Class 7 Social Science Eighteenth Century Political Formations Exam Notes. Please refer to the examination notes which you can use for preparing and revising for exams. These notes will help you to revise the concepts quickly and get good marks.
Something significant happened in the subcontinent during the first half of the eighteenth century.
(i) The boundaries of the Mughal Empire were reshaped by the emergence of a number of independent kingdoms.
(ii) By 1765, notice how another power, the British, had successfully grabbed major chunks of territory in eastern India.
(iii) Political conditions in eighteenth century India changed quite dramatically and within a relatively short span of time.
(iv) The emergence of new political groups in the subcontinent during the first half of the eighteenth century – roughly from 1707, when Aurangzeb died, till the third battle of Panipat in 1761.
The Crisis Of The Empire And The Later Mughal
1.Mughal Empire reached the height of its success and started facing a variety of crises towards the closing years of the seventeenth century. These were caused by a number of factors.
2.Emperor Aurangzeb had depleted the military and financial resources of his empire by fighting a long war in the Deccan.
3.Under his successors, the efficiency of the imperial administration broke down.
4.It became increasingly difficult for the later Mughal emperors to keep a check on their powerful mansabdars. Nobles appointed asgovernors (subadars) often controlled the offices of revenue and military administration (diwani and faujdari) as well. This gave them extraordinary political, economic and military powers over vast regions of the Mughal Empire. As the governors consolidated their control over the provinces, the periodic remission of revenue to the capital declined.
1.Peasant and zamindari rebellions in many parts of northern and western India added to these problems. These r
2.volts were sometimes caused by the pressures of mounting taxes.
3.At other times they were attempts by powerful chieftains to consolidate their own positions. Mughal authority had been challenged by rebellious groups in the past as well. But these groups were now able to seize the economic resources of the region to consolidate their positions.
4.The Mughal emperors after Aurangzeb were unable to arrest the gradual shifting of political and economic authority into the hands of provincial governors, local chieftains and other groups.
5.In the midst of this economic and political crisis, the ruler of Iran, Nadir Shah, sacked and plundered the city of Delhi in 1739 and took away immense amounts of wealth.
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