Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion Class 12 NCERT Solutions
Class 12 Sociology students should refer to the following NCERT questions with answers for Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion in standard 12. These NCERT Solutions with answers for Grade 12 Sociology will come in exams and help you to score good marks
Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion NCERT Solutions Class 12
1. How is social inequality different from the inequality of individual?
Answer. Individual inequality refers to destructiveness and variations among individuals in their psychological and physical characteristics. Social inequality refers to a social system where some people are getting opportunity to make use of the resources and others are not. Some people are at a higher level in terms of wealth, education, health and status while others are at the lowest level. Social inequality gets manifested in following forms:
(i) Social stratification (ii) Prejudices
(iii) Stereotypes (iv) Discrimination
2.What are some of the features of social stratification?
Answer. The key features of social stratification are
(i) Social stratification is a characteristics of society, not simply a function of individual differences. It is society-wide system that unequally distributes social resources among categories of people.
For example: In the most technologically primitive societies-hunting and gathering societies, little was produced, so only rudimentary social stratification could exist. In more technologically advanced societies, where people produce a surplus over and above their basic needs, however, social resources are unequally distributed to various social categories regardless of people’s innate individual abilities.
(ii) Social stratification persists over generations:
It is closely linked to the family and to the inheritance of social resources from one generation to the next. A person’s social position is ascribed, i.e., a child assumes the social position of its parents. Births dictate occupation e.g. a Dalit is likely to ‘ be confined to traditional occupation such as agricultural labours, scavenging or leather work, with little chance of being able to get high paying white-collar or professional work. The ascribed aspect of social inequality is reinforced by the practice of endogamy, i.e., marriage is usually restricted to members of the same caste, ruling out the potential for breaking caste line through intercaste marriages.
(iii) Social stratification is supported by patterns of beliefs and ideology:
No system of social stratification is likely to persist over generations unless it is widely viewed as being either fair or inevitable. For example, Caste system is justified in terms of the opposition of purity and pollution, with Brahmans designated as the most superior and
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