NCERT Class 12 Psychology Variations In Psychological Attributes

\ NCERT Class 12 Psychology Variations In Psychological Attributes. Download NCERT Chapters and Books in pdf format. Easy to print and read. Copies of these textbooks may be downloaded and used as textbooks or for reference. Refer to other chapters and books at other links (NCERT now providing you soft copies of all textbooks of all subjects from class first to twelfth online). 

VARIATIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES

If you observe your friends, classmates or relatives, you will find how they differ from each other in the manner they perceive, learn, and think, as also in their performance on various tasks. Such individual differences can be noticed in every walk of life. That people differ from one another is obvious. In Class XI, you have learnt about psychological principles that are applied to understand human behaviour. We also need to know how people differ, what brings about these differences, and how such differences can be assessed. You will recall how one of the main concerns of modern psychology has been the study of individual differences from the time of Galton. This chapter will introduce you to some of the fundamentals of individual differences.

One of the most popular psychological attributes which has been of interest to psychologists is Intelligence. People differ from each other in their ability to understand complex ideas, adapt to environment, learn from experience, engage in various forms of reasoning, and to overcome obstacles. In this chapter, you will study the nature of intelligence, changing definitions of intelligence, cultural differences in intelligence, range and variations in the intellectual competencies of people, and the nature of special abilities or aptitudes.

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN HUMAN

Individual variations are common within and across all species. Variations add colour and beauty to nature. For a moment, think of a world around you where each and every object is of the same colour, say red or blue or green. How would the world appear to you? Certainly not a beautiful one! Would you prefer to live in such a world? In all likelihood, your answer will be ‘no’. Like objects, people too possess different combinations of traits. Variability is a fact of nature, and individuals are no exception to this. They vary in terms of physical characteristics, such as height, weight, strength, hair colour, and so on. They also vary along psychological dimensions.

They may be intelligent or dull, dominant or submissive, creative or not so creative, outgoing or withdrawn, etc. The list of variations can be endless. Different traits can exist in varying degrees in an individual. In this sense, each one of us is unique as she exemplifies a typical combination of various traits. The question which you may like to pose is how and why people differ. This, in fact, is the subject matter of the study of individual differences. For psychologists, individual differences refer to distinctiveness and variations among people’s characteristics and behaviour patterns.

While many psychologists believe that our behaviours are influenced by our personal traits, some others hold the view that our behaviours are influenced more by  situational factors. This latter view is known as situationism, which states that situations and circumstances in which one is placed influence one’s behaviour.

A person, who is generally aggressive, may behave in a submissive manner in the presence of her/his top boss. Sometimes, the situational influences are so powerful that individuals with differing personality traits respond to them in almost the same ways. The situationist perspective views human behaviour as resulting from interaction of external and internal factors.

 

Review Questions

1. How do psychologists characterise and define intelligence?

2. To what extent is our intelligence the result of heredity (nature) and environment (nurture)? Discuss.

3. Explain briefly the multiple intelligences identified by Gardner.

4. How does the triarchic theory help us to understand intelligence?

5. “Any intellectual activity involves the independent functioning of three neurological systems”. Explain with reference to PASS model.

6. Are there cultural differences in the conceptualisation of intelligence?

7. What is IQ? How do psychologists classify people on the basis of their IQ scores?

8. How can you differentiate between verbal and performance tests of intelligence?

9. All persons do not have the same intellectual capacity. How do individuals vary in their intellectual ability? Explain.

10. Which of the two, IQ or EQ, do you think would be more related to success in life and why?

11. How is ‘aptitude’ different from ‘interest’ and ‘intelligence’? How is aptitude measured?

12. How is creativity related to intelligence?

 

Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 12 Psychology Variations In Psychological Attributes

Tags: 

 


Click to View or Download pdf file
Click for more Psychology Study Material

Latest NCERT & CBSE News

Read the latest news and announcements from NCERT and CBSE below. Important updates relating to your studies which will help you to keep yourself updated with latest happenings in school level education. Keep yourself updated with all latest news and also read articles from teachers which will help you to improve your studies, increase motivation level and promote faster learning

Board Exams Class 10 and 12 Notification by CBSE

Because of the prevailing condition of spread of COVID-19 pandemic in the country, special efforts are required for conducting examinations in a safe manner. As a number of students have shifted from the district of their school to some other district in the country,...

Class 10 Datesheet announced

CBSE has announced the date sheet for the remaining class 10 Board Exams, see dates below

Art Integrated Project work for classes 1 to 10

CBSE Board has decided to introduce Art-Integrated Project work for classes I to X to promote Art-Integrated Learning in schools to make teaching learning Competency-Based and joyful. As part of this, at least one Art-Integrated Project in each subject shall be taken...

Class 12 Board Exams Datesheet Announced

CBSE has announced the datesheet of the remaining class 12 board exams, see below:  

CBSE Decision on Board Exam 2020

The Class 10 and 12 exams are cancelled, and results for both 10th and 12th would be declared by July 15 based on internal exams. CBSE Class 12 students would have the option to appear for the exams at a later date. CBSE has a scheme in which marks scored in past 3...

×
Studies Today