CBSE Class 8 Science Conservation of Plants and Animals Chapter Notes

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CBSE Class 8 Science Conservation of Plants and Animals Chapter Notes. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.

CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS

CONTENTS
1. Deforestation 2. Biodiversity 3. Conservation of Forests & Wildlife 4. Biosphere Reserve 5. Threatend Species 6. National Parks and Sanctuaries 7. Red Data Book 8. Migration 9. Reforestation

POINTS TO BE REMEMBER

Deforestation : The loss or continual degradation of forest habitat due to natural or human activities.
Afforestation : Planting of trees on a large scale to regenerate forest.
Desertification : The process of conversion of fertile land into deserts due to the removal of top layer of soil.
Ecosystem : The basic unit of ecology which consists of the biotic and abiotic components.
Reforestation : It is the restocking of the destroyed forests by planting new trees.
Fauna : The community of animals in a specific region or habitat.
Flora : The plant life of particular area.
Endemic species : The species that are exclusively found in any geographical unit like a state, zone or a country or a habitat type are referred as endemic species.
Sanctuaries : The protected area which is reserved for the conservation of animals only and human activities upto a certain extent are allowed in these areas.
National Park : The large and diverse reserves to protect whole sets of ecosystem including flora, fauna, landscape and historical objects of an area are termed as national park.
Biosphere Reserve : A biosphere reserve is a unique concept which includes one or more protected areas and surrounding lands that are managed to combine both conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.

INTRODUCTION
We have read in earliar classes that humans use a number of natural resources for their survival. However, as human population has been increasing at a high rate, the natural resources are also being used in greater quantity than ever before. With recent advances in science and technology, people now have a higher standard of living. As a result, there is a far great demand for the natural resources. It is for this reason that the natural resources must be 'conserved' so that there will be enough resources available for the future generations.It must be clearly understood that conservation does not mean that we have to stop the use of these resources completely. It only means that we have to use the resources wisely and judiciously. conservation is the wise
and judicious use of resources. The overuse or wastage of resources would lead to imbalanaces among the various components of nature.

Aims of conservation
* To preserve the quality of environment, i.e., maintain a pollution-free environment.
*To ensure a continuous yield of useful plants, animals and materials for generations to come

Conservation of Plnats and Animals
*Importance of Forests
• Forests are natural habitat of wild animals and plants.
• Roots of trees keep the topsoil bound and prevent it from being washed away through water erosion as well as through wind erosion.
• Trees give a large amounts of water by the process of transpiration. This helps in formation of rain clouds and bringing fresh water to the earth.
• Forests help in maintaining oxygen and carbondioxide levels in atmosphere.
• Forests also act as saviour from various solar radiations.
• Forests provide raw material for paper industry.
• Forests have various protective functions like prevention of drought, protection against wind, cold, noise, radiations and even conservation of soil and water.
• Forests are important for production of timber, bamboos, food and wide variety of compounds like resins, alkaloids, essential oils, latex and various pharmaceutical products.
Forests are home to several kinds of plants and animals. The number and type of plants and animals found in a forest depends on the soil and climatic conditions of the region. For example, a type of forests called the rainforests are believed to house of millions of the species of plants and animals, some of them yet undiscovered by human beings. Rainforests cover less than 6% of the earth's total land surface, but are home for up to almost three-fourths of all known species of plants and animals.

DEFORESTATION
The loss or continual degradation of forest habitat due to natural or human activities is called deforestation.
                                  O R
Large scale cutting of trees is called deforestation

Causes of Deforestation

Trees are cut in the forest on a large scale to clear the land for some useful purposes listed below.
• Procuring land for agricultural use.
• Procuring timbers for building houses, roads, railway tracks, dams, etc.
• Procuring land for setting up industries and mining.
• Procuring land for setting up special economic zones (SEZ).
• To obtain forest products like wood, food, rubber, honey, resins, etc.
• Overgrazing.

Natural Causes of deforestation
(i) Forest fire (ii) Drought

CONSEQUENCES OF DEFORESTATION
• Flood and Droughts : Trees check the flow of rainwater. When mountain slopes and uplands are deforested, the water rushes down and causes rivers to overflow and flood in lower lands. The silt carried by the water from denuded slope chokes rivers and aggravates the problem of flooding. Siltation of rivers not only causes floods, but harms fisheries and waterways.
Deforestation can lead to droughts as well. Forests hold water and release it slowly. When they are cut down, the water rushes down very fast, and the uplands, especially, are deprived of water soon after the rains. By holding water and improving the water-retaining capacity of the soil, forests also help recharge groundwater. In India, deforestation of the Himalayas has changed perennial streams into seasonal streams, which run out of water soon after the monsoon. It has causes an acute shortage of water even in Cherapunji (in Meghalaya), which is one of the wettest place in the world.

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