CBSE Class 9 English Tense Notes

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1.1TENSE:

It is any form of the verb which may be used to show (i) the time of an action and (ii) the state of action or an event. The Tense of a verb shows the time when an action takes place.

1.1 (a) There are Three Main Tense in English:

The present Tense (i) Mr. Sharma teachers us English.

The past Tense (ii) Mr. Sharma taught us English.

The Future Tense (iii) Mr. Sharma will teach us English.

The three main tenses are subdivided into four heads. They are

(a) Indefinite Or simple (b) Continuous (c) Perfect (d) Perfect Continuous.

1.1(b) tense at a Glance:

Tense at a glance

Tense

Indefinite/simple

continuous

Perfect

Perfect continuous

Present

Writes

Am writing

Is writing

Are writing

Has written

Have written

Has been writing

Past

Wrote

Was writing

Were writing

Had written

Had been writing

Future

Shall write

Will write

Shall be writing

Will be writing

Shall have written

Will have written

Shall have been writing

Will have been writing

1.1 (c) Examine the following Sentences:

(i) I write a letter

(ii) I am writing a letter

(iii) I have written a letter

(iv) I have been writing a letter.

The verbs in all these four sentences refer to the present time and are therefore

Said to be in the present Tense .

  • In sentence (i): the verb ‘write’ simply expresses the action done in the present time, without indicating the state of action. It does not tell us anything about the completeness or incompleteness of the action. Hence the verb is said to be in the Simple Present Tense or Present Indefinite Tense.
  • In sentence (ii): the verb ‘am writing’ is still going on or continuing. Hence the verb is said to be in the Present Continuous Tense.
  • In sentence (iii): the verb ‘have written’ shows that the action is completed, finished or perfect. Hence the verb is said to be in the Present Perfect Tense.
  • In sentence (IV): the verb ‘have been writing’ shows that the action is going on continuously up to the present time. Hence the verb is said to be in the Present Perfect Tense.

1.1 (d) similarly the past Tense and the Future Tense have four forms:

  • Simple past Tense or past indefinite Tense (i) I wrote a letter.
  • Past continuous Tense (ii) I was writing a letter.
  • Past perfect Tense (iii) I had written a letter.
  • Past perfect continuous Tense (iv) I had been writing a letter.

And

  • Simple Future or Future indefinite Tense (i) I shall write a letter.
  • Future continuous Tense (ii) I shall be write a letter.
  • Future perfect Tense (iii)I shall have writing a letter.
  • Future perfect continuous Tense (iv) I shall have been writing a letter.

1.2 PRESENT TENSE:

We use the present simple tense to describe

(i) Things that are always true i.e. universal fact. E.g. The sun rises in the east.

(ii) Situation that exist now and will go on indefinitely. E.g. Teachers teach the students.

(iii) Habits or things that happen regularly. E.g. We go to school everyday.

1.2 (a) present Simple (Indefinite) Tense:

(i) In the simple present (Indefinite) Tense, the first form of the verb is used.

E.g. respects my elders.

You drive the car very carelessly.

Children love their parents.

(ii) ‘s’ ‘es’ is added to the first from of the verb when the subject is in the third

Person and of singular number.

E.g. my brother goes to school.

An eagle flies high up in the sky.

A child loves to play with others’ toy.

Note:

Add ‘es’ to the first form of the verb, if it ends in ‘ch’, ‘sh’, ‘o’, ‘ss’ or ‘x’

E.g. marches, pushes, dose, passes, fixes.

If a verb ends in ‘y’ and is preceded with a consonant, change ‘y’ into ‘i’ and ‘es’

E.g. worry – worries, Fly – flies, Try – tries.

If there is a vowel before ‘y’ add only‘s’ to the first form of the verb.

E.g. obey – obeys, Enjoy – enjoys, pray – prays.

III. To all other verbs just add‘s’

E.g. Talk – talks, Sleep – sleeps, Fight – fights.

Assertive Form:

  • I / we/ you/ they/plurals + 1st form of the verb.
  • He/ she/ it/ singular +1st form of the verb + s/es

E.g. The student go to school

My brother goes to office.

 

Interrogative Form:

  • Do / Dose + subject + 1st form of the verb + ?

OR

  • Question word + Do / Does + subject + 1st form of verb + ?

E.g. Do you know English?

Does she cook tasty food?

When do you go to school?

Note: only first form of the verb is used with ‘do’ or ‘does’

Negative Form:

  • Subject + do not / does not + 1st form of the verb + ?

E.g. My student do not want to fail.

He does not get time to play.

 Interrogative Negative:

  • Do not / Does not + subject + 1st form of the verb + ?

E.g. Don’t you want to succeed in life?

Doesn’t she disturb you always?

1.2 (b) Present Continuous Tense:

The present continuous tense describes

(i) An action that is happening (now) at the time of speaking.

E.g. we are learning English grammar.

(ii) To describe an action going on over a period of time, including the present, but

May not be going on at the time of speaking.

E.g. (nowadays) my friend is working in American Institute.

 Assertive Form:

  • Subject + is / am / are + 1st form of the verb (infinitive) + ing.

E.g. The teacher is teaching his students.

I am teaching my students.

The student are listening to the teacher.

Interrogative Form:

  • Subject + is / am / are + subject + 1st form of the verb + ?

E.g. is the teacher teaching his students?

Am I teaching my student ?

Are the student listening to the teacher?

 Negative Form:

  • Subject + is /am / are + not + 1st form of the verb + ing

 E.g. he is not giving the answers to my questions

I am not teaching today.

Student are not asking their difficulties.

 1.2 (c) Present perfect Tense:

The present perfect tense refers to an action or a process that has been completed in 

the present.

Assertive Form:

  • Subject + has /have + 3rd form of the verb ( past participle) +

E.g. He has done his homework.

You have solved all the examples.

She has finished her work.

Interrogative Form:

@ Has /have + subject + 3rd from of the verb + -----------------------

E.g. Has he done his homework?

Have you solved all the examples?

Has she finished her work?

 Negative Form:

  • Subject + has /have + not + 3rd form of the verb +----------------------------

E.g. He has not done his homework.

You have not solved all the examples.

She has not finished her work.

1.2 (d) Present perfect Continuous Tense:

This tense is used to describe an action that began in the past, is the still continuing and may extend into the future. ‘Since’ and ‘for’ are used with the present perfect Continuous tense . 

‘Since’ is used with a point of time. It denotes some definite point of time in the past till now

eg. Since evening, since Sunday, since 2007.ect.

‘For’ is used with a period of time. It denotes a ‘length of time’ till now.

E.g. For several weeks, for seven days, for many years etc.

Assertive Form:

  • Subject + has /have + been + 1st form of the verb + ing + + Since / for

E.g. I have been living in kota since 2005.

The child has been crying for one hour.

Interrogative Form:

  • Has /have + subject + been + 1st from of the verb + ing +-------------------------- + since / for?

E.g. Have I been living in Kota since 2005?

Has the child been crying for one hour?

Negative Form:

  • Subject + has /have + not been + 1st form of the verb + ing + ------------------ + since / for?

E.g. I have not been living in Kota since 2005.

The child has not been crying for one hour.

1.3 PAST TENSE:

The past tense refers to actions and event that happened in the past or in an earlier time.

1.3 (a) Simple Past (indefinite) Tense:

Assertive Form:

  • Subject + Second form of the verb + ………………….

E.g. the boy threw his bat in anger.

Bangladesh won the cricket match against India.

Charles met with an accident while coming back from work.

Interrogative from:

  • Did + subject + 1st from of the verb +…………………. ?

E.g. Did the boy throw his bat in anger ?

Did Bangladesh win the cricket match against India ?

Did Charles meet with an accident while coming back from work ?

Negative Form :

  • Subject + did + not + 1st form of the verb + …………………

E.g. The boy did not throw his bat in anger.

Bangladesh did not win the crick match against India.

Charles did not meet with an accident while coming back from work.

1.3 (b) Past Continuous Tense :

Assertive Form :

  • Subject + was / were + 1st form of the verb + ing +…………………

E.g. My brother was going to the temple.

The students were preparing for their exams.

Interrogative from :

  • was / were + Subject + 1st form of the verb + ing +…………………?

E.g. was. my brother going to the temple?

Were the students preparing for their exams ?

Negative Form :

  • Subject + was / were + not +1st form of the verb + ing +…………………

E.g. My brother was not going to the temple.

The students were not preparing for their exams.

1.3 (c) Past Perfect Tense :

Assertive Form :

  • Subject + had + 3rd form of the verb + …………….

E.g. I had completed the course before December.

The train had left before she reached the station.

Interrogative from:

  • Had + Subject + 3rd form of the verb + …………….?

E.g. Had I completed the course before December?

Had the train left before she reached the station?

Negative Form :

  • Subject + had + not + 3rd form of the verb + …………….

E.g. I had not completed the course before December.

The train had not left before she reached the station.

1.3 (d) Past Perfect Tense :

Assertive Form :

  • Subject + had + been + 1st form of the verb + ing + ………………. + Since / for.

E.g. They had been waiting for us for one hour.

The airplane had been flying around the airport due to bad weather since morning.

 

Interrogative Form :

  • Had + subject + been + 1st from of the verb + ing + ………………… + Since / for?

E.g. Have they been waiting for us for one hour ?

Has the airplane been flying around the airport due to bad weather since morning.?

Negative Form :

  • Subject + had + not + been + 1st form of the verb + ing + ………………… + Since / for

E.g. They had not been waiting for us for one hour.

The airplane had not been flying around the airport due to bad weather since morning.

1.4 Future Tense :

1.4 (a) Simple Future (indefinite) Tense

Assertive From :

  • Subject + shall /will + 1st form of verb + ………… .

E.g. We shall succeed in life.

You will go to college regularly.

The boys will win the football match.

‘Shall’ used with first Person and ‘will’ used with the second and the Third Person

show simple future.

Interrogative form:

  • Shall /will + subject + 1st form of the verb +…………….. ?

 E.g. shall we succeed in life?

Will you go to college regularly?

Will the boys win the football match?

Negative form:

  • Subject + shall / will + not + 1st form of the verb + …………….. .

E.g. We shall not succeed in life.

You will not go to college regularly.

The boys will not win the football match

1.4 (b) Future continuous Tense

Assertive Form:

  • Subject + shall / will + be + 1st form of the verb + ing + …………….

 E.g. They will be playing in the evening.

I shall be going to Mumbai during Diwali vacation.

Interrogative Form:

  • Shall / will + subject + be + 1st form of the verb + ing ……………. ?

 E.g. Will they be playing in the evening?

Shall I be going to Mumbai during Diwali vacation?

Negative Form:

  • Subject + shall / will + not + be + 1st from of the verb + ing + …………….

E.g. They will not be playing in the evening.

I shall not be going to Mumbai during Diwali vacation

1.4 (c) Future Perfect Tense

Assertive Form:

  • Subject + shall / will + have + 3rd form of the verb.

 E.g. I shall have gone to Mumbai by November

The Teacher will have showed the slides to the students.

 Interrogative Form:

  • Shall / will + subject + have + 3rd form of the verb.

 E.g. Shall I have gone to Mumbai by November?

Will the teacher have showed the slides to the students?

Negative Form:

  • Subject + shall / will + not + have + 3rd form of the verb.

 E.g. I shall not have gone to Mumbai by November.

The teacher will not have showed the slides to the student.

1.4 (d) Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Assertive Form:

  • Subject + shall / will + have + been + 1st form of the verb + ing + ………..since /for.

 E.g. The mountaineers will have been climbing the mountain since early morning.

We shall have been playing for 3 hours.

Interrogative Form:

  • Subject + shall / will + have + been + 1st form of the verb + ing + ……….. + Since /for + ?

 E.g. Will the mountaineers have been climbing the mountain since early morning?

Shall we have been playing for 3 hours?

Negative Form:

  • Subject + shall / will + not + have + been + 1st form of the verb + ing + + since /for.

E.g. The mountaineers will not have been climbing the mountain since early morning. We shall not have been playing for 3 hours.

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