Class 7 Social Science Rulers and buildings Exam Notes. Please refer to the examination notes which you can use for preparing and revising for exams. These notes will help you to revise the concepts quickly and get good marks.
Structures During 8th and 18th Century :
1.Between the eighth and the eighteenth centuries kings and their officers built two kinds of structures
(i)The first were forts, palaces and tombs – safe, protected and grandiose places of rest in this world and the next
(ii)The second were structures meant for public activity including temples, mosques, tanks, wells, caravan serais and bazaars.
2.Kings were expected to care for their subjects, and by making structures for their use and comfort, rulers hoped to win their praise.
3.Construction activity was also carried out by others, including merchants. They built temples, mosques and wells. However, domestic architecture – large mansions (havelis) of merchants – has survived only from the eighteenth century.
Engineering Skills and Construction :
1.Monuments provide an insight into the technologies used for construction.
2.Take something like a roof for example. We can make this by placing wooden beams or a slab of stone across four walls. But the task becomes difficult if we want to make a large room with an elaborate superstructure.This requires more sophisticated skills.
3.Between the seventh and tenth centuries architects started adding more rooms, doors and windows to buildings.
4.Roofs, doors and windows were still made by placing a horizontal beam across two vertical columns, a style of architecture called “trabeate” or “corbelled”.
5.Between the eighth and thirteenth centuries the trabeate style was used in the construction of temples, mosques, tombs and in buildings attached to large stepped-wells (baolis).
6.Two technological and stylistic developments are noticeable from the twelfth century.
(1)The weight of the superstructure above the doors and windows was sometimes carried by arches.This architectural form was called “arcuate”.
(2)Limestone cement was increasingly used in construction.This was very high quality cement, which, when mixed with stone chips hardened into concrete.This made construction of large structures easier and faster.
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