores.

• Male strobili or cone has microsporophylls which bear microsporangia having microspores which develop into reduced gametophyte called pollen grain.

• Female cone or strobili has megasporophylls which bear megasporongia having megaspores which are enclosed within the megasporangium (Nucellus). One megaspore develops into female gametophyte bearing two or morearchegonia.

• Pollen grains carried in air currents reach ovules, form pollen tube which reach archegonia and release male gametes which fertilize egg cell and form zygote which produce embryos. Ovules develop into seeds which are not covered.


• Called flowering plants and have seeds enclosed in fruits.

• Divided into two classes − Dicotyledons (have two cotyledons) and Monocotyledons (have one cotyledon).

• Smallest angiosperm: Wolfia (microscopic).

• Large tree: Eucalyptus over 100 meters.

• Reproductive organs developed in flowers.

• Male sex organs in a flower are called stamens.

• Stamen has filament and anther. Anthers on meiosis produce pollen grains. Pollen grains have two male gametes.

• Female sex organs are pistil.

• Pistil has stigma, style and ovary. Ovary has one or many ovule in which female gametophyte (embryo sac) develops by meiosis.

• Embryo sac has 7 cells and 8 nuclei. One egg cell, 2 synergids, 3 antipodal and one central cell having two polar nuclei.

• Pollen grain is carried by wind; water etc. reaches to stigma and produces pollen tube which enters embryo sac.

Double fertilization:

• Syngamy: One male gamete fuses with egg cell to form zygote which develops into embryo.
• Triple fusion: Other male gamete fuses with secondary nucleus (formed by fusion of two polar nuclei) which forms triploid primary endosperm nucleus (PEN). PEN develops into endosperm which nourishes the developing embryo.

• Ovules develop into seeds and ovaries into fruits.
Alternation of generation: Haploid gametophytic and spore producing sporophytic generation alternate with each other in this process.

• Haplontic: Gametophytic phase dominant. e.g., Chlamydomonas

• Diplontic: Sporophytic phase dominant. e.g., Angiosperms and Gymnosperms

• Haplo-Diplontic: Intermediate like stage where gametophytic and sporophytic stage partially dominates at different stages. e.g., Bryophytes and Pteridophytes.
Exceptions: Ectocarpus, Polysiphonia are Haplo-diplontic algae. Fucus is diplontic alga.

Important Questions for NCERT Class 11 Biology Plant Kingdom

Ques. A student observed an algae with chlorophyll a, b and phycoerythrin, it should belong to
(a) Phaeophyta     (b) Rhodophyta
(c) Chlorophyta    (d) Bacillariophyta. 

Answer: B

Ques. Ulothrix can be described as a
(a) filamentous alga lacking flagellated reproductive stages
(b) membranous alga producing zoospores
(c) filamentous alga with flagellated reproductive stages
(d) non-motile colonial alga lacking zoospores.

Answer: C

Ques. An alga, very rich in protein, is
(a) Chlorella      (b) Nostoc
(c) Spirogyra     (d) Ulothrix. 

Answer: A

Ques. Ulothrix filaments produce
(a) heterogametes     (b) basidiospores
(c) isogametes          (d) anisogametes.

Answer: C

Ques. Brown algae is characterised by the presence of
(a) fucoxanthin        (b) haematochrome
(c) phycocyanin       (d) phycoerythrin. 

Answer: A

Ques. The pyrenoids are made up of
(a) proteinaceous centre and starchy sheath
(b) core of nucleic acid surrounded by protein sheath
(c) core of protein surrounded by fatty sheath
(d) core of starch surrounded by sheath of protein.

Answer: A

Ques. In Chlorophyceae, the mode of sexual reproduction is
(a) isogamy     (b) anisogamy
(c) oogamy      (d) all of these.

Answer: D

Ques. Pyrenoids are the centres for formation of
(a) Porphyra     (b) enzymes
(c) fat              (d) starch. 

Answer: D

Ques. Chloroplast of Chlamydomonas is
(a) stellate            (b) cup-shaped
(c) collar-shaped   (d) spiral. 

Answer: B

Ques. In Ulothrix/Spirogyra, reduction division (meiosis) occurs at the time of
(a) gamete formation            (b) zoospore formation
(c) zygospore germination     (d) vegetative reproduction. 

Answer: C

Ques. The common mode of sexual reproduction in Chlamydomonas is
(a) isogamous     (b) anisogamous
(c) oogamous     (d) hologamous. 

Answer: A

Ques. The product of conjugation in Spirogyra or fertilization of Chlamydomonas is
(a) zygospore     (b) zoospore
(c) oospore        (d) carpospore. 

Answer: A

Ques. Sexual reproduction involving fusion of two cells in Chlamydomonas is
(a) isogamy                (b) homogamy
(c) somatogamy          (d) hologamy. 

Answer: D

Ques. Which one is wrongly matched?
(a) Uniflagellate gametes – Polysiphonia
(b) Biflagellate zoospores – Brown algae
(c) Gemma cups – Marchantia
(d) Unicellular organism – Chlorella

Answer: A

Ques. Which of the following is responsible for peat formation?
(a) Marchantia     (b) Riccia
(c) Funaria          (d) Sphagnum

Answer: D

Ques. Which one of the following is common to multicellular fungi, filamentous algae and protonema of mosses?
(a) Diplontic life cycle
(b) Members of Kingdom Plantae
(c) Mode of nutrition
(d) Multiplication by fragmentation

Answer: D

Ques. Spore dissemination in some liverworts is aided by
(a) indusium               (b) calyptra
(c) peristome teeth     (d) elaters.

Answer: D

Ques. Peat moss is used as a packing material for sending flowers and live plants to distant places because
(a) it serves as a disinfectant
(b) it is easily available
(c) it is hygroscopic
(d) it reduces transpiration. 

Answer: C

Ques. In a moss, the sporophyte
(a) manufactures food for itself, as well as for the gametophyte
(b) is partially parasitic on the gametophyte
(c) produces gametes that give rise to the gametophyte
(d) arises from a spore produced from the gametophyte.

Answer: B

Ques. The antherozoids of Funaria are
(a) multiciliated             (b) monociliated
(c) aciliated                   (d) biciliated. 

Answer: D

Ques. Bryophytes comprise
(a) dominant phase of gametophyte which produces spores
(b) small sporophyte phase and generally parasitic on gametophyte
(c) sporophyte is of longer duration
(d) dominant phase of sporophyte which isparasitic. 

Answer: B

Ques. Which of the following is true about bryophytes?
(a) They are thalloid.
(b) They posses archegonia.
(c) They contain chloroplast.

Answer: D


Please click the link below to download pdf file for CBSE Class 11 Biology Plant Kingdom Notes.

Chapter 02 Biological Classification
CBSE Class 11 Biology Biological Classification Notes
Chapter 05 Morphology of Flowering Plants
CBSE Class 11 Biology Morphology Of Flowering Plants Notes
Chapter 06 Anatomy of Flowering Plants
CBSE Class 11 Biology Anatomy Of Flowering Plants Notes
Chapter 07 Structural Organisation in Animals
CBSE Class 11 Biology Structural Organisation In Animals Notes
Chapter 08 Cell The Unit of Life
CBSE Class 11 Biology Cell The Unit Of Life Notes
Chapter 10 Cell Cycle and Cell Division
CBSE Class 11 Biology Cell Cycle And Cell Division Notes
Chapter 13 Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
CBSE Class 11 Biology Photosynthesis In Higher Plants Notes
Chapter 14 Respiration in Plants
CBSE Class 11 Biology Respiration In Plants Notes
Chapter 15 Plant Growth and Development
CBSE Class 11 Biology Plant Growth And Development Notes
Chapter 16 Digestion and Absorption
CBSE Class 11 Biology Digestion and Absorption Notes
Chapter 17 Breathing and Exchange of Gases
CBSE Class 11 Biology Breathing And Exchange Of Gases Notes
Chapter 18 Body Fluids and Circulation
CBSE Class 11 Biology Body Fluids And Circulation Notes
Chapter 19 Excretory Products and their Elimination
CBSE Class 11 Biology Excretory Products And Their Elimination Notes
Chapter 20 Locomotion and Movement
CBSE Class 11 Biology Locomotion And Movement Notes
Chapter 21 Neural Control and Coordination
CBSE Class 11 Biology Neural Control And Coordination Notes

More Study Material

CBSE Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom Notes

We hope you liked the above notes for topic Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom which has been designed as per the latest syllabus for Class 11 Biology released by CBSE. Students of Class 11 should download and practice the above notes for Class 11 Biology regularly. All revision notes have been designed for Biology by referring to the most important topics which the students should learn to get better marks in examinations. Studiestoday is the best website for Class 11 students to download all latest study material.

Notes for Biology CBSE Class 11 Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom

Our team of expert teachers have referred to the NCERT book for Class 11 Biology to design the Biology Class 11 notes. If you read the concepts and revision notes for one chapter daily, students will get higher marks in Class 11 exams this year. Daily revision of Biology course notes and related study material will help you to have a better understanding of all concepts and also clear all your doubts. You can download all Revision notes for Class 11 Biology also from absolutely free of cost in Pdf format. After reading the notes which have been developed as per the latest books also refer to the NCERT solutions for Class 11 Biology provided by our teachers

Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom Notes for Biology CBSE Class 11

All revision class notes given above for Class 11 Biology have been developed as per the latest curriculum and books issued for the current academic year. The students of Class 11 can rest assured that the best teachers have designed the notes of Biology so that you are able to revise the entire syllabus if you download and read them carefully. We have also provided a lot of MCQ questions for Class 11 Biology in the notes so that you can learn the concepts and also solve questions relating to the topics. All study material for Class 11 Biology students have been given on studiestoday.

Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom CBSE Class 11 Biology Notes

Regular notes reading helps to build a more comprehensive understanding of Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom concepts. notes play a crucial role in understanding Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom in CBSE Class 11. Students can download all the notes, worksheets, assignments, and practice papers of the same chapter in Class 11 Biology in Pdf format. You can print them or read them online on your computer or mobile.

Notes for CBSE Biology Class 11 Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom

CBSE Class 11 Biology latest books have been used for writing the above notes. If you have exams then you should revise all concepts relating to Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom by taking out a print and keeping them with you. We have also provided a lot of Worksheets for Class 11 Biology which you can use to further make yourself stronger in Biology

Where can I download latest CBSE Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom notes

You can download notes for Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom for latest academic session from

Can I download the Notes for Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom Class 11 Biology in Pdf format

Yes, you can click on the link above and download notes PDFs for Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom which you can use for daily revision

Are the revision notes available for Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom Class 11 Biology for the latest CBSE academic session

Yes, the notes issued for Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom have been made available here for latest CBSE session

How can I download the Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom Class 11 Biology Notes pdf

You can easily access the link above and download the Class 11 Notes for Biology Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom for each topic in Pdf

Is there any charge for the Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom notes

There is no charge for the notes for CBSE Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom, you can download everything free of charge

Which is the best online platform to find notes for Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom Class 11 Biology is the best website from which you can download latest notes for Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom Biology Class 11

Where can I find topic-wise notes for Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom

Come to to get best quality topic wise notes for Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom

Can I get latest Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom Class 11 Biology revision notes as per CBSE syllabus

We have provided all notes for each topic of Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom as per latest CBSE syllabus