Syllabus – Biology (XII)
Reproduction in organisms : Asexual and sexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction in flowering plants : Structure of flower, pollination, fertilization, development of seeds and fruits, apomixisv and polyembryony.
Human reproduction : Reproductive system in male and female, menstrual cycle, production of gametes, fertilization, implantation, embryo development, pregnancy, parturition and lactation.
Reproductive Health : Problems and strategies, Population and birth control, contraception and MTP; sexually transmitted diseases, infertility.
UNIT-VII GENETICS AND EVOLUTION
Chromosome theory of inheritance, deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interaction- incomplete
dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles).
Sex determination in human beings: XX, XY.
Linkage and crossing over.
Inheritance pattern : Mendelian disorders and chromosomal disorders in humans.
DNA and RNA, search for genetic material, replication, transcription, genetic code, translation.
Gene expression and regulation.
Genome and Human Genome Project.
Evolution: Origin of life, theories and evidences, adaptive radiation, mechanism of evolution, origin and evolution of man.
UNIT -VIII BIOLOGY AND HUMAN WELFARE (35 Periods)
Basic concepts of immunology, vaccines.
Cancer and AIDS
Adolescence and drug / alcohol abuse.
Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, food production, animal husbandry.
Microbes in household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation, biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
UNIT -IX BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATION (30 Periods)
Principles and Processes; Recombinant DNA technology; Applications in Health and Agriculture;
genetically modified (GM) organisms; biosafety issues.
UNIT -X ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT (35 Periods)
Organism and Population : Organism and its environment, populations and ecological adaptations.
Biodiversity, its importance and conservation, Biosphere Reserves, National Parks and wild life sancturies.
Ecosystems : components, types, energy flow, nutrient cycling and ecosystem services.
Please refer to attached file for CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2011-2012
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