NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science History The Age of Industrialization

NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science History The Age of Industrialization with answers available in Pdf for free download. The NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History with answers have been prepared as per the latest syllabus, NCERT books and examination pattern suggested in Standard 10 by CBSE, NCERT and KVS. Solutions to questions given in NCERT book for Class 10 History are an important part of exams for Grade 10 History and if practiced properly can help you to get higher marks. Refer to more Chapter-wise Solutions for NCERT Class 10 History and also download more latest study material for all subjects

The Age of Industrialization Class 10 NCERT Solutions

Class 10 History students should refer to the following NCERT questions with answers for The Age of Industrialization in standard 10. These NCERT Solutions with answers for Grade 10 History will come in exams and help you to score good marks

The Age of Industrialization NCERT Solutions Class 10

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History for chapter 5 The Age of Industrialization

Write in brief

1. Explain the following:

a) Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny.
b) In the seventeenth century, merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the
c) The port of Surat declined by the end of the eighteenth
d) The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India

Answer:

a) When the Spinning Jenny was introduced in the woollen industry, women who survived on hand spinning began attacking the new machines. The fear of unemployment made workers hostile to the introduction of new technology and this conflict continued for a long time.

b) In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, merchants from the towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages. They supplied money and persuaded them to produce for an international market. The expansion of world trade and European colonies had increased the demand for goods. The merchants found it difficult to expand production within towns because here urban crafts and trade guilds regulated trade and production. Local rulers allowed the trade guilds to dominate trade in specific products. New merchants could not set up business in towns. So they turned to the countryside where poor peasants and artisans began working for the merchants.

c) Before the age of machine industries, silk and cotton goods from India dominated the international market in textiles. India produced finer varieties of coarser cottons. A vibrant sea trade operated through the main pre­ colonial ports. Surat on the Gujarat coast connected India to the Gulf and Red Sea Ports. By the 1750s, this trade network controlled by Indian traders was breaking down. The European companies gradually gained power. They secured from local courts the monopoly rights to trade. This caused the decline of the old port of Surat.

d) After establishing power in Bengal and Carnatic, the East India Company eliminated the existing traders and brokers connected with the cloth trade, and it established a direct control over the weaver. It appointed a paid servant called the gomastha to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth. It prevented Company weavers from having direct dealing with other buyers. The Company introduced the system of advances; once an order was placed, the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material for their production. Those who took loans had to hand over the cloth they produced to the gomastha. They could not sell to any other trader.

2. Write True or False against each statement:

a) At the end of the nineteenth century, 80 per cent of the total workforce in Europe was employed in the technologically advanced industrial
b) The international market for fine textiles was dominated by India till the eighteenth
c) The American Civil War resulted in the reduction of cotton exports from

d) The introduction of the fly shuttle enabled handloom workers to improve their


Answer:
a) False
b) True
c) False
d) True


3. Explain what
is meant by proto-industrialisation.
Answer:

Even before factories began to dot the landscape in England and Europe, there was large-scale industrial production for an international market. This was not based on factories. Historians refer to this phase of industriaIisation as proto-industriaIisation.

Discuss

1. Why did some industrialists in nineteenth­ century Europe prefer hand labour over machines?

Answer:

(i) In Victorian Britain, there was no shortage of human labour. Poor peasants and vagrants settled in cities in search of works.

(ii) Due to the availability of the plenty of cheap labour, industrialists paid very low wages to the workers, and there was no problem of labour shortage or high wage costs. They did not want to introduce machines that got rid of the cheap labour and increased capital investment.

(iii) In many industries, the demand for labour was seasonal. Gas works and breweries were especially busy through the cold months. So they needed more workers to meet their peak demand.

(iv) Bookbinders and printers, catering to Christmas demand, too needed extra hands before December.

(v) In the shipping industry, only during the winter, ships were repaired and spruced up.

(vi) Due to this seasonal fluctuation in industries, industrialist owners usually preferred hand labour over the machine.

(vii) Machines could produce standardised goods for a mass market, but there were a range of goods that could be produced only with hand labour.

(viii) Often, there was demand for goods with intricate designs and specific shapes. In Victorian Britain, the upper classes (the aristocrats and the bourgeoisie) preferred things produced by hand. Such goods symbolized refinement and class.


2. How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers?

Answer:

After establishing power in Bengal and Carnatic, the East India Company asserted a monopoly right to trade. Through a system of management and control, it wanted to ensure regular supplies of cotton and silk goods. It took the following steps:

  • First: the Company eliminated the existing traders and brokers connected with the cloth trade and established a direct control over the weavers. It appointed a paid servant called the gomastha to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quaIity of cloth.
  • Second: it prevented Company weavers from dealing with other buyers by introducing the system of advances. Once an order was placed, the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material for their production. Those who took loans had to hand over the cloth they produced to the gomastha. They could not sell their material to any other trader.


3. Imagine that
you have been asked to write an article for an encyclopedia on Britain and the history of cotton. Write your piece using information from the entire chapter.

Answer:

Cotton was the first symbol of the new era in Britain. Its production boomed in the late nineteenth century. In 1760, Britain was importing 2.5 million pounds of raw cotton to feed its cotton industry. By 1787, this import increased to 22 million pounds.

New technological inventions in the eighteenth century increased the cotton production process (carding, twisting and spinning, and rolling). They enhanced the output per worker. The workers could now produce stronger threads and yarn.

Till the establishment of the cotton mill by Richard Arkwright, cloth production was carried out within village households. Cotton mills brought all the production processes together under one roof and management. However, when the American Civil War broke out and cotton supplies from the US were disrupted, Britain had to depend on the supply from India.


4. Why did industrial production in India increase during the First World War?

Answer:

(i)The industrial production in India increased during the First World War because the war had created a new demand for goods in Europe.

(ii) British mills were busy with war production to meet the needs of the army, and Manchester imports into India declined.

(iii) This situation created a vast home market for Indian mills. As the war dragged for many years, Indian factories supplied goods and other war materials- jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddles and a host of other items. New factories were set up and old ones doubled production.

(iv) New workers were employed and they had to work longer hours. Over the war years, industrial production boomed in India.

 

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