NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science History The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

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The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 NCERT Solutions

Class 10 History students should refer to the following NCERT questions with answers for The Rise of Nationalism in Europe in standard 10. These NCERT Solutions with answers for Grade 10 History will come in exams and help you to score good marks

The Rise of Nationalism in Europe NCERT Solutions Class 10

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History for chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

 

Write in Brief

1. Write a note on:

a) Guiseppe Mazzini
b) Count Camillo de Cavour
c) The Greek war of independence d) Frankfurt parliament
e) The role of women in nationalist struggles

Answer:

a) Guiseppe Mazzini Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary. He fought for the creation of nation-states. He was a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. He was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria. He founded two underground societies named 'Young Italy' in Marseilles and 'Young Europe' in Berne. His societies had members from Poland, France, Italy and the German states.

b) Count Camillo de Cavour - Cavour was the Chief Minister of Sardinia-Piedmont. He led the movement to unify the regions of Italy. He was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat. Like many other wealthy and educated members of the Italian elite, he spoke fluent French. He made a diplomatic alliance with France and defeated the Austrian forces in 1859. In 1860, armed volunteers under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. In 1861 Victor Emmanuel IIwas proclaimed king of united Italy.

c) The Greek war of independence- 
The Greek war of independence intensified nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe. Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire since the fifteenth century. The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe inspired the Greeks for independence in 1821. Nationalists in Greece got support from other Greeks living in exile and also from many West Europeans who had sympathies for ancient Greek culture. Poets and artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilisation and mobilised public opinion to support its struggle against the Ottoman Empire. The English poet Lord Byron organised funds and later went to fight in the war, where he died of fever in 1824. Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent nation.

d) Frankfurt Parliament - The Frankfurt parliament was an all-German National Assembly formed by the middle-class professionals and businessmen belonging to the different German regions. In May 1848, 831 elected representatives marched in a procession to take their places in the Frankfurt parliament convened in the Church of St Paul. They drafted a constitution for a German nation to be headed by a monarchy regulated by a parliament. However, Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia, rejected the monarchy offered on the constitutional terms. While the opposition of the aristocracy and military became stronger, the social basis of parliament eroded. The parliament was dominated by the middle classes who resisted the demands of workers and artisans and consequently lost their support.

e) The role of women in nationalist struggles - The issue of extending political rights to women was a controversial one among the European liberals fighting for nations. Women had formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and taken part in political meetings and demonstrations. Despite this they were denied suffrage rights during the election of the Assembly. When the Frankfurt parliament was convened in the Church of St Paul, women were admitted only as observers to stand in the visitors' gallery.

2. What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?

Answer

(i) The French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices in order to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.

(ii)They introduced the ideas of Ia patrie (the fatherland) and /e citoyen (the citizen) to emphasize the notion of a united community with equal rights under a constitution.

(iii)A new French flag, the tricolour, replaced the former royal standard.

(iv)The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.

(v)New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation.

(vi) A centralised administrative system with uniform laws for all citizens was introduced.

(vii)Internal customs duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.

(viii)Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.


3. Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?

Answer

Marianne: Female allegories were invented by artists in the nineteenth century to represent the nation. In France she was christened Marianne, a popular Christian name, which underlined the idea of a people's nation. Her characteristics were drawn from those of Liberty and the Republic - the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade. Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity. Marianne images were also marked on coins and stamps.

Germania: Germania was the allegory of the German nation. In visual representations, Germania wears a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.


4. Briefly trace the process of German unification.
Answer:

(i)Idea of nation became popular among middle-class Germans.

(ii)In 1848, they tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament.

(iii)The armed forces of the monarchy suppressed this liberal initiative to nation-building. The large landowners (called Junkers) of Prussia also prevented the emergence of German nation.

(iv)Prussia's chief minister, Otto von Bismarck, was the architect of the German unification with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.

(v)Three wars over seven years - with Austria, Denmark and France - ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification.

(vi)In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor at Versailles.


5. What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?

Answer:

(i)Napoleon introduced in Europe many reforms that he had already implemented in France. However, by establishing monarchy Napoleon had also destroyed democracy in France.

(ii)In the administrative field, his reforms had some of revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rationaI and efficient.

(iii)The Civil Code of 1804 (also known as the Napoleonic Code) did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and protected the right to property. This Code was also implemented in the regions under French control.

(iv)In the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, in Italy and Germany, Napoleon simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.

(v) In the towns, he removed guild restrictions and improved transport and communication systems. Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen enjoyed a new-found freedom.

(vi)Businessmen and small-scale producers of goods realised the importance of uniform laws, standardised weights and measures for their business growth. Introduction of a common national currency facilitated the transport of goods and capitaI from one region to another.


Discuss

1. Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?

Answer:

The 1848 Liberal Revolution:   In the year 1848, when the poor, unemployed and starving peasants and workers were revolting in many European countries, a revolution led by the educated middle classes was emerging. Revolutionary events of February 1848 in France had ended the monarchy and a republic based on universal male suffrage had been proclaimed.

Political Ideas: Ideas of national unity in early­ nineteenth-century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. In Germany, Italy, Poland and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the liberal middle classes politically united themselves and demanded the creation of a nation-state on parliamentary principles - a constitution, freedom of the press and freedom of association. In the German regions, many political associations were formed by the middle-classes in the city of Frankfurt. However, Liberals had contradicting views on the issue of extending political rights to women.

Social ideas: The liberals wanted to end monarchy through political revolutions and rearrange the social base on national unity and individual rights; they were against kingship and birth rights, and wanted to eradicate feudal values in Europe.

Economic ideas: The liberalists supported the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital. During the nineteenth century, this was a strong demand of the liberals. Nineteenth-century liberals also stressed the inviolability of private property.


2. Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.

Answer:

The following three examples show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe:

(i)Romanticism, a cultural movement in Europe, sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists and poets criticised the glorification of reason and science and focused instead on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings. Their effort was to create a sense of a shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.

(ii)Folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances contributed to the true spirit of the nation (volksgeist). So collecting and recording various forms of folk culture was part of the project of nation-building. Vernacular language and local folklore recovered ancient national spirit and also took the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were mostly illiterate. For example, in Poland, Karol Kurpinski celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.

(iii)Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was banned in schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere. In 1831, an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place which was ultimately crushed. Following this, many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance. The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance.

 

3. Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.

Answer:

Before emerging as nations, Germany and Italy were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons whose rulers had their autonomous territories.

Germany: Idea of nation became popular among middle­ class Germans; in 1848, they tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament. The armed forces of the monarchy suppressed this liberal initiative to nation­ building. Prussia's chief minister, Otto von Bismarck, was the architect of the German unification.   Three wars over seven years - with Austria, Denmark and France - ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor at Versailles.

Italy: During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini had proposed a programme for a unitary Italian Republic. He had also formed a secret society called Young Italy for this purpose. Due to the failure of revolutionary uprisings in 1831 and 1848, King Victor Emmanuel II, the ruler of Sardinia-Piedmont, attempted to unify the Italian states through war. The ruling elites of this region wanted a unified Italy for economic development and political dominance. Later, Cavour, the Chief Minister of Sardinia­ Piedmont led the movement to unify the regions of Italy. He made an alliance with France and defeated the Austrian forces in 1859. In 1860, armed volunteers under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy.


4. How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?

Answer:

(i)In Britain, the formation of the nation-state was the result of a long-drawn-out process.

(ii)The primary identities of the people in the British Isles were ethnic ones (such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish). They had their own cultural and political traditions. There was no idea of nation and national unity among these ethnic groups.

(iii)The English nation which was wealthy and powerful dominated the other nations of the islands.

(iv)The English parliament had seized power from the monarchy in 1688, after a long conflict. Following this, it forged a nation-state, with England at its centre.

(v)With the enactment of the Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland, the 'United Kingdom of Great Britain' was born. However, England continued its political supremacy on Scotland in the British parliament.

(vi)The growth of a British identity systematically destroyed Scotland's distinctive culture and political institutions.

(vii)The Catholic clans of the Scottish Highlands were suppressed when they demanded freedom. They were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language or wear their national dress, and many were forcibly driven out of their homeland.

(viii)In Ireland, a country deeply divided between Catholics and Protestants, the English helped the Protestants of Ireland to establish their dominance over a largely Catholic country.

(ix)After the failure of Catholic revolts led by Wolfe Tone and his United Irishmen (1798) against British dominance, Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801.

(x)A new 'British nation' emerged with a dominant English culture. National symbols of the new Britain - the British flag (Union Jack), the national anthem (God Save Our Noble King), the English language - were actively promoted and the older nations became subordinate partners in this union.


5. Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the 
Balkans?

Answer:

(i)The Balkans witnessed a serious nationalist tension in Europe after 1871.

(ii)It was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as the Slavs.

(iii)Most of regions in the Balkans were under the control of the Ottoman Empire. The ideas of romantic nationalism spread in the region with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire.

(iv)The Balkan peoples based their claims for independence on nationality. They claimed with historical evidence that they had been subjugated by foreign powers. All Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence.

(vi)The Balkan states tried to gain more territory at the expense of the others.

(v)The region also witnessed conflicts among the European powers over trade and colonies. Russia, Germany, England, Austro-Hungary tried to extend their own control over the area. This led to a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War.

 

Important Questions for NCERT Class 10 Social Science The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe

Question. What was Zollverein?
Ans. Zollverein was customs union formed in 1834 at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German sates.


Question. What do you know about young Italy?
Ans. Young Italy was a secret society, formed by Giuseppe Mazzini to establish a unitary Italian Republic.


Question. Explain the role of languages in developing the nationalist sentiments in Europe.
Ans. Poland had been partitioned at the end of the 18th century by ‘The Great Powers, Russia, Prussia and Austria. Even though Poland no longer existed as an
independent country but national feelings were kept alive through the language.
(i) The emphasis on language was made not just to recover an ancient national spirit but also to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were mostly illiterate.
(ii) After the Russian occupation of Poland, Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere.
(iii) Many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance.
(iv) Polish was used for church gathering and all religious instructions.
(v) The use of Polish thus came to be seen as a symbol of struggle against Russian dominance.


Question. Give a brief account of political fragmentation of Italy. 
Ans. (i) Like Germany, Italy too had a long history of political fragmentation.
(ii) Italians were scattered over several dynastic states as well as the multinational, Habsburg Empire.
(iii) During the middle of the nineteenth century, Italy was divided into seven states, of which only one, Sardinia-Piedmont, was ruled by an Italian princely house.
(iv) The north was under Austrian Habsburgs, the centre was ruled by the Pope and the southern regions were under the domination of the Bourbon kings of Spain.
(v) Even the Italian language had not acquired one common form, and it still had many regional and local variations.


Question. Unification of Germany took place between which period?
(a) 1860 to 1871
(b) 1870 to 1871
(c) 1856 to 1871
(d) 1866 to 1871
Ans. D


Question. What was the significance of ‘Broken Chains’?
(a) Being freed
(b) Heroism
(c) Readiness to fight
(d) Willingness to make peace
Ans. A


Question. Enumerate any three features of the conservative regimes set up in Europe following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815?
Ans. (i) The conservatives emphasised the importance of tradition’s customs and established institutions like the monarchy, the church, the social hierarchies, property and the family.
(ii) The power of the Bourbon dynasty was restored.
(iii) Steps were taken to prevent French expansion and creation of new states.
(iv) Autocratic regimes came into power. Descent of any type from any group was not tolerated. The ideas associated with French Revolution were censored.


Question. Describe the impact of ‘The Revolution of the Liberals’ in 1848 in Europe.
Ans. The word ‘liberal’ is derived from the Latin ‘liber’ that means ‘free’. Liberalism means a political system or tendency opposed to centralisation and absolutism. It emphasises on absolute and unrestrained freedom of thought, religion, conscience, creed, speech, press, and politics. Liberals believed that government is necessary to protect individuals from being harmed by others, not to pose a threat to liberty.
In nineteenth century a series of republican revolts started against European monarchies. It began in Sicily and spread over to France, the German and Italian states, and the Austrian Empire. This was the time when the liberals became active. Their significant role in political and economic fields changed the outlook of European countries.
In the economic field
(i) Liberals in the 19th century urged the end of state interference in the economic life of society.
(ii) They fought for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
(iii) In 1834, a customs union or zolverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German states.
(iv) The union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from thirty to two.
(v) The construction of a network of railways stirred economic growth and economic nationalism which eventually strengthened nationalism.

In the political field
(i) Primary aim of liberals was to establish freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law.
(ii) It believed that government should be formed with the consent of people.
(iii) It was against autocracy and clerical privileges and favoured a constitution and representative government through parliament.
(iv) During that time property-owning men only had right to vote and get elected.
(v) The Napoleonic Code also preferred limited suffrage and reduced women’s role also.
(vi) Women were considered as the subject to the authority of fathers and husbands.
(vii) This led to the rise of movement by women and non-propertied men demanding equal political rights.


Question. What was the main function of the Prussian Zollverein?
Ans. Its main function was to abolish tariff barriers.


Question. Who was proclaimed the German Emperor after its unification?
Ans. The Prussian King William I was proclaimed the German Emperor after its unification.


Question. Who was Frederic Sorrien?
(a) A French philosopher
(b) A French leader
(c) A French artist
(d) A French cartoonist
Ans. C


Question. Who was described as the ‘most dangerous enemy to our social order’ and by whom?
Ans. Mazzini was described as the ‘most dangerous enemy to our social order’ by Metternich.


Question. What did the French revolutionaries aim for?
Ans. The French revolutionaries aimed for:
(i) Creating a sense of collective responsibility.
(ii) Establishing republic.
(iii) Equal rights for all.

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