NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science History Print Culture and the Modern World with answers available in Pdf for free download. The NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History with answers have been prepared as per the latest syllabus, NCERT books and examination pattern suggested in Standard 10 by CBSE, NCERT and KVS. Solutions to questions given in NCERT book for Class 10 History are an important part of exams for Grade 10 History and if practiced properly can help you to get higher marks. Refer to more Chapter-wise Solutions for NCERT Class 10 History and also download more latest study material for all subjects
Print Culture and the Modern World Class 10 NCERT Solutions
Class 10 History students should refer to the following NCERT questions with answers for Print Culture and the Modern World in standard 10. These NCERT Solutions with answers for Grade 10 History will come in exams and help you to score good marks
Print Culture and the Modern World NCERT Solutions Class 10
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History for chapter 7 Print Culture and the Modern World
Write in brief
1. Give reasons for the following
a) Woodblock print came to Europe only after
b) Martin Luther was in favour of print and spoke out in praise of
c) The Roman Catholic Church began keeping an Index of Prohibited books from the mid-sixteenth century.
d) Gandhi said the fight for Swaraj is a fight for liberty of speech, liberty of the press, and freedom of
a) In the eleventh century, Chinese paper reached Europe through the silk route. Then, in 1295, Marco Polo, an explorer, returned to Italy after many years of exploration in China. He took the technology of woodblock printing back with him. Now Italians began producing books with woodblocks, and soon the technology spread to other parts of Europe.
b) In 1517, Martin Luther wrote 'Ninety Five Theses' and a printed copy of this was posted on a church door in Wittenberg. He had criticised the malpractices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church. His writings were immediately printed and reproduced in vast numbers and read widely. This criticism led to a division within the Church and to the beginning of the Protestant Reformation. Luther's translation of the New Testament sold 5,000 copies within a few weeks and a second edition appeared within three months. Luther was in favour of print and praised it as "the ultimate gift of God and the greatest one."
c) Print and popular religious literature inspired individuals to interpret their biblical faith distinctively. For example, in the sixteenth century, Menocchio, a miller in Italy, reinterpreted the Bible's message of God and Creation. The Roman Catholic Church crushed such heretical ideas with inquisition, and Menocchio was executed. The Church tried to control the effects of popular readings and questionings of faith. It imposed severe control over publishers and booksellers and began to maintain an Index of Prohibited Books from 1558.
d) In 1922, Mahatma Gandhi accused the British rule in India of attempting to crush three powerful vehicles of expressing and cultivating public opinion-
(i) Liberty of speech,
(ii) liberty of the press and
(iii) freedom of association.
He said the fight for Swaraj is a fight for liberty of speech, liberty of the press, and freedom of association.
2. Write short notes to show what you know about:
a) The Gutenberg Press
b) Erasmus' idea of the printed book c) The Vernacular Press Act
a) From his childhood, Johann Gutenberg had become familiar with wine and olive presses. He was a goldsmith and a master of polishing stones and creating lead moulds used for making trinkets. He combined this knowledge with existing technology to design his innovative printing press. The olive press provided the model for the printing press, and moulds were used for casting the metal types for the letters of the alphabet. Gutenberg produced a new printing press that used metal movable type. By 1448, he perfected the system. The first book he printed was the Bible. About 180 copies were printed and it took three years to produce them. By the standards of the time, this was fast production.
b) Erasmus, a Latin Catholic reformer, expressed a deep anxiety about the printing. In his book titled Adages (1508), he argued that the printed books had reached every corner of the world and only some of them provided useful knowledge, while others were hurtful to scholarship. He also suggested that reading many books was harmful. He accused the printers of filling the world with books with stupid, ignorant, slanderous, scandalous, raving, irreligious and seditious messages. He regretted that due to the publication of such harmful books, even the valuable publications lost their value.
c) After the revolt of 1857, the British rule in India attempted to crush the 'native' press. In 1878, the Vernacular Press Act was passed, modelled on the Irish Press Laws. It provided the government more power to censor reports and editorials in the vernacular press published in different provinces. Newspapers that carried any news report judged as seditious was warned, or the press and printing machines were confiscated.
3. What did the spread of print culture in nineteenth century India mean to:
b) The poor
(i)The print culture enabled many women in middle-class homes to write about their lives and feelings.
(ii)Liberal husbands and fathers educated their womenfolk at home, and sent them to schools. Women wrote in journals on the importance of education for them.
(iii)However, conservative Hindus believed that a literate girl would be widowed, and Muslims feared that Urdu romances would corrupt their women.
(iv)Such false beliefs, however, could not prevent many rebel women from learning.
(v)For example, in East Bengal, Rashsundari Debi learnt to read secretly and wrote her autobiography Amar Jiban in 1876. Other Bengali women like Kailashbashini Debi wrote on their subhuman condition at home and society.
(i) Availability of very cheap printed books enabled the poor to read and know the world. For example, the cheap books were brought to markets Madras towns and sold at crossroads, allowing poor people travelling to markets to buy them.
(ii) Public libraries were set up in cities and towns, and prosperous villages, expanding the access to books by the poor.
(i)Indian reformers of 19th century used the print culture as a powerful tool to spread their ideas on social evils and reforms among the masses.
(ii)Their arguments and counter arguments were published in print.
(iii) Debates between reformers and orthodox Hindus over matters like widow immolation, monotheism, Brahmanical priesthood and idolatry were discussed in the newspapers and journals. Such discussions in newspapers shaped the public opinion.
1. Why did some people in eighteenth century Europe think that print culture would bring enlightenment and end despotism?
(i)By the mid-eighteenth century, people were convinced that books were a means of spreading progress and enlightenment.
(ii)Many strongly believed that books could change the world, liberate society from despotism and tyranny, and herald a time when reason and intellect would rule.
(iii) For example, Louise-Sebastien Mercier, a French novelist, described the printing press as the most powerful engine of progress, which would unleash the public opinion to sweep despotism away.
(iv)He argued that reading books would bring enlightenment and enable the masses to create a new world at the destruction of the basis of despotism.
(v)Mercier proclaimed: 'Tremble, therefore, tyrants of the world! Tremble before the virtual writer!'
2. Why did some people fear the effect of easily available printed books? Choose one example from Europe and one from India.
People of powerful classes and groups that controlled wealth in the society feared the effect of easily available printed books. They were worried that books and knowledge would enlighten the poor people and embolden them to agitate against economic and social inequalities. They feared that literate people would free themselves from the power clutches of the religiously dominant groups.
- For example, in Europe, the Roman Catholic Church banned book materials carrying critical views on the biblical notion of God and creation. Scholars and philosophers who reinterpreted the Christian thoughts were executed mercilessly.
- In India, orthodox Muslims feared that their girls would be corrupted by the Urdu romances and encourage them to defy their religious rules and regulations.
3. What were the effects of the spread of print culture for poor people in nineteenth century India?
(i) Availability of very cheap small books enabled the poor to read and know the world.
(ii) For example, the cheap books were brought to markets in nineteenth-century Madras towns and sold at crossroads, allowing poor people travelling to markets to buy them.
(iii) Public libraries were set up in cities and towns, and in prosperous villages, expanding the access to books.
(iv) From the late nineteenth century, leaders of the poor wrote on the issues of caste discrimination in many printed tracts and essays.
(v) For example, Jyotiba Phule, the Maratha pioneer of 'low caste' protest movements, wrote about the injustices of the caste system in his Gulamgiri (1871).
4. Explain how print culture assisted the growth of nationalism in India.
(i)The print culture carried the idea of nationalism to the masses. The Indian who published the first weekly Bengal Gazette was Gangadhar Bhattacharya.
(ii)The nationalists developed the public awareness about the unjust British rule through books, newspapers, magazines, leaflets and pamphlets.
(iii)They published vernacular newspapers and showed how British rule was leading to the economic ruin of the country.
(iv)Some of the dailies published during this time were Amrit Bazar Patrika, The Indian Mirror, Kesari, and The Hindu.
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