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Theme : Materials
Unit I : Matter-Nature and Behaviour
Definition of matter; solid, liquid and gas; characteristics - shape, volume, density; change of state-melting (absorption of heat), freezing, evaporation (cooling by evaporation), condensation, sublimation.
Nature of matter : Elements, compounds and mixtures. Heterogeneous and homogenous mixtures, colloids and suspensions.
Particle nature, basic units : Atoms and molecules, Law of constant proportions, Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept : Relationship of mole to mass of the particles and numbers.
Structure of atoms : Electrons, protons and neutrons, valency, chemical formula of common compounds. Isotopes and Isobars.
Theme : The World of the Living
Unit II : Organization in the Living World
Call - Basic Unit of life : Cell as a basic unit of life; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, multicellular organisms; cell membrane and cell wall, cell organelles and cell inclusions; chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus; nucleus, chromosomes - basic structure, number.
Tissues, Organs, Organ System, Organism : Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues (only four types of tissues in animals; Meristematic and Permanent tissues in plants).
Biological Diversity : Diversity of plants and animals - basic issues in scientific naming, basis of classification. Hierarchy of categories / groups, Major groups
of plants (salient features) (Bacteria, Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms). Major groups of animals (salient features) (Non-chordates upto phyla and chordates upto classes).
Health and Diseases : Health and its failure. Infectious and Non-infectious diseases, their causes and manifestation. Diseases caused by microbes (Virus, Bacteria and Protozoans) and their prevention; Principles of treatment and prevention. Pulse Polio programmes.
Theme : Moving Things, People and Ideas
Unit III : Motion, Force and Work
Motion : Distance and displacement, velocity; uniform and non-uniform motion along a staight line; acceleration, distance-time and velocity-time graphs for uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion, derivation of equations of motion by graphical method; elementary idea of uniform circular motion.
Force and Newton’s laws : Force and Motion, Newton’s Laws of Motion, Action and reaction forces, Inertia of a body, Inertia and mass, Momentum, Force and Acceleration. Elementary idea of conservation of Momentum.
Gravitation : Gravitation; Universal Law of Gravitation, Force of Gravitation of the earth (gravity), Acceleration due to Gravity; Mass and Weight; Free fall.
Floatation : Thrust and Pressure. Archimedes’ Principle; Buoyancy; Elementary Idea of Relative Density.
Work, energy and power : Work done by a Force, Energy, Power; Kinetic and Potential energy; Law of conservation of energy.
Sound : Nature of sound and its propagation in various media, speed of sound, range of hearing in humans; ultrasound; reflection of sound; echo and SONAR. Structure of the Human Ear (Auditory aspect only).
Theme : Natural Resources : Balance in Nature
Unit IV : Our Environment
Physical resources : Air, Water, Soil. Air for respiration, for combustion, for moderating temperatures; movements of air and its role in bringing rains across India.
Air, Water and Soil pollution (brief introduction). Holes in ozone layer and the probable damages.
Bio-geo chemical cycles in nature : Water, Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen.
Theme : Food
Unit V : Food Production
Plant and animal breeding and selection for quality improvement and management; Use of fertilizers and manures; Protection from pests and diseases; Organic farming.
Praticals should be conducted alongside the concepts taught in theory classes.
(LIST OF EXPERIMENTS)
Preparation of :
- A true solution of common salt, sugar and alum
- A suspension of soil, chalk powder and fine sand in water
- A colloidal solution of starch in water and egg albumin/milk in water and distinction between these on the basis of
- filtration criterion
- a mixture
- a compound
using iron filings and sulphur powder and distinction between these on the basis of:
- appearance, i.e., homogeneity and heterogeneity
- behaviour towards a magnet
- behaviour towards carbon disulphide as a solvent
- effect of heat
- Separation of the components of a mixture of sand, common salt and ammonium chloride (or camphor).
- Performing the following reactions and classifying them as physical or chemical changes :
- Iron with copper sulphate solution in water
- Burning of magnesium ribbon in air
- Zinc with dilute sulphuric acid
- Heating of copper sulphate crystals
- Sodium sulphate with barium chloride in the form of their solutions in water.
- Preparation of stained temporary mounts of (a) onion peel, (b) human cheek cells & to record observations and draw their labeled diagrams.
- Identification of Parenchyma, Collenchyma and Sclerenchyma tissues in plants, striped, smooth and cardiac muscle fibers and nerve cells in animals from prepared slides. Drawing of their labeled diagrams.
- Determination of the melting point of ice and the boiling point of water.
- Verification of the Laws of reflection of sound.
- Determination of the density of solid (denser than water) by using a spring balance and a measuring cylinder.
- Establishing the relation between the loss in weight of a solid when fully immersed in
- tap water
- strongly salty water, with the weight of water displaced by it by taking at least two different solids.
- Determination of the speed of a pulse propagated through a stretched string / slinky.
- Study of the characteristics of Spirogyra / Agaricus, Moss / Fern, Pinus (either with male or female cone) and an Angiospermic plant. Drawing and providing two identifying features of the groups they belong to.
- Observing the given pictures / charts / models of earthworm, cockroach, bony fish and bird. For each organism, drawing of their picture and recording :
- one specific feature of its phylum.
- one adaptive feature with reference to its habitat.
- Verification of the law of conservation of mass in a chemical reaction.
- Study of the external features of root, stem, leaf and flower of monocot and dicot plants.
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