CBSE Class IX Social Science

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The Class 9 students should be able to perform the following activities post reading NCERT book for Social Science in Class 9-

  1. Observe political map of India or on School Bhuvan portal NCERT, mark with reference to location, extent, shape, size, etc. of States /UTs
  2.  Discuss and verify the information about States and UTs from other sources, like website of other states, textbooks, atlas, models, etc .
  3. Engage in projects to collect information about States/UTs in terms of languages, food, dress, cultural traditions etc. You should also refer to the Worksheets for Class 9 Social Science to ensure that you have good practice of questions which will be asked in your exams.
  4. Select the works of eminent thinkers like Jean–Paul Marat, Jean Jacques Rousseau and others influence of their works on the outbreak of French Revolution
  5. Take part in discussion of the important political terms and concepts such as martial law, a coup, a veto, and referendum to recognise democracy as well as dictatorship.
  6. Discuss the details of (a) the time when universal adult franchise was first provided to the citizens and (b) how the end of colonialism took place
  7. Collect information and discuss the process of making of the Indian Constitution
  8. Collect the details of different factors of production like land, capital and human resources from their surroundings.
  9. Choose a nearby ration shop and compare the prices of items available with the local market and discuss the reasons for the differences.
  10. Analyse the role of cooperative in food security.
  11. Explore various resources including the e-content on poverty, food security, human resource development and try doing some Sample Papers for Class 9 Social Science
  12. Discuss that how poverty line is estimated especially from the view point of social scientists.
  13. Gather information about physical features in the surroundings discuss about these features with the peers; visuals related to other physiographic divisions may be shown and their features may be explained to them.
  14. Shown different physiographic divisions/ data to look out for the similarities and differences
  15. Use tactile maps/models to classify physical features of India
  16. Collates the views from different secondary sources of Desmoulin and Robespierre to know how each one of them understands the use of state force. What does Robespierre mean by “the war of liberty against tyranny?” How does Desmoulin perceive liberty?
  17. Gather information about Constitutional Monarchy of France, from different sources
  18. Discuss different monarchies of contemporary times like U.K., Nepal and Bhutan
  19. Develop timeline on significant events related to outbreak of the French and Russian Revolution. In connection with France some events that can be displayed in the timeline are: Constitutional Monarchy, Declaration of Right of Man, on becoming a Republic and the Reign of Terror. The students can add more information in this timeline on the French revolution.
  20. Study features of different type of government and discuss.
  21. Design a group project on social exclusion as well as poverty and try to solve Question Papers for Class 9 Social Science
  22. Interview vendors such as vegetables, newspaper, milkman, laundress (at least ten people). They may be guided to develop simple questions and raw inference from it.
  23. Explore various rivers, find details of their origin, course of river, major cities, industries on the banks of a river; discuss how river affects the life of people in cities leading to pollution of rivers.
  24. Work on group projects in which they can collect information from various sources such as books, magazines, newspapers, internet, elders and plot the river and associated findings on a map and prepare a report.
  25. Work with tactile maps particularly by the children with special needs (CWSN).
  26. Identify social, economic and political causes that Russian Revolution in 1905; use a variety of teaching aids like a flow chart, power point presentation, newspaper clippings belonging to that period (1905).
  27. Participate in a discussion on fall of Monarchy in February 1917, workers strike, refusal of peasants to pay rent and activities of different political parties such as Liberals, Social Democrats and Social Revolutionaries
  28. Discussion may be initiated on the concepts of revolution and social change.
  29. Elucidate the idea that some revolutions like the French and Russian are a result of blood-shed.
  30. Discuss peaceful revolutions such as industrial revolution; Green, White and the Blue revolutions in India.
  31. Collect current statements from media and from other sources and discuss the measure of success of democracy.
  32. Collect and discuss information about democratic countries of the world and their history of establishment, conditions under which those governments got established
  33. Discuss democracy as a government of the people, by the people, for the people by engaging with some examples.
  34. Discussion may be held on the newspaper clipping or the teacher may provide data from government report on poverty, food security.
  35. Familiarise with major climatic controls – latitude, altitude, pressure and wind systems and distance from the sea and discuss how they affect the climate of various geographical regions and try doing some Online Mock Test for Class 9 Social Science
  36. Discuss how the climate of hilly regions is significantly different from the plains.
  37. Look for and use a variety of primary and secondary sources, such as written records, oral accounts to investigate themes like factors responsible for deforestation in the past in different regions of the world including India during the colonial rule
  38. Discuss different Forest Acts in India – Forest Act-1865, its amendment in 1878 and 1927 and its impact on forest dwellers and the village community
  39. Collect visuals, newspaper clippings, posters, leaflets, videos and speeches of Hitler on the rise of Nazismand discussion how Nazism led to the genocidal war that resulted in the killing of innocent civilians like the Jews, Gypsies and Polish civilians .
  40. Organise mock Parliament and court proceedings in which various democratic rights can be the subjects .
  41. Show visuals associated with famines and present OMT(one minute talk).
  42. Correlate different maps e.g. physical features and drainage, physical features and population.
  43. Opportunities may be provided to explore and overlay various maps on School Bhuvan NCERT portal.
  44. Use atlas maps for understanding various concepts.
  45. Demonstrate skills of locating places associated with different revolutions like French and the Russian.
  46. Explain the changes of geographical boundaries of places in the past and present and the reasons that have led to it. You may link this with the theme in the syllabus/textbooks
  47. Study various symbols that depict road, railways, buildings, monuments, rivers etc on an outline map of India and the world. This may be used as per the theme under study
  48. Interpret information from an orthophoto map and compare it with reality.
  49. Use India’s political map to demarcate states and parliamentary constituencies.
  50. Use India’s map of the states to identify and colour the following (i) high and low poverty, (ii) levels of literacy, (iii) production of food grains and interpret in terms of reasons for above differences amongst states
  51. Choose photographs of persons engaged in different occupations in rural and urban areas and categorise into three sectors of the economy.
  52. Compile data from their surroundings and Government reports on (i) unemployment
  53. existing in urban and rural areas (ii) poverty existing in different states
  54. Use tables to represent data on literacy rates, production of food grains and food insecurity with respect to population and interpret them in terms of well-being of masses
  55. Construct and convert tables into bar and pie diagrams.
  56. Explain from the newspaper clippings or the teacher may provide data from Government report on poverty, food security, social exclusion and vulnerability, their causes and impact on society. 
  57. Develop bar/pie diagrams and also be able to plot the data in the diagram, e.g. population data, natural vegetation etc.
  58. Correlate topics with other disciplines for e.g. how various passes in the north and seaports in the south have provided passages to the travellers and how these passages have contributed in the exchange of ideas and commodities since ancient times
  59. Discuss on deforestation in the colonial period and their impact on lives of forest dwellers; link deforestation with geographical aspects such as the extent of land covered under forest in the colonial and contemporary times.
  60. Discuss how the Forest Acts in the past and in the present influence various tribal communities including women.
  61. Study a few political developments and government decisions and look at them from geographical importance and electoral constituencies.
  62. Read history of democratic movements in various countries by underlining the geopolitical importance of countries.
  63. Study historical events of 1940s and the Constitution making in India during 1946-49
  64. Focus on the issues of land and agriculture as part of resources in geography with topics such as factors of production and food security as a component of agriculture.
  65. See linkages with political dimensions to highlight citizens right in a democracy and human beings as an asset for the economy.
  66. Show a short documentary on like 3 shades, mirch masala, manthan and link it with low incomes and poverty which can then be followed by discussion in classroom on conflict between economic development and environmental conservation.
  67. Read the National Population Policy 2000 and discuss its content related to adolescence
  68. Use historical sources to comprehend the difference between fact and fiction when they read the literary works of difference authors.
  69. Assess novels, biography and poems composed at different points of our historical past
  70. Use pictures, cartoons and newspaper clippings to find out and discuss assumptions, biases and prejudices of various people. Teachers may guide learners to recognize the difference between facts and opinions using illustrative examples from socio, political and economic aspects.
  71. Explore and construct the holistic picture of the period under study using other sources such as archaeological remains, official records, oral accounts. Discussion may be initiated on the following question:
  72. What is the source about?
  73. Who is the author?
  74. What message can be extracted?
  75. Is it relevant/ useful?
  76. Does it explain the event in totality?
  77. Develop understanding that historical recorder are not free from subjectivity.
  78. Dramatize from the examples of French revolution on Olympiads Gouges on her protest against excluding women from the Declaration of Right of Man and Citizen highlighting the bias that existed in this historic document
  79. Watch and note down the statements of politicians appearing regularly on TV or the newspaper articles on various issues and incidents. Teachers may also provide examples, and may also take students’ own views on an issue to point out assumptions, biases, prejudices and stereotypes.
  80. List the details of wages paid to the males and females engaged in their area and discuss whether differences exist, if any, reasons may be provided.
  81. Analyse different government schemes to ensure food security, employment generation, promotion of health and education in their area.
  82. Ask questions to understand the mechanism of monsoon for e.g. how effect of differential heating of land and water, shifting of Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), El Nino and jet streams influence monsoon.
  83. Use enquiry skills to collect a variety of primary and secondary sources and print and digital materials to know how the ideals of freedom, equality, liberty and fraternity motivated political movements in France, in the rest of Europe and various anti-colonial struggles; projects, posters and models can be prepared on this area in groups.
  84. Collect the details on various topical, political, social or local issues from different newspapers, magazines and books. Compare different views about the same issues.
  85. Explain a particular economic problem showing vulnerability faced by the disadvantage groups.
  86. Analyse materials on green revolution.
  87. Find out the details from data / experiences e.g. (a) how the relief of a place affects the population distribution; (b) how climatic conditions of a region affect the natural vegetation of a place?
  88. Get engaged in a role play on topics such as project tiger and protection of rivers and discuss the relevance of tiger protection in India.
  89. Record or gather (from internet/Youtube) the interviews of living legends who have experienced trials and tribulations of Nazism.
  90. Show e-content and analyse case studies related to the quality of population.
  91. Gather information related to weather and population, from different sources such as daily newspapers and analyse recorded data/ information.
  92. Design a role play on the French Revolution and play the role of clergy, nobility, merchants, the peasants and the artisans; concluding remarks drawing assumptions of the feelings of each class can be given by facilitators of each group.
  93. Collect information on the famines in India. Explore the causes behind the famines in the colonial period.
  94. Discuss what would have happened if such famines can reoccur in post independent India. Also discuss the preventive measures.
  95. Identify the factors causing a problem and decide creatively and critically to arrive at a solution(s) relating to river pollution, population growth, protection of flora and fauna etc.
  96. Engage in a class debate on the topic: whether the use of violence for addressing different forms of human right violation is appropriate approach or not
    1. Plan and participate in extra-curricular activities, daily chores in the school, sports, cultural programmes which require problem solving and decision making skills.
    2. Collect newspapers and magazines to show the impact of the concentration of resources in the hands of few.
    3. Illustrate the cause and impact of inequality in terms of distribution of resources between the rich and the poor.

Some other key points:

  1. Participate in group projects to recognise the values of flora and fauna and in disaster preparedness and waste management projects.
  2. Participate in activities that require conservation of environment (plants, water bodies etc.), water disputes – interstate and across the border and promote nature-human sustainable relationship
  3. Raise questions to secure health care, education and job security for its citizens; people from community be invited to make presentation on improving these issues.
  4. Collect and compile variety of resources such as films, audio visuals, and photocopy of records, private papers, and press clippings from the Archives including original speeches of leaders associated with different historical events.
  5. Construct projects on themes like Nazism and tribal uprisings.
  6. Discuss the strategy of satyagraha and non-violence adopted by Gandhiji in achieving Independence of India; discuss different movement in the freedom struggle where satyagraha was adopted by the leaders to recognise the immense strength and courage it requires to internalise characteristics of satyagraha and non-violence to resolve conflicts.
  7. Explore and examine the published records of the lived experiences of the survivor of Holocaust.
  8. Study the Constitutional provisions available to improve conditions of disadvantaged groups, minorities; promotion of patriotism, unity of the country, equality of people, respect for all human beings, and doing one’s duties, etc.
  9. Engage in role play / short drama to highlight the problem faced by poor as well as food insecure population followed by discussion.
  10. Identify the chain of ration shops established in your nearby area to ensure the supply of essential commodities for the targeted population.
  11. Compose a short speech on gender equality and dignity for all (marginalised as well as Group with Special Needs)

Class 9 Geography Chapters


Chapter 1 - India – Size and Location


Chapter 2 -  Physical Features of India: relief, structure, major physiographic unit.


Chapter 3 - Drainage: Major rivers and tributaries, lakes and seas, role of rivers in the economy, pollution of rivers, measures to control river pollution.


Chapter 4 - Climate: Factors influencing the climate; monsoon- its characteristics, rainfall and temperature distribution; seasons; climate and human life.


Chapter 5 - Natural Vegetation and Wild Life: Vegetation types, distribution as well as altitudinal variation, need for conservation and various measures. Major species, their distribution, need for conservation and various measures.


Chapter 6 - Population: Size, distribution, age- sex composition, population change-migration as a determinant of population change, literacy, health, occupational structure and national population policy: adolescents as under-served population group with special needs.



Map Work - 

Chapter 1 : India-Size and location


India-States with Capitals, Tropic of Cancer, Standard Meridian, Southern most, Northern most, eastern most and western most point of India (Location and Labelling)


Chapter 2: Physical Features of India


Mountain Ranges: The Karakoram, The Zasker,The Shivalik, The Aravali, The Vindhya, The Satpura, Western & Eastern Ghats

Mountain Peaks – K2, Kanchan Junga, Anai Mudi,

Plateau -Deccan Plateau, Chotta Nagpur Plateau, Malwa plateau

Coastal Plains- Konkan, Malabar, Coromandat & Northern Circar (location and labelling)


Chapter 3: Drainage


Rivers : (Identification only )

(a) The Himalayan River Systems-The Indus, The Ganges, and The Satluj

(b) The Peninsular rivers-The Narmada, The Tapi, The Kaveri, The Krishna, The Godavari,The Mahanadi

Lakes: Wular, Pulicat, Sambhar, Chilika, Vembanad, Kolleru


Chapter 4: Climate


Cities to locate : Tiruvananthpuram, Chennai, Jodhpur, Bangalore, Mumbai, Kolkata, Leh, Shillong, Delhi, Nagpur. (Location and Labelling)

Areas receiving rainfall less than 20 cm and over 400 cm (Identification only)


Chapter 5: Natural Vegetation and Wild Life


Vegetation Type : Tropical Evergreen Forest, Tropical Deciduous Forest, Thorn Forest, Montane Forests and Mangrove- For identification only

National Parks : Corbett, Kaziranga, Ranthambor, Shivpuri, Kanha, Simlipal & Manas

Bird Sanctuaries : Bharatpur and Ranganthitto

Wild life Sanctuaries : Sariska, Mudumalai, Rajaji, Dachigam (location and labelling)


Chapter 6: Population (Location and Labelling)


The state having highest and lowest density of population

The state having highest and lowest sex ratio

Largest and smallest state according to area


Class 9 Political Science Chapters

Chapter 1. Democracy in the Contemporary World

Struggle for Democracy, Two Tales of Democracy, Military Coup of 1973, Restoration of Democracy, Democracy in Poland, Two Features of Democracy, The Changing Map of Democracy, Phases in the Expansion of Democracy, The Beginning, End of Colonialism, Recent Phase, Democracy at the Global Level? , International Organisations, Are these decisions democratic?, Democracy Promotion


Chapter 2. What is Democracy? Why Democracy?:

What are the different ways of defining democracy? Why has democracy become the most prevalent form of government in our times? What are the alternatives to democracy? Is democracy superior to its available alternatives? Must every democracy have the same institutions and values?


Chapter 3. Constitutional Design:

How and why did India become a democracy? How was the Indian constitution framed? What are the salient features of the Constitution? How is democracy being constantly designed and redesigned in India?


Chapter 4. Electoral Politics:

Why and how do we elect representatives? Why do we have a system of competition among political parties? How has the citizens participation in electoral politics changed? What are the ways to ensure free and fair elections?


Chapter 5. Working of Institutions:

How is the country governed? What does Parliament do in our democracy? What is the role of the President of India, the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers? How do these relate to one another?


Chapter 6. Democratic Rights:

Why do we need rights in a constitution? What are the Fundamental Rights enjoyed by the citizen under the Indian constitution? How does the judiciary protect the Fundamental. Rights of the citizen? How is the independence of the judiciary ensured?