CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production And Management Notes

Download CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production And Management Notes in PDF format. All Revision notes for Class 8 Science have been designed as per the latest syllabus and updated chapters given in your textbook for Science in Standard 8. Our teachers have designed these concept notes for the benefit of Grade 8 students. You should use these chapter wise notes for revision on daily basis. These study notes can also be used for learning each chapter and its important and difficult topics or revision just before your exams to help you get better scores in upcoming examinations, You can also use Printable notes for Class 8 Science for faster revision of difficult topics and get higher rank. After reading these notes also refer to MCQ questions for Class 8 Science given our website

Revision Notes for Class 8 Science Crop Production And Management

Class 8 Science students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Crop Production And Management in standard 8. These exam notes for Grade 8 Science will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks

Crop Production And Management Notes Class 8 Science

CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production and Management Chapter Notes Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.


• All organisms require food for their growth and survival.
• Food is the combination of various organic and inorganic substances which are capable of providing energy for the various metabolic activities.
• In all cases the food for animals comes directly or indirectly from plants.

class_8_science_concept_019q Sources of food :

(i) Cereals : These are rich in carbohydrate and thus provide energy. eg. – Rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, barley, millets.
(ii) Pulses : These are rich in protein and thus helpful for body building. eg. – Gram, moong, pea, lentil, urd, pigeon pea.
(iii) Oil seed crops :– These are rich in oil and fatty acids. eg. – Groundnut, sunflower, soyabean, mustard, sesame.
(iv) Vegetable crops : These provide vitamins, minerals along with small quantities of carbohydrate protein and oils.

Leaves : Cabbage, spinach, trigonella, lettuce
Roots : Carrot, radish, turnip, sweet potato
Stems : Potato, corms, rhizomes (ginger)
Bulbs : Onion, garlic
Fruits : Tomato, brinjal, gourd, cucumber
Flowers : Cauliflower, bauhinia, banana

(v) Fodder crops : These provide green fodder to the cattle. eg. – Berseem, sorghum, maize, oat, sudan grass, alfalfa.

q Crops : Plants of same kind which are grown and cultivated at one place on a large scale are known as crops.
• Different types of crops require different climatic conditions like temperature, humidity and photoperiods.
• Crops are divided into two groups on the basis of growing season.

• Kharif crops : These crops are sown in the months of June/July and harvested in September/October every year. eg- Paddy, maize, sugarcane, sorghum, pearl millet.

• Rabi crops : These crops are sown in the months of October/November and harvested in March/April every year.
eg- Wheat, oat, barley and pea.


q Agriculture :– Word agriculture has come from two Latin words, ager meaning field or soil : culture meaning cultivation. Agriculture or farming is the cultivation of the soil. It includes growing of plant crops and rearing of animals.
• It is an applied biological science which deals with the production of plants and raising of livestock for human use.



q Basic requirements of agriculture :

• An open field which gets plenty of sunlight and air.
• Properly loosened and aerated soil in the fields.
• Sufficient source of water for irrigation.
• Proper nutrients for the growth of plants.
• Removal of weeds which use up the nutrients in the soil.
• Proper fencing of the field towards off grazing animals.


Modern agriculture :– Modern agriculture is a combined effort of art, science and technology to provide food, cloth and shelter to increasing human population. To improve the efficiency of the agriculture process and increase output following steps are taken:

• Highly efficient tools and machines are made and used.

• Building of dams and canals for irrigation.

• Development of pest resistant and high yielding variety.

• Use of fertilizers and pesticides for nutrition and protection of crop respectively.

Sustainable agriculture : The practice of farming and production of maximum agriculture yield through management of natural resources without disturbing the environment is known as sustainable agriculture.


1. What are zayed crops?

2. What is agriculture?

3. Name the two plantation crops.

4. When are Kharif crops sown?


Activities which are carried out by the farmer to ensure good crop yield in particular sequence till the crop mature at harvest are known as agriculture practices.

(1) Soil preparation :

(a) Ploughing             (b) Levelling            (c) Manuring

(2) Sowing                 (3) Irrigation          (4) Weeding

(5) Harvesting            (6) Threshing          (7) Winnowing

(8) Storage.

(1) SOIL PREPARATION Various process are included in it.

(a) Ploughing or Tilling – Process of loosening and turning of the soil is called ploughing or tilling.

Advantages of ploughing :

• It allows mixing of manure and fertilizer more uniformly.

• Seeds are also able to germinate more easily.

• It allows good root penetration so the plant is held firmly to the soil.

• Roots are able to breathe more easily.

• Loosened soil promotes growth of worms and microbes which help to maintain the fertility of soil.


Agriculture implements : The tools required for carrying out the activities involved in the cultivation of plants are known as agriculture implements.

 CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production and Management Chapter Notes_1

Plough : It contains triangular iron strip called ploughshare and main part of the plough is a long log of wood called ploughshaft. One end of the shaft is handle and other end is attached to a beam which is placed on the bulls necks.

One pair of bulls and a man can easily operate the plough.

Hoe : This is used for removing weeds and for loosening the soil. It has a long rod of wood or iron. A strong, broad and bent plate of iron is fixed to one of its ends and works like a blade. It is pulled by animals.

 CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production and Management Chapter Notes_2

Cultivator :

Ploughing can also be done by tractor driven cultivator. The use of cultivator saves labour and time.

 CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production and Management Chapter Notes_3

(b) Levelling : Tilled soil may have big blocks of soil (crumbs). Crumbs are broken down and soil is levelled with wooden planks or iron leveller, the process called levelling. Levelling is done for better sowing and irrigation.

CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production and Management Chapter Notes_4

Advantages of levelling :

• It helps in uniform distribution of water and manure.

• It prevents the loose soil from being eroded by water or air.



1. What are the various steps in the preparation of the soil?

2. What are the advantages of turning the soil?

3. What are the advantages of levelling?

4. Why is soil turned and loosened before seeds are sown?

(c) Manuring : Farmers have to add manure to the field to replenish the soil with nutrients, the process known as manuring.

Manure : These are organic substances, obtained from the decomposition of plant and animal wastes.

Advantages of manure :

• It increases the number of friendly microbes.

• It improves the texture of soil by adding organic matter (humus).

• It increases soil fertility, water holding capacity and aeration.

• It reduces soil erosion.

• It is cheap.

Disadvantage of manure :

• They have less amount of nutrients as compared to fertilizers.

• Manures are bulky and not easy to store and transport.


Types of manures :

Compost : It is a typ e of manure which is p roduced from the p lant and animal wastes by the action of microbes.

Green Manure : It is a typ e of manure which is p roduced by the sowing and back ploughing of fast growing crop s. e.g. Mustard, alfalfa.

Farm yard manure : It consists of cattle dung, farm refuse, fallen leaves and twigs. Vermicompost : It is the type of manure which is p roduced by the degradation of organic wastes through the consump tion by the earthworms. This process is known as vermicomposting.

Earth worms are called as farmer's friends because the burrowing action of earthworm helps to loosen the soil p articles and then imp roves the p hysical structure of soil by adding humus.

Vermiculture : Cultivating worms and earthworms.

Organic farming : It is a kind of farming system in which the harmful chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides) are not used. In place of chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides) the use of organic manures, biofertilizers and biopesticides are recommended.

Fertilizers : These are commercially manufactured inorganic salts containing one or more essential plant nutrients like NPK, which are used to increase soil fertility.

Advantages of fertilizers :

• They are nutrient specific and required in small amounts.

• They are water soluble and absorbed by the plant easily.

• They are easy to store and transport.

Disadvantages of fertilizers :

• Fertilizers can change the soil structure by killing the soil microbes.

• Fertilizers can change the chemical composition of soil.

• Accumulation of fertilizers in water bodies causes eutrophication.

CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production and Management Chapter Notes_5

Methods for maintaining soil fertility without use of fertilizers
 Field fallow : The practice of leaving the field uncultivated for a season is called field fallow.
• Crop rotation : The practice of growing different crops in succession in the same field is called crop rotation.
• Biofertilizers : Organisms which enrich the soil nutrients due to their biological activities are called biofertilizers. e.g. Rhizobium bacteria, Nostoc and Anabaena (BGA).
• Body of the living organisms is made of proteins. Proteins are the compounds of nitrogen, carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. Air nitrogen is fixed into compounds of nitrogen (Nitrogen oxides solution in water) by certain microorganisms. Microorganisms such as Rhizobium (= Bacillus) bacterium is present in the root nodules of Leguminous plants Bacterium Rhizobium radicicola is capable of fixing air nitrogen. Fixation of nitrogen enriches soil in a natural way.
• Nitrogen fixation is the process of combining oxygen with nitrogen to form nitrogen compounds such as nitrites (NO2) and nitrates (NO3).
• Blue green algae are common along drains, wet places and flooded paddy fields. Anabena, Oscillatoria, Nostoc and Gleocapsa are common examples of blue green algae.
• Root nodules : Roots of leguminous plants bear root nodules. Root nodules house Rhizobium, a nitrogen fixing bacteria. Nitrogen fixed by the bacterium is supplied as additional nitrogenous nutrition to the leguminous plant (host). In turn, the host plant provides shelter and carbohydrate food to the bacterium. Thus, the bacterium and the leguminous root nodules are living together for mutual benefit. This process in which two organisms live together for mutual benefit is called symbiosis.

Differences between manures and fertilizers : 

CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production And Management Notes Set B

 Classification of plant nutrients :
• There are 16 essential elements for growth and development of plants. They are classify into two grops
• Macro nutrients : These are required in large quantity.
e.g - Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur, calcium, magnesium.
• Micro nutrients : These are required in trace amount.
e.g - Iron, manganese, boron, zinc, copper, molybdenum, chlorine.

CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production And Management Notes Set B

1. What are the advantages of manure?
2. Write the name of frame work elements.
3. What are macronutrients and micronutrients?
4. What are the various ways by which soil can be enriched? Explain.
5. What is green manure?
6. What are biofertilizers?
7. What do you understand by field fallow?

(2) SOWING : The process of putting the seeds in the soil is known as sowing. Before sowing good quality (healthy and good variety) seeds are selected.
 Selection of seeds : For separating healthier seeds from a mixture of healthy and weak seeds, the seeds are placed in water. Healthy seeds sink and weak or insect eaten seeds float on water. Healthy seeds are separated and dried before sowing.
 Sowing can be done by :
(i) Broadcasting : Seeds are sown by hand or manually.
(ii) Traditional tool : The tool used traditionally for sowing seeds has shape like a funnel. The seeds are filled into the funnel, passed down through two or three pipes having sharp ends. These ends pierce into the soil and place seeds there.
CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production And Management Notes Set B
(iii) Seed drill : Seeds are sown by the seed drill with the help of tractor. It saves time and labour. 

 Precautions during sowing seeds.
• Use good quality, healthy and disease free seeds.
• The seeds are sown at a particular depth under the soil.
Seeds left on the surface of the soil may be carried or destroyed by the insects and the birds. Seeds placed deep into the soil may either fail to germinate or may fail to come out into the air on germination.
• Distance should be proper to avoid overcrowding.
• Enough water should be there in the soil. 

CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production And Management Notes Set B

CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production And Management Notes Set B

1. Explain why seeds should be sown at the right depth.
2. Name the crop which is sown by transplantation.
3. Define transplantation.
4. What precautions we need to observe while sowing seeds?
5. Why do we need to keep requisite distance between two adjoining plants?

(3) IRRIGATION : The process of artificial supplying of water to crop at different intervals is called irrigation. The time and frequency of irrigation varies from crop to crop, soil to soil and season to season.
Sources of irrigation : Well, tube well, ponds, lakes, river, canal and dams.
Methods of irrigation : Surface irrigation : In this type of irrigation the water is lifted from lake, well and canal by using following traditional ways like moat (pulley system), chain pump, dhekli, rahat (lever system). 

CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production And Management Notes Set B

• These methods are cheaper and less efficient.
• These methods require cattle and human labour.
• The lifted water is allowed to run over the field. Surface irrigation can be subdivided into furrow and basin irrigation.
Furrow irrigation : The water is allowed to run through furrow between the ridges.
Basin irrigation : The field is flooded with water by mating bunds all around it.
 Disadvantages of traditional ways of irrigation :
• They require more human labour and human efforts.
• They are less efficient so water is wasted in large quantity.
• They are not useful for poor water regions.
Nowadays the following modern ways of irrigation are used.

(i) Sprinkler system :–
• In this system the perpendicular pipes having rotating nozzels on top, are joined to main pipe line at regular intervals.
• It spreads water uniformly over crop plants and field.
• This method is useful for sandy soil and uneven land.
• It is an efficient system in the canal irrigated area of Haryana and Rajasthan.
CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production And Management Notes Set B

(ii) Drip system or trickle irrigation :
• It involves the use of pipes fitted with small tubes called emitters. The pipes are laid over or under the soil and emitters release water drop by drop around the roots of the plants.
• In this method water is not wasted at all.
• This method is a boon in poor water regions.
• This is the best irrigation technique for fruit crops, garden and trees. 

CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production And Management Notes Set B


• Other irrigation systems in India.
(i) Canal system : Canals receive water from the rivers. The main canals are divided into branches which are further divided into distributaries to cover maximum areas for irrigation.
(ii) Tanks : Tanks are water storage reservoirs which store the run off water of small catchment area.
Dug well – Water is lifted up by bullock.
Tube well – Water is pumped up by using diesel or electric run pumps.
(iv) River valley system : Due to heavy rainfall, many river valley are found in Western Ghats and Karnataka.
This results in higher run off and discharge flows in the rivers. To prevent this coffee, rubber, coconut are cultivated on the slopes of these valleys and single rice crop is grown at bottom.
(v) River lift system : Water is directly drawn from the river using pumps.

 Advantages of irrigation :
• It maintains the moisture of soil.
• It helps in germination of seeds.
• It helps in supply of essential nutrients.
• Nutrient dissolved in water get transported to each part of plant.
• It helps in growth of plants. 

CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production And Management Notes Set B

(4) WEEDING : Removal of weeds or undesirable plants is called weeding. It can be done by khurpa (trowel) and Harrow.
Weed : They are unwanted plants which grow along with a cultivated crop in a field. They can severely reduce crop yields by competing for light, water and nutrients.
Some common weeds : Parthenium (Gajar grass), Convolvulus, Amaranthus (Chaulai), Chenopodium (Bathua), Xanthium (Gokhroo) and Dandelions. 

CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production And Management Notes Set B

(a) Mechanical control : It can be done by ploughing, burning and cutting of weeds before they produce flowers and seeds.
(b) Chemical control : It can be done by spraying weedicides or herbicides (chemical which are used to kill the weeds).
e.g. 2, 4-D, 2, 4, 5-T, MCPA, Butachlor & Atrazine. 

CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production And Management Notes Set B

(c) Biological control : It is done by living organisms to destroy weeds.
e.g Cassia plant prevents the growth of Parthenium weed.
e.g. Herbivorous fish (Carps) feeds on aquatic weeds (Hydrilla).

 Advantages of biological control :
• It does not cause pollution.
• Organisms are harmless to the main crop.

 Crop protection management : It includes eradication of pest, pathogens and other organisms that are harmful to the crop plants.
Pest : Organism which damage or destroy cultivated plants or plant products is called pest.
eg.– Insects, rats, mites and microorganisms.
Pathogen : Disease causing organism is called pathogen.
eg.– Bacteria, Fungi and Virus.

 Diseases of crop :
(i) Seed born : Spread through seeds and caused by fungi.
eg. Ergot of bajra.
(ii) Soil born – Spread through soil.
eg. – Smut of bajra.
(iii) Air born : Spread through air, eg. – Rust of wheat.
(iv) Water born : Spread through water. eg. – Bacterial blight of rice.
 Pesticides or Biocides : These are chemical substances used to kill, control or repel pest.

Types of pesticides : 

CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production And Management Notes Set B

 Advantages of pesticides : They kill pest quickly, increase food production and are easy to store.
 Disadvantages of using pesticides :
• They cause soil and water pollution.
• Residue left on the fruits & seeds is harmful for human consumption.
• They destroy even the useful insects.
 Preventive measures avoiding use of pesticides :
• Crop rotation, multiple cropping and field fallow. birds.
• Sowing healthy seeds and summer ploughing.
• Use of pest and disease resistant hybrid varieties of crop plant.
• Field also need to be protected by grazing animals by raising wire fences and boundary wall.
• Birds are scared away by raising scarecrows and beating of drums. 

CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production And Management Notes Set B

1. What is fertigation?
2. What is irrigation?
3. What is surface irrigation?
4. Which type of soil requires more water for irrigation?
5. Mention three ways of removing weeds from the crop field.
6. Write the names of two common weeds found in the field.

(5) HARVESTING : The cutting and gathering of crops after its maturation is called harvesting. It can be done manually by sickle or by a machine called harvester.
• Many festivals are associated with harvesting season such as Baisakhi, Bihu, Onum, Pongal, Holi, Diwali.
• Many crops require special harvesting machines. Cotton strippers (for cotton), corn pickers or huskers (for corn)
• Fruits and vegetables are generally hand-picked when ripe.

(6) THRESHING : The process of beating out the grain from the crop is called threshing. It can be done by threshers.   

CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production And Management Notes Set B

(7) WINNOWING : The process of separating the grains from the chaff is called winnowing.
• In this process, the grain-chaff mixture is gradually dropped on the ground from a height.
• The heavier seeds fall vertically down, while lighter chaff is blown away by wind. 

CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production And Management Notes Set B

(8) STORAGE : Proper storage is necessary to get seasonal food regularly throughout the year. Freshly harvested grains have more moisture. If freshly harvested grains are stored without drying, then they may get spoil and lost their germination capacity. Hence before storing them the following precautions must be undertaken.
 Precautions :
• Grains should be safe from moisture, insects, rats, and microorganisms.
• Grains must be properly dried in the sun to reduce the moisture in it.
• Grains must be srtore in jute bags or metallic bins.
• Store grains in silos, granaries and godown with chemical treatment to protect them from pests.
• Dried neem leaves can be used for storing food grains at home.
 Factors affecting stored food :
(i) Biotic factors : e.g. insects, micro-organisms, mites, birds, rodents and other animals.
(ii) Abiotic factors : e.g.moisture, humidity and temperature.


• Buffer stock : Surplus stock of grains which is preserved for emergencies like drought and floods is called buffer stock.
• Food grains are stored in large godowns by agencies like Food Corporation of India (FCI) and state warehousing corporations.
• Fruits and vegetables which have high water content are stored at 0°C to 1°C temperature.
• Drying, canning and freezing are some of the methods of crop preservation.
• Drying reduces the moisture content, canning prevents the microbial growth and freezing reduces the rate of respiration of microbes. 

CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production And Management Notes Set B

1. What is harvesting? 2. Name some harvest festivals.
3. How is threshing done? 4. Define the term winnowing.
5. How does a farmer store the grains?
6. What factors may be responsible for loss of grains during storage?

 Green revolution :– Yield of crop per hectare greatly increased due to the use of genetically improved variety of seeds.
• Developed new varieties of rice, wheat and maize increased food production of India.
• The desirable superior character in a variety can be incorporated through various methods of genetic improvement of crops like plant breeding and genetic engineering.
 Plant breeding : The science of improving crop varieties is called plant breeding. These involve introduction, selection of plant and than hybridization.


Important plant breeders :
1. N.E. Borlaug – A maxican plant breeder who was awarded Nobel prize (1970) for developing high yielding varieties of wheat Sonara-64 and Lerma roja-64 [Father of green revolution]
2. Dr. M.S. Swaminathan – He has produced Sharbati sonara a variety of wheat by mutation which is responsible for green revolution in India. [Father of green revolution in India]

 Hybridization : The process of crosss breeding between two geneticaly dissimilar individuals is called hybridization. This process helps to produce hybrid variety with desirable characteristics. 

CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production And Management Notes Set B

Objects of plant breeding : Higher yield, Better quality, Blotic and abiotic resistance, Change in maturity duration, Wider adaptability, Desirable agronomic characteristic.
 Genetic engineering : The transfer of one or more genes (DNA fragments) from one plant to another is called genetic engineering. The plant in which the foreign gene has been introduced is called transgenic plant or genetically modified plant.
 Cropping patterns : Different ways of growing crops can be adopted to get maximum benefit.
(a) Mixed cropping : The growing of two or more types of crops on same field is called mixed cropping. The products and wastes from one crop can stimulate the growth of other crop in it.
(b) Intercropping : The growing of two or more crops grown in a definite row pattern is called intercropping.
(c) Crop rotation : The process in which different crops are grown alternately in the same field is called crop rotation.

 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY : The branch of agriculture that deals with the feeding, caring and breeding of domestic animals is called animal husbandry.
• The main elements of animal husbandry are
(i) Proper feeding (ii) Providing good shelter
(iii) Proper health (iv) Proper breeding

Cattle husbandry is done for two purposes, milk production and draught labour for agricultural work like tilling and irrigation. 

CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production And Management Notes Set B

Cattle feed consists of two components :
(i) Roughage : It contains large amount of fibre which includes hay fibre silage, fodder and legumes like barseem,lucrene and cowpea.
(ii) Concentrate : It is a mixture of cereals like maize, oat, barley, jowar, grams, rice polish, cotton seeds, gram bran, molasses and oilseed cake moistened in water. These are rich in proteins, highly palatable and easily digestible.


• Milch breeds of indegenous cows : Gir, Sahiwal, Tharparkar.
• Milch breeds of exotic cows : Jersey, Brown-swiss.
• Cross breeds of cows : Karan-swiss, karan-fries.
• Breeds of Indian buffaloes : Murrah, Mehsana, Surti, Nagpuri.

2. POULTRY : The rearing and caring of birds for obtaining eggs and meat for the commercial purpose is known as poultry farming.
• It includes chickens (fowls), ducks, geese, turkeys, guinea-fowls, peafowls, pigeons and guails.
• The egg laying poultry birds are called egger or layer, while the one reared for obtaining meat is called chicken or broiler. 

• Feeding : They feed grains, green manure and lime stones.
• Broody Hen : Hen after laying eggs, sits on them for about 21 days, till the chickens hatch out. This time period is known as incubation period. During this time. the hen becomes aggressive if anyone disturbs it. It is called a broody hen.

Indegenous Breeds : Aseel, Brhama.
Excotic Breeds : White Leghorn, Rhode Island Red.
Cross Breeds : HH260, B77.

3. FISHERIES : The rearing of fish on a large scale is called pisciculture.
• The fish eggs are introduced into small ponds called hatcheries. 
• Fish is a rich source of proteins and oils. These are a good source of vitamin A and vitamin D.
• Fresh water Fishes : Catla, Rohu and Mrigal.
• Marine Fishes : Tuna, cod, pomfret.
 In hatcheries fries hatch out of eggs which are transferred to a larger culture pond where they get proper food,light and oxygen. The fishes are harvested when they attain the required size.

CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production And Management Notes Set B

4. APICULTURE : The rearing of honey bees for a large scale production of honey and bee wax, is know as apiculture.
• Bees are reared in wooden boxes for commercial production of honey called apiaries.
• Honey bee colony and social organization :
In a colony, there are three types of bees which are structurally and functionally different from one another, so polymorphism is associated with division of labour. These types are :
(i) Queen bee : Queen bee lays eggs which hatch into larvae, which grows into pupae.
(ii) Drones bee : Drones are smaller in size than the queen, and their function is to fertilize the queen.
(iii) Workers bee : Workers bees look after young ones, collect nectar and pollen from flowers and make honey.  

 CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production And Management Notes Set B

CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production And Management Notes Set B


Question. Horticulture deals with –
(A) Production of crops
(B) Breeding of animals
(C) Study of soil
(D) Production of fruits and vegetables.
Answer : D

Question. Which one of the following is not true about ploughing –
(A) Loosens the soil
(B) Aerates the soil
(C) Makes the soil hard
(D) Allows easy penetration of roots into the soil
Answer : C

Question. Separating the grain from chaff is called –
(A) Winnowing
(B) Hybridisation
(C) Threshing
(D) Harvesting
Answer : A

Question. Organic substances obtained from the decomposition of dead plants and animals wastes are called –
(A) Fertiliser
(C) Herbicide
(D) Manure
Answer : D

Question. Biological methods of pest control involve –
(A) Spraying chemicals to kill plants
(B) Killing pests by using other organisms
(C) Spraying DDT
(D) Weeding
Answer : B

Question. Which one of the following is not a method to maintain the fertility of soil.
(A) Crop rotation
(B) Multiple cropping
(C) Fallow method
(D) Ploughing
Answer : D

Question. Which one of the following can be used to prevent the disease called rust in wheat?
(A) An insecticide
(B) A rodenticide
(C) A fungicide
(D) A herbicide
Answer : C

Question. Which of the following machines would you use to harvest a crop as well as to beat out the grains from the chaff?
(A) Mechanical harvester
(B) Combine
(C) Thresher
(D) Harrow
Answer : B

Question. Denitrifying bacteria givea out –
(A) Carbon
(B) Nitrogen
(C) Oxygen
(D) Hydrogen
Answer : B

Question. Plants get their nitrogen from the soil as –
(A) Nitrates
(B) Nitrogen dioxide
(C) Nitrogen oxide
(D) Nitric acid
Answer : A

Question. First cultivated crop plants were –
(A) Cereal crop
(B) Pulses
(C) Fodder crop
(D) Fibre crop
Answer : A

Question. Transplantation is –
(A) Process of scattering the seed.
(B) Process of loosening and turning of soil
(C) Process of shifting of tiny saplings from the nursery to a field
(D) None of these
Answer : C

Question. Which preventive measure(s) avoid use of pesticides –
(A) Crop rotation
(B) Use of pest resistant varieties of crop plant
(C) Summer ploughing
(D) All of these
Answer : D

Question. Chemical substances which are used to kill insects –
(A) Fungicide
(B) Insecticide
(C) Weedicide
(D) All of these
Answer : B

Question. Process of cutting of crop after its maturation –
(A) Threshing
(B) Harvesting
(C) Winnowing
(D) None of these
Answer : B

Question. Match the following with correct answers :-
a. Kharif crops I. Wheat
b. Rabi crops I. Ploughing
c. Tilling III. Harvesting
d. Combine IV. Paddy
(A) a - I, b - II, c - III, d - IV
(B) a - IV, b - I, c - II, d - III
(C) a - IV, b - III, c - II, d - I
(D) a - III, b - IV, c - I, d - II
Answer : B

Question. To prevent seed-borne diseases the seeds must be :-
(A) sown at right depth
(B) spaced at right depth
(C) sown in highly wet soil
(D) treated with fungicide solutions
Answer : D

Question. Which of the following is not a method of irrigation?
(A) Drip irrigation
(B) Sprinkler
(C) Nursery
(D) Canals
Answer : C

Question. The unwanted wild plants growing along with the crop plants are called –
(A) Seedlings
(B) Weeds
(C) Minor crops
(D) Grasses
Answer : B

Question. Vermicomposting involves –
(A) Cockroach
(B) Earthworm
(C) Leech
(D) Roundworm
Answer : B

Question. The science of improving crop varieties is called –
(A) Plant breedling
(B) Hybridization
(C) Selection
(D) Introduction
Answer : A

Question. Which one of the following cause(s) plant diseases?
(A) Viruses
(B) Bacteria
(C) Fungi
(D) All of these
Answer : D

Question. The big pieces of soil in the polughed field are called –
(A) Crumbs
(B) Flakes
(C) Lumps
(D) All of these
Answer : A

Question. Rearing and breeding of fish in pond and tank is called –
(A) Aquaculture
(B) Fishing
(C) Pisciculture
(D) Apiculture
Answer : C

Question. Broilers are maintained for getting –
(A) Milk
(B) Egg
(C) Meat
(D) Leather
Answer : C

Question. Males of honey bee colony are called –
(A) Drone
(B) Workers
(C) Soldiers
(D) All of these
Answer : A

Question. Cattle feed should contain –
(A) Roughage
(B) Concentrate
(C) Both
(D) None of these
Answer : C

Question. Which of the following should come in the box 'X' in the given sequence ?
Ploughing → Levelling → manuring → Sowing seeds → X
(A) Broadcasting
(B) Transplanting
(C) Irrigation
(D) Drilling
Answer : C

Question Which of the following crops would enrich the soil with nitrogen ?
(A) Apple
(B) Pea
(C) Paddy
(D) Potato
Answer : D

Question. Eutrophication means :
(A) toxication of water by fertilisers
(B) decrease the growth of algae
(C) increase in the fertility of the soil
(D) all of the above
Answer : A

Question. Besides carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, the synthesis of proteins by plants require :-
I. Magnesium II. Nitrogen III. Potassium
(A) I only
(B) III only
(C) II only
(D) II and III only
Answer : C

Question. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria can be found in :-
I. the soil II. root nodules III. leaves
(A) I only
(B) I and II only
(C) II and III only
(D) I, II and III
Answer : B

Question. Which of the following crops seedlings need to be transplanted ?
(A) Wheat
(B) Potato
(C) Mustard
(D) Rice
Answer : D

Question. Identify the correct sequence in farming :-
(A) Sowing → tilling → irrigation → manuring
(B) Sowing → tilling → manuring → irrigation
(C) Tilling → sowing → irrigation → manuring
(D) Tilling → sowing → manuring → irrigation
Answer : D

Question. Which of the following parts have bacteria in the figure given below ?
(A) K
(B) L
(C) M
(D) N
Answer : C

Question. Grain stocked for emergencies is called :-
(A) surplus stock
(B) storage
(C) buffer stock
(D) regular
Answer : C

Question. The crop that requires more irrigation is :-
(A) wheat
(B) rice
(C) maize
(D) jowar
Answer : B

Question. Operation flood is otherwise called :-
(A) green revolution
(B) white revolution
(C) black revolution
(D) yellow revolution
Answer : B





Question. a process to loosen soil.
Answer : Ploughing/Tilling

Question. ................prevents the loose soil from being eroded by water or air.
Answer : Levelling

Question. A combine machine can ............and .............
Answer : Harvest, Thresh

Question. Grains are separated from the chaff and hay by a method called, ................
Answer : Winnowing

Question. The practice of growing fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants is called ................
Answer : Horticulture

Question. Hen, .................... and .................... are reared in poultry farms.
Answer : Duck, turkeys

Question. a marine fish, while .................... is a fresh water fish.
Answer : Tuna, catla

Question. In a beehive, only .................... lays eggs.
Answer : Queen bee

Question. ................crops require lot of water.
Answer : Kharif

Question. ................ crops are harvested in March-April.
Answer : Rabi

Question. Shifting of tiny saplings from the nursery to a field is called.....................
Answer : Transplantation

Question The process of scattering the seeds in the soil is called.....................
Answer : Broadcasting

Question. Cattle may suffer from a viral disease called .....................
Answer : Foot and mouth disease

Question. Rearing, breeding and management of fish on a large scale is called.....................
Answer : Pissiculture.

Question. ....................are chemical substances rich in naturients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium.
Answer : Fertilizers



Question. Sowing of seeds by sprinkling them by hand is called broadcasting.
Answer : TRUE 

Question. Excess use of fertilizers may lead to eutrophication.
Answer : TRUE 

Question. Feed of poultry includes lime stones.
Answer : TRUE 

Question. Hatching of eggs of hen can be done artifically.
Answer : TRUE 

Question. Rice is a leguminous plant.
Answer : FALSE

Question. Rearing of fish on large-scale is called pisciculture.
Answer : TRUE 

Question. Milch animals require roughage in their diet.
Answer : TRUE 

Question Paddy is first grown in small plots called kindergartens.
Answer : TRUE 

Question Earthworms are a big menace to farmers.
Answer : FALSE

Question. Cattle do not suffer from bacterial diseases.
Answer : FALSE

(A) Column-A             Column-B
(1) Rice                    (a) Broadcasting
(2) Wheat                 (b) Fertilizers
(3) Sowing seeds       (c) Rabi crop
(4) NPK                     (d) Kharif crop

(B) Column-A             Column-B
(1) Plough                (a) Sowing of seeds
(2) Hoe                    (b) An irrigation system
(3) Cultivator            (c) Manual harvesting
(4) Seed drill            (d) Loosening and turning of soil
(5) Moat                  (e) Used for spraying weedicide
(6) Sickle                 (f) Removing weeds
(7) Sprayer              (g) Combined harvester and thresher
(8) Combine            (h) Tractor driven tilling device.

Answer :
(A) (1) → d ; (2) → c ; (3) → a ; (4) → b
(B) (1) → d ; (2) → f ; (3) → h ; (4) → a ; (5) → b ; (6) → c ; (7) → e ; (8) → g

1. Name the agricultural implements associated with the following agricultural tasks:-

(a) tilling-plough

(b) weeding-harrow, trowel

(c) leveling-leveler

(d) sowing-seed drill

(e) harvesting-sickle

2. Define the following:-

(a) crop-the plants that are cultivated for commercial purposes or their products

(b) agriculture –the practice of cultivating crops

(c) threshing-separation of grains from the husk

(d) winnowing-separation of chaff(hollow grains) & husk from healthy grains by making them fall from a height & blowing wind through huge pedestal fans

(e) manuring-adding manures/compost to the soil

(f) weeding-removal of weeds from the agricultural fields

3. Fill in the blanks:-

(a)The same kind of plants grown & cultivated on a large scale at a place is called crop______

(b) The first step before growing crops is _preparation of soil.

(c) Damaged seeds would float on the surface of water.

(d) For growing a crop, sufficient amount of sunlight, water & nutrients_ from the soil are essential.

(e) Paddy & maize are kinds of _kharif crops

(f) Animal excreta, cow dung, urine & plant waste are used to make _manure

(g) Urea & superphosphate are kinds of fertilizers

(h) Wheat,gram,pea are kinds of rabi crops

4. Identify the following:-

(a) providing water to crops- irrigation

(b) keeping crop grains for a long time under proper conditions- storage

(c) a machine used for cutting the matured crop- combine

(d) a rabi crop that is also one of the pulses-gram/lentil

(e) a process of separating chaff from the grains-winnowing

(f) a way of collecting rainwater & later using it for domestic or other purposes- rain water harvesting

5. Name any 3 leguminous crop

Ans- gram, peas, beans

6. What provides humus to the soil?

Ans- manures

7. "Use of a seed drill is preferred over broadcasting".Justify this statement giving 2 advantages of this practice.

Ans-1-adequate spacing

2-adequate depth

8. "Use of manures is advantageous over fertilizers".Justify the statement.

Ans- soil chemistry is disturbed & the fertilizers can enter the plant body with water & cause harm to us.

9. Paddy cannot be grown in the winter season.Why?

Ans- it needs standing water in the fields & that is possible in rainy season

10. Neem leaves are properly sundried & put in an iron drum containing wheat.Why?

Ans- prevention of insects & microbes

11. Use of a Combine Harvester is beneficial to farmers .Explain.

Ans-It does harvesting as wll as threshing

12. What is animal husbandry? Why is it done?

Ans-The task of rearing domesticated animals for their products or physical labour

13. Why is fish food good for health? Name 2 nutrients it contains in a large amount.

Ans- Fish food is 99% protein not fat.

Vitamin D &E+proteins

14. Arrange the following in the correct order for sugarcane production:-

sending crop to sugar factory, irrigation, harvesting, sowing, preparation of soil, ploughing the field, manuring.

Ans-ploughing , prep of soil, manuring, sowing, irrigation, harvesting, seding to the factory.

15. If wheat is sown in Kharif season, what is likely to happen?

Ans –The crop will be ruined by excessive water

16. What are weeds? How do they affect crop production?

Ans-Unwanted crop plants growing along with crop plants.

Harm-they take away nutrients, water, space & sunlight meant for crop plants

17. What will happen if the field is not ploughed before sowing seeds? Give 2 disadvantages.

Ans-1-eneven distribution of water, seeds,etc

2- roots of plant are unable to penetrate the soil easily

18. A farmer needs to prepare his soil for cultivation.What are the 3 major tasks he performs, name the implements used & give the advantages of each task.

Ans- 1-Ploughing-plough- brings the lower fertile layers of soil on top

2-levelling-leveller- ensures uniform irrigation & distribution of seeds

3-Manuring-nil- enriches the soil with humus & moisture

19. Name & explain the various methods of controlling weeds in agricultural fields.

Ans- 1- manual-use of harrow or trowel

2- chemical-use of weedicides-2,4-D or butachlor

3-biological-eg-cochineal insect selectively eats away opuntia

20. Storage of produce is an important task. Justify this statement listing various agents causing spoilage of stored grains.

Ans-1-Godowns 2-Silos

Harmful agents- rodents, birds, insects, microbes

21. Tabulate 4 major differences between manures & fertilizer

Ans-1- Natural -Manmade

2-provide humus -do not

3-do not harm soil -harm soil

4-compost, vermicompost –urea, NPK

22. Why is preparation of soil considered an important task during cultivation?

Ans- 1. It allows deeper penetration of roots

2. It allows the roots to breathe easily.

3. It helps in growth of worms and microbes.

4. the loosening of soil helps in recycling of nutrients in the soil.

Books recommended by teachers

Chapter 01 Crop Production and Management
CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production And Management Notes
Chapter 02 Microorganisms: Friend or Foe
CBSE Class 8 Science Microorganism Friend Or Foe Notes
Chapter 03 Synthetic Fibres and Plastics
CBSE Class 8 Science Synthetic Fibres And Plastics Notes
Chapter 04 Materials Metals and Non-Metals
CBSE Class 8 Science Metal And Non Metals Notes
Chapter 05 Coal and Petroleum
CBSE Class 8 Science Coal And Petroleum Notes
Chapter 07 Conservation of Plants and Animals
CBSE Class 8 Science Conservation Of Plants And Animals Notes
Chapter 10 Reaching the Age of Adolescence
CBSE Class 8 Science Reaching The Age Of Adolescence Notes
Chapter 11 Force and Pressure
CBSE Class 8 Science Force And Pressure Notes
Chapter 14 Chemical Effects of Electric Current
CBSE Class 8 Science Chemical Effects of Electric Current Notes
Chapter 15 Some Natural Phenomena
CBSE Class 8 Science Some Natural Phenomena Notes
Chapter 17 Stars and the Solar System
CBSE Class 8 Science Stars and the Solar System
Chapter 18 Pollution of Air and Water
CBSE Class 8 Science Pollution of Air and Water Notes

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