CBSE Class IX Science

Download Class 9 Science NCERT Solutions, chapter notes, latest solved sample papers, projects and experiments and other useful study material made as per the latest guidelines, term examination pattern and blueprint issued by CBSE and NCERT

Science in Class 9 is very interesting subject. Students are expected to learn following things post reading NCERT Book for Class 9 Science -

  1. Observe, group/ classify materials, such as mixtures, based on their properties, viz. solubility, passage of light, etc. by performing various activities. Based on the observations, a discussion may be facilitated to help arrive at the appropriate conclusions. Students with visual impairment or low vision may be motivated to observe solubility of the materials by touching.
  2. Design and carry out activities, for example, “Tug of war” to understand balanced and unbalanced forces. They may be encouraged to experiment by applying forces (equal and unequal) on an object in same and opposite direction, followed by peer group discussion to generalise. Why don’t you try to do some Worksheets for Class 9 Science to test your understanding.
  3. Study the daily life experience, such as the cause behind cooling of water in earthen pots. They may be encouraged to measure and compare the temperatures of water both in earthen pot and metal containers, thereby helping them to relate process of evaporation with cooling effect. Students with visual impairment or low vision may be encouraged to feel the difference in temperature by touching the surfaces of the containers. One of a great method to test whether you have properly prepared for the upcoming science exams for class 9 is by doing Sample Papers for Class 9 Science.
  4. Conduct survey to understand the process of spread of diseases. They may be encouraged to visit hospitals/ dispensaries, collect data from doctors and nurses about various diseases.  They can prepare a report on spread, causes, prevention and cure of diseases. They may share their findings with the community through role plays/ skits and also campaign for prevention.
  5. Discuss their observations/ ideas/ learning through flow charts/ concept maps/ graphs.
  6. Gather data for calculating different physical quantities, such as distance, displacement, velocity, which can be shared and discussed in groups/with peers. Rubrics can be used to assess the conversion of units and reporting results.
  7. Collect and analyse wide variety of graphs from newspapers, magazines or internet. They may be encouraged to draw, analyse and interpret the graphs (for example, distance-time, speed-time or acceleration-time graphs of motion of a vehicle on straight road)
  8. If you will ready NCERT Books for class 9 Science then you will be able to write formulae of simple compounds, chemical equations, etc. using play way methods such as a game of cards.
  9. Select and use appropriate devices for measuring physical quantities. They may be encouraged to find the minimum and maximum value that can be measured by an instrument and note down the readings correctly.
  10. Collect information from books, e-books, magazines, internet, etc. to appreciate the efforts of scientists made over the time, for example various models of atoms, discovery of microscope and showcase it in the form of a project/ role play.
  11. Observe various technological devices/ innovative exhibits such as waste management kits, water filtration system, using low-cost/ no-cost eco-friendly materials, develop them and showcase it in science exhibitions/ clubs/ parent-teacher meets.
  12. Share/ discuss their beliefs and views regarding myths/ taboos/ superstitions by initiating an open-ended debate, leading to the alignment of their beliefs to the scientifically proven facts. They may also be involved in awareness campaigns in community. Trying doing Exemplar for Class 9 Science to further testing your knowledge.


Theme : Materials

Unit I : Matter-Nature and Behaviour                      

Definition of matter; solid, liquid and gas; characteristics - shape, volume, density; change of state-melting (absorption of heat), freezing, evaporation (cooling by evaporation), condensation, sublimation.

Nature of matter : Elements, compounds and mixtures. Heterogeneous and homogenous mixtures, colloids and suspensions.

Particle nature, basic units : Atoms and molecules, Law of constant proportions, Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept : Relationship of mole to mass of the particles and numbers.

Structure of atoms : Electrons, protons and neutrons, valency, chemical formula of common compounds. Isotopes and Isobars.

Theme : The World of the Living

Unit II : Organization in the Living World                                                                            

Call - Basic Unit of life : Cell as a basic unit of life; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, multicellular organisms; cell membrane and cell wall, cell organelles and cell inclusions; chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus; nucleus, chromosomes - basic structure, number.

Tissues, Organs, Organ System, Organism : Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues (only four types of tissues in animals; Meristematic and Permanent tissues in plants).

Biological Diversity : Diversity of plants and animals - basic issues in scientific naming, basis of classification. Hierarchy of categories / groups, Major group of plants (salient features) (Bacteria, Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms). Major groups of animals (salient features) (Non-chordates upto phyla and chordates upto classes).

Health and Diseases : Health and its failure. Infectious and Non-infectious diseases, their causes and manifestation. Diseases caused by microbes (Virus, Bacteria and Protozoans) and their prevention; Principles of treatment and prevention. Pulse Polio programmes.

Theme : Moving Things, People and Ideas

Unit III : Motion, Force and Work          

Motion : Distance and displacement, velocity; uniform and non-uniform motion along a staight line; acceleration, distance-time and velocity-time graphs for uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion, derivation of equations of motion by graphical method; elementary idea of uniform circular motion.

Force and Newton’s laws : Force and Motion, Newton’s Laws of Motion, Action and reaction forces, Inertia of a body, Inertia and mass, Momentum, Force and Acceleration. Elementary idea of conservation of Momentum.

Gravitation : Gravitation; Universal Law of Gravitation, Force of Gravitation of the earth (gravity), Acceleration due to Gravity; Mass and Weight; Free fall.

Floatation : Thrust and Pressure. Archimedes’ Principle; Buoyancy; Elementary Idea of Relative Density.

Work, energy and power : Work done by a Force, Energy, Power; Kinetic and Potential energy; Law of conservation of energy.

Sound : Nature of sound and its propagation in various media, speed of sound, range of hearing in humans; ultrasound; reflection of sound; echo and SONAR. Structure of the Human Ear (Auditory aspect only).

Theme : Natural Resources : Balance in Nature

Unit IV : Our Environment                                                                                                                 

Physical resources : Air, Water, Soil. Air for respiration, for combustion, for moderating temperatures; movements of air and its role in bringing rains across India. Air, Water and Soil pollution (brief introduction). Holes in ozone layer and the probable damages.

Bio-geo chemical cycles in nature : Water, Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen.

Theme : Food

Unit V : Food Production           

Plant and animal breeding and selection for quality improvement and management; Use of fertilizers and manures; Protection from pests and diseases; Organic farming.


Praticals should be conducted alongside the concepts taught in theory classes.


Preparation of :

  1. A true solution of common salt, sugar and alum
  2. A suspension of soil, chalk powder and fine sand in water
  3. A colloidal solution of starch in water and egg albumin/milk in water and distinction between these on the basis of
    1. transparency
    2. filtration criterion
    3. stability

Preparation of

  • a mixture
  • a compound

using iron filings and sulphur powder and distinction between these on the basis of:

  • appearance, i.e., homogeneity and heterogeneity
  • behaviour towards a magnet
  • behaviour towards carbon disulphide as a solvent
  • effect of heat
  1. Separation of the components of a mixture of sand, common salt and ammonium chloride (or camphor).
  1. Performing the following reactions and classifying them as physical or chemical changes :
  • Iron with copper sulphate solution in water
  • Burning of magnesium ribbon in air
  • Zinc with dilute sulphuric acid
  • Heating of copper sulphate crystals
  • Sodium sulphate with barium chloride in the form of their solutions in water.
  1. Preparation of stained temporary mounts of (a) onion peel, (b) human cheek cells & to record observations and draw their labeled diagrams.
  2. Identification of Parenchyma, Collenchyma and Sclerenchyma tissues in plants, striped, smooth and cardiac muscle fibers and nerve cells in animals from prepared slides. Drawing of their labeled diagrams.
  1. Determination of the melting point of ice and the boiling point of water.
  1. Verification of the Laws of reflection of sound.
  1. Determination of the density of solid (denser than water) by using a spring balance and a measuring cylinder.
  1. Establishing the relation between the loss in weight of a solid when fully immersed in
  • tap water
  • strongly salty water, with the weight of water displaced by it by taking at least two different solids.
  1. Determination of the speed of a pulse propagated through a stretched string / slinky.
  1. Study of the characteristics of Spirogyra / Agaricus, Moss / Fern, Pinus (either with male or female cone) and an Angiospermic plant. Drawing and providing two identifying features of the groups they belong to.
  1. Observing the given pictures / charts / models of earthworm, cockroach, bony fish and bird. For each organism, drawing of their picture and recording :
  • one specific feature of its phylum.
  • one adaptive feature with reference to its habitat.
  1. Verification of the law of conservation of mass in a chemical reaction.
  1. Study of the external features of root, stem, leaf and flower of monocot and dicot plants.