NCERT Class 12 Psychology Variations In Psychological Attributes

Scroll down for PDF

\ NCERT Class 12 Psychology Variations In Psychological Attributes. Download NCERT Chapters and Books in pdf format. Easy to print and read. Copies of these textbooks may be downloaded and used as textbooks or for reference. Refer to other chapters and books at other links (NCERT now providing you soft copies of all textbooks of all subjects from class first to twelfth online). 

VARIATIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES

If you observe your friends, classmates or relatives, you will find how they differ from each other in the manner they perceive, learn, and think, as also in their performance on various tasks. Such individual differences can be noticed in every walk of life. That people differ from one another is obvious. In Class XI, you have learnt about psychological principles that are applied to understand human behaviour. We also need to know how people differ, what brings about these differences, and how such differences can be assessed. You will recall how one of the main concerns of modern psychology has been the study of individual differences from the time of Galton. This chapter will introduce you to some of the fundamentals of individual differences.

One of the most popular psychological attributes which has been of interest to psychologists is Intelligence. People differ from each other in their ability to understand complex ideas, adapt to environment, learn from experience, engage in various forms of reasoning, and to overcome obstacles. In this chapter, you will study the nature of intelligence, changing definitions of intelligence, cultural differences in intelligence, range and variations in the intellectual competencies of people, and the nature of special abilities or aptitudes.

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN HUMAN

Individual variations are common within and across all species. Variations add colour and beauty to nature. For a moment, think of a world around you where each and every object is of the same colour, say red or blue or green. How would the world appear to you? Certainly not a beautiful one! Would you prefer to live in such a world? In all likelihood, your answer will be ‘no’. Like objects, people too possess different combinations of traits. Variability is a fact of nature, and individuals are no exception to this. They vary in terms of physical characteristics, such as height, weight, strength, hair colour, and so on. They also vary along psychological dimensions.

They may be intelligent or dull, dominant or submissive, creative or not so creative, outgoing or withdrawn, etc. The list of variations can be endless. Different traits can exist in varying degrees in an individual. In this sense, each one of us is unique as she exemplifies a typical combination of various traits. The question which you may like to pose is how and why people differ. This, in fact, is the subject matter of the study of individual differences. For psychologists, individual differences refer to distinctiveness and variations among people’s characteristics and behaviour patterns.

While many psychologists believe that our behaviours are influenced by our personal traits, some others hold the view that our behaviours are influenced more by  situational factors. This latter view is known as situationism, which states that situations and circumstances in which one is placed influence one’s behaviour.

A person, who is generally aggressive, may behave in a submissive manner in the presence of her/his top boss. Sometimes, the situational influences are so powerful that individuals with differing personality traits respond to them in almost the same ways. The situationist perspective views human behaviour as resulting from interaction of external and internal factors.

 

Review Questions

1. How do psychologists characterise and define intelligence?

2. To what extent is our intelligence the result of heredity (nature) and environment (nurture)? Discuss.

3. Explain briefly the multiple intelligences identified by Gardner.

4. How does the triarchic theory help us to understand intelligence?

5. “Any intellectual activity involves the independent functioning of three neurological systems”. Explain with reference to PASS model.

6. Are there cultural differences in the conceptualisation of intelligence?

7. What is IQ? How do psychologists classify people on the basis of their IQ scores?

8. How can you differentiate between verbal and performance tests of intelligence?

9. All persons do not have the same intellectual capacity. How do individuals vary in their intellectual ability? Explain.

10. Which of the two, IQ or EQ, do you think would be more related to success in life and why?

11. How is ‘aptitude’ different from ‘interest’ and ‘intelligence’? How is aptitude measured?

12. How is creativity related to intelligence?

 

Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 12 Psychology Variations In Psychological Attributes

Tags: 


Click on the text For more study material for Psychology please click here - Psychology

Latest NCERT & CBSE News

Read the latest news and announcements from NCERT and CBSE below. Important updates relating to your studies which will help you to keep yourself updated with latest happenings in school level education. Keep yourself updated with all latest news and also read articles from teachers which will help you to improve your studies, increase motivation level and promote faster learning

TIPS: Study habits for success

Being a student is fairly a difficult job. Alongside maintaining your curricular as well as extra-curricular activities adds more to it. Performance in academics is one of the major concerns. Every parent now tries to get their children more indulged in studies. Need...

How to crack a competitive examination

“How I crack a competitive examination” is a frequently asked question by today’s students. Cracking a competitive exam is a challenging task. Attaining a huge amount of study and solving several complex problems in a limited amount of time is a huge task. Competitive...

Registration of NEET 2020 starts

The NEET 2020 registration process would start on Monday, December 2nd, 2019. National Testing Agency, NTA would carry out the county’s undergraduate entrance exam for medical and dental admissions.  The examination is scheduled to take place in English, Hindi, and...

JEE Entrance Exam 2020 Dates Registration Admit Cards Exam Pattern

JEE Entrance exam is conducted for students who wish to pursue engineering in different subjects or categories like mechanical, CS, etc.. It is officially organized and conducted by NTA. Formerly it was organized by CBSE. It avails seats for students in IITs, NITs, and...

JEE in Punjabi too after English, Hindi and Gujarati

Punjab Minister Tript Rajinder Singh Bajwa requested the joint technology entrance exam (main) to be conducted in Punjabi and other regional languages too. In his letter to Union HRD Minister Ramesh Pokhriyal Nishank, the Punjab Minister for Higher Education and...

CBSE Circular Aryabhatta Ganit Challenge

For students with a keen interest in mathematics are now provided with a better opportunity to explore their knowledge. CBSE has announced to conduct an exam for the purpose of generating interest in maths among students. It is a trial to clarify the myth that...

×
Studies Today