CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production and Management Chapter Notes Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
CROP PRODUCTION & MANAGEMENT
• All organisms require food for their growth and survival.
• Food is the combination of various organic and inorganic substances which are capable of providing energy for the various metabolic activities.
• In all cases the food for animals comes directly or indirectly from plants.
q Sources of food :
(i) Cereals : These are rich in carbohydrate and thus provide energy. eg. – Rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, barley, millets.
(ii) Pulses : These are rich in protein and thus helpful for body building. eg. – Gram, moong, pea, lentil, urd, pigeon pea.
(iii) Oil seed crops :– These are rich in oil and fatty acids. eg. – Groundnut, sunflower, soyabean, mustard, sesame.
(iv) Vegetable crops : These provide vitamins, minerals along with small quantities of carbohydrate protein and oils.
Leaves : Cabbage, spinach, trigonella, lettuce
Roots : Carrot, radish, turnip, sweet potato
Stems : Potato, corms, rhizomes (ginger)
Bulbs : Onion, garlic
Fruits : Tomato, brinjal, gourd, cucumber
Flowers : Cauliflower, bauhinia, banana
(v) Fodder crops : These provide green fodder to the cattle. eg. – Berseem, sorghum, maize, oat, sudan grass, alfalfa.
q Crops : Plants of same kind which are grown and cultivated at one place on a large scale are known as crops.
• Different types of crops require different climatic conditions like temperature, humidity and photoperiods.
• Crops are divided into two groups on the basis of growing season.
• Kharif crops : These crops are sown in the months of June/July and harvested in September/October every year. eg- Paddy, maize, sugarcane, sorghum, pearl millet.
• Rabi crops : These crops are sown in the months of October/November and harvested in March/April every year.
eg- Wheat, oat, barley and pea.
q Agriculture :– Word agriculture has come from two Latin words, ager meaning field or soil : culture meaning cultivation. Agriculture or farming is the cultivation of the soil. It includes growing of plant crops and rearing of animals.
• It is an applied biological science which deals with the production of plants and raising of livestock for human use.
q Basic requirements of agriculture :
• An open field which gets plenty of sunlight and air.
• Properly loosened and aerated soil in the fields.
• Sufficient source of water for irrigation.
• Proper nutrients for the growth of plants.
• Removal of weeds which use up the nutrients in the soil.
• Proper fencing of the field towards off grazing animals.
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