NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Solutions General Principles of Isolation of Elements

NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Solutions General Principles of Isolation of Elements - NCERT Solutions prepared for CBSE students by the best teachers in Delhi. 

Class XII Chemistry

Question 1:

Copper can be extracted by hydrometallurgy but not zinc. Explain.


The reduction potentials of zinc and iron are lower than that of copper. In hydrometallurgy, zinc and iron can be used to displace copper from their solution. But to displace zinc, more reactive metals i.e., metals having lower reduction potentials than zinc such as Mg, Ca, K, etc. are required. But all these metals react with water with the evolution of H2 gas. As a result, these metals cannot be used in hydrometallurgy to extract zinc. Hence, copper can be extracted by hydrometallurgy but not zinc.

Question 2:

What is the role of depressant in froth floatation process?


In the froth floatation process, the role of the depressants is to separate two sulphide ores by selectively preventing one ore from forming froth. For example, to separate two sulphide ores (ZnS and Pbs), NaCN is used as a depressant which selectively allows PbS to come with froth, but prevents ZnS from coming to froth. This happens because NaCN reacts with ZnS to form Na2[Zn(CN)4].

Question 3:

Explain: (i) Zone refining (ii) Column chromatography.


(i) Zone refining:

This method is based on the principle that impurities are more soluble in the molten state of metal (the melt) than in the solid state. In the process of zone refining, a circular mobile heater is fixed at one end of a rod of impure metal. As the heater moves, the molten zone of the rod also moves with it. As a result, pure metal crystallizes out of the melt and the impurities pass onto the adjacent molten zone. This process is repeated several times, which leads to the segregation of impurities at one end of the rod. Then, the end with the impurities is cut off. Silicon, boron, gallium, indium etc. can be purified by this process.

(ii) Column chromatography:

Column chromatography is a technique used to separate different components of a mixture. It is a very useful technique used for the purification of elements available in minute quantities. It is also used to remove the impurities that are not very different in chemical properties from the element to be purified. Chromatography is based on the principle that different components of a mixture are differently adsorbed on an adsorbent. In chromatography, there are two phases: mobile phase and stationary phase. The stationary phase is immobile and immiscible. Al2O3 column is usually used as the stationary phase in column chromatography. The mobile phase may be a gas, liquid, or supercritical fluid in which the sample extract is dissolved. Then, the mobile phase is forced to move through the stationary phase. The component that is more strongly adsorbed on the column takes a longer time to travel through it than the component that is weakly adsorbed. The adsorbed components are then removed (eluted) using a suitable solvent (eluant).

Question 4:

Name the common elements present in the anode mud in electrolytic refining of copper. Why are they so present ?


In electrolytic refining of copper, the common elements present in anode mud are selenium, tellurium, silver, gold, platinum, and antimony. These elements are very less reactive and are not affected during the purification process. Hence, they settle down below the anode as anode mud.

Question 5:

Write down the reactions taking place in different zones in the blast furnace during the extraction of iron.


During the extraction of iron, the reduction of iron oxides takes place in the blast furnace. In this process, hot air is blown from the bottom of the furnace and coke is burnt to raise the temperature up to 2200 K in the lower portion itself. The temperature is lower in the upper part. Thus, it is the lower part where the reduction of iron oxides (Fe2O3 and Fe3O4) takes place.

Question 6:

Write chemical reactions taking place in the extraction of zinc from zinc blende.


The different steps involved in the extraction of zinc from zinc blende (ZnS) are given below:

(i) Concentration of ore: First, the gangue from zinc blende is removed by the froth floatation method.

(ii) Conversion to oxide (Roasting): Sulphide ore is converted into oxide by the process of roasting. In this process, ZnS is heated in a regular supply of air in a furnace at a temperature, which is below the melting point of Zn.

(iii) Extraction of zinc from zinc oxide (Reduction): Zinc is extracted from zinc oxide by the process of reduction. The reduction of zinc oxide is carried out by mixing it with powdered coke and then, heating it at 673 K.

(iv) Electrolytic Refining: Zinc can be refined by the process of electrolytic refining. In this process, impure zinc is made the anode while a pure copper strip is made the cathode. The electrolyte used is an acidified solution of zinc sulphate (ZnSO4). Electrolysis results in the transfer of zinc in pure from the anode to the cathode.


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