CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2013-2014

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CLASS XII (THEORY)

Syllabus - Biology (XII)

1. Reproduction

Reproduction in organisms: reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; asexual reproduction modes of reproduction - asexual and sexual reproduction; modes - binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.

Sexual reproduction in flowering plant: flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination - types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events - development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.

Human Reproduction: male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis - spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).

Reproductive health: need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases

(STD); birth control – need and nethods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy

(MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT

(elementary idea for general awareness).

II. Genetics and Evolution 

Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism - incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes;

Sex determination - in humans, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance - haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorder in humans - thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes.

Molecular basis of inheritance: search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation - Lac Operon; Genome and human geneome project; DNA fingerprinting.

Evolution: origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin's contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution - variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy - Weinberg's principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution.

III. Biology and Human Welfare 

Health and disease: pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDs; Adolescene, drug and alcholol abuse.

Improvement in food production : Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification, Apiculature and Animal husbandry.

Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.

IV. Biotechnology and Its Applications 

Principles and process of biotechnology: genetic engineering (recombinant DNA technology). application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms - Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issuesbiopiracy and patents.

V. Ecology and Environment 

Organisms and environment: habitat and niche, population and ecological adaptations; population interactions - mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes - growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

Ecosystems: patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession; ecological services - carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.

Biodiversity and its conservation: concept of biodiversity; patterns of biodiversity; importance of biodiversity; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national parks and sanctuaries.

Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and global warning; ozone depletion; deforestation; any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.


Please refer to attached file for CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2013-2014

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