A preposition is a word placed before a Noun or Pronoun to show the relation between the Noun or Pronoun to some other word in a sentence.
A preposition may join a—
- Noun to another Noun. g. There is a pen in my beg.
- Noun to an Adjective. g. They are found of ice cream.
- Noun to a Verb. g. She shouted for help.
The same preposition can be used to show a relationship with Time, Space, Rate, State, and Direction.
- I’ll come at 6 O’clock. (Time)
- She is sitting at the window. (Space)
- Mangoes sell at Rs.50per Kg. (Rate)
- The cricketers are at a loss. (State)
- The girls rushed at the film star. (Direction)
PREPOSITION OF TIME :
Time has two dimension :
(a) Point of time (b) Period of time.
(i) At :
At is used for point of time.
E .g. The train will leave at 5.30 p.m.
He will come back at sunset.
The thief entered the house at midnight.
We had lunch at noon.
I shell go to office at ten.
He has achieved success just at the age of twenty-five.
(ii) On :
On is used for days and dates
E .g. My brother will come to Kota on Tuesday
We celebrate the independence Day on Fifteenth August.
Michael goes to church on Sundays.
I‘ll come back on the morning of 21st September.
He was awarded the gallantry award on Republic Day.
He fire crackers on Diwali.
(iii) In :
@ in is used with the names of months, seasons, century and years.
E .g. My Friends Jacob was born in July in 1975
Himachal Pradesh is very beautiful in winters.
We are living in the twenty first century
Before morning / afternoon / evening.
E .g. Meet me in the evening.
He goes to school in the evening.
Before a period of time.
E .g. you have to finish this work in a week.
I shall be back in an hour.
(iv) After :
To indicate ‘following in time’ or ‘later then’
E .g. Don’t go out after dark.
The doctor came after the death of the patient.
Meet me at my office after lunch.
I ‘m leaving for Mumbai the day after tomorrow.
(v) Before :
To indicate ‘earlier then’.
E .g. Come back before dark.
The patient had died before the doctor came.
Meet me before dinner.
I went there the day before yesterday.
(vi) By :
To indicate the meaning of ‘not later then’ or ‘as soon as’
E .g. I shall finish the syllabus by January.
It will be dark by the time you reach home.
By 15th January I shall have finished your course.
They decided to end up the party by midnight.
(vii) During :
To indicate the meaning of ‘throughout the continuance of’
E .g. The sun dives us light during the day.
During my college days I watched many movies.
What did he do during my absence?
James slept during his lesson.
(viii) For :
To indicate extent of time.
E .g. We are leaving for Delhi for a week.
My uncle is going abroad for a month.
To indicate period of time in the Perfect Tenses.
E .g. They have been playing for four hours.
It has been raining for 2 days.
(ix) Since :
To indicate a point of time.
E .g. I have been teaching in this institute since 2005.
She has been staying with her husband in Channel since their marriage.
They have been practicing very hard since last two days.
(x) Through :
To indicate ‘from beginning to end of time’
E .g. You can’t work though the day in summers. It is very hot.
Student cannot sit quietly though a boring lesson.
(xi) Till / Until :
To indicate ‘up to the time when’ or ‘not earlier then’
E .g. Until his marriage he spent the time with his friends.
A labor works hard from morning till night.
(xii) Within :
To indicate ‘in less then time’
E .g. You should complete your examination papers within the stipulated time.
I‘ll come back from Mumbai within a week.
(xiii) With :
To indicate ‘at same time as’
E .g. With the approach of the clouds it becomes dark.
We must rise with the sun.
(xiv) From :
To indicate the starting of a period of time.
E .g. Our examinations will start from 10th March.
I ‘ll join office from Monday.
Used when two times are mentioned.
E .g. The Director will be arriving any time between 3and 4o’clock.
PREPOSITION OF PLACE / SPACE :
(i) At :
To indicate the place in which somebody or something is / was/ will be.
E .g. I shall meet you at the station .
In the evening Sahil was at his brother’s house.
The soldiers rushed at the enemy.
The airport is at a distance from the city.
(ii) In :
To indicate position or something in a surrounded place.
E .g. Kangaroo is found in Australia.
The culprits are standing in the corner of the courtroom.
Mary has gone in th direction.
The soldier was wounded in the leg.
(iii) On :
To indicate the position of a thing covering or forming part of a surface that is at rest.
E .g. Leaves are floating on the water.
The wedding ring is worn on the ring finger.
The farmers work on farms.
The children are playing on the grass.
(iv) To :
To show destination.
E .g. I walk to my office.
Go to the railway station and get my ticket to Delhi.
(v) Into :
Used with verbs of motion.
E .g. A man jumped into the well to fetch water.
Pour the milk into the jug.
(vi) Across :
To indicate ‘from side to side of’.
E .g. There are many bridges across the Ganga.
Can you ferry me across the river ?
Draw a lion across the sheet of paper.
(vii) Before :
To indicate the meaning of ‘in front of’.
E .g. The accused was brought before the judge.
Jackson is standing before Phillips in the queue for the movie ticket.
(viii) In front of :
To indicate the meaning of ‘directly before’.
E .g. There are some mango trees in front of my uncle’s house.
There is a fountain in front of C.A.D. circle.
(ix) Above :
To indicate ‘higher then ‘ or ‘at a higher point’.
E .g. The sun rose above the horizon.
The floodwater came above our knees.
The kite is flying above the clouds.
(x) Over :
To indicate a thing covering the surface partly or completely.
E .g. The waiter spread a tablecloth over the table.
Sam spread his bed-sheet over his face and went5 to sleep.
(xi) Upon :
To indicate thing in motion.
E .g. The cat jumped upon the table.
Many mountaineers have climbed upon Mt. Everest
(xii) Under :
To indicate ‘a position lower then ‘for both persons and things.
E .g. The cat is under the table.
I sat under the tree.
(xiii) Underneath :
It is used for thing only.
E .g. The shoes are kept underneath the table.
(xiv) Between :
Used with two person or thing only.
E .g. The mother stood between her son and her husband.
An old man divided his property between his two sons.
With 2 or more limits when boundaries are concerned.
E .g. India lies between Pakistan, China, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.
(xv) Among :
Used with more then two person or things.
E .g. He divided his property among his four song.
The village is situated among the hills.
The teacher distributed the sweets among his students.
- Beside :
- It means ‘by the side of’.
E .g. The child is playing beside his mother.
His house is beside a hospital.
- Besides :
- It means ‘in addition to’
E .g. Besides his job, he also takes private tuitions.
He also has a bungalow in Delhi besides a sea facing flat in Mumbai.
PREPOSITION OF TRAVEL AND MOVEMENT :
- By: Travel by train / car/ bus/ air / sea.
- On: V on foot/ scooter/ motorcycle /bicycle /
- From and to: Travel from (starting point) to (destination).
- In: Arrive in a country/ village / town.
- At: Arrive at/get to a specific place (hotel, address, railway station, bus stand, river bank etc.)
- In and into : To get in/ into a vehicle. (i. e. to Board)
- Get out of : To get out of a vehicle. (i. e. to Alight)
- Get on / onto : To get on / onto a horse, a bicycle.(i.e. to Mount)
- Get off : To get off a horse, bicycle. (i.e. to Dismount)
SOME IMPORTANT DISTINCTIONS :
« Beside and Besides
Beside by the side of, next to, at the side of.
Besides in actions, more, plus, including.
E.g. We built a house beside the factory.
I speak English besides Hindi.
« Since and For
Since -> used for point of time.
For -> used for period of time.
E .g. We have been here since 4 O’clock.
We have stayed here for two weeks.
« Among and between
Among -> used for more then two.
Between -> used for two persons or things.
E .g. They have friendship among themselves.
There was an argument between the two girls.
« By and with
By -> used for agent.
With Manchester used for instrument.
E .g. Padmaja was murdered by her husband.
America was discovered by Columbus.
I usually write with a ball point pen.
« In and at
At ->used for small town and villages.
In-> used for large places, countries and towns.
E .g. He was born at Araku in Visakhapatnam.
I lived in Manchester in England. (not at Manchester)
She died in Paris in France.(not at Paris)
« On an in
On -> days of week /month.
In -> period.
E .g. She will come on Sunday.
She was married on April20.
We go to Kashmir in summer.
She passed her degree in 1990.
« At and By
At -> shows exact time.
By -> shows point of time.
E .g. I went there at 8 P.M.
She will return by noon.
« In and Into
In -> refers to thing or persons in rest position.
Into refers to thing or persons in motion.
E .g. Madhavi was in the room.
I walked into the theater.
He is in the hospital.
« On and Upon
On -> things or person at rest.
Upon -> things or person in motion.
E .g. Padma was on the dias.
He jumped upon the wall.
« In and within
In ->after the end of at the end of.
Within -> before the end of.
E .g. I shall type the letters in two hours.
I shall complete the work within three hours.
I shall pay you the money in a week.
She will return the book within a week.
« Before and For
Before -> point of time
For -> period of time.
E .g. I shall be back before 7 O’clock.
I shall stay here for three weeks.
« After and In
After -> denotes the end of a period in the past.
In ->denotes the end of a period in future.
E .g. She returned from Jaipur after a week.
We will finish the book in a week.
« From and Since
Both are used for point of time. But since is used only in perfect tense and from is used in any tense.
E .g. We have stayed here since 1990.
We shall begin the work from tomorrow.
« Till and to
Till -> used for time
To -> used for destination
E .g. I waited for Madhavi till 4 O’clock
They went to the market.
I waited till Sunday.
I went to the State Bank.
« To and at
To -> used for things or persons in motion.
At -> used for things or persons at position or rest.
E .g. She came to me.
He is waiting at the bus stop.
« Under and Underneath.
Underneath ->used for things only to ‘indicate a lower position’.
Under = can be used for both persons and thing to ‘indicate a position’.
E .g. The bucket is underneath the table.
He has many persons under him.
« At and On.
At -> towards the direction of
On -> on the top of
E .g. He set at the dining table.(It means that he sat with his chair drawn up to the dining table.) . He set on the dining table.(It means that he sat on the dining table.)
« On and Over
On -> denotes actual contact with some object.
Over ->does not denote actual contact with some object.
E .g. Put the book on the table.
The bridge was over the river.