CBSE Class 10 Physics Sources of Energy Study Notes

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CBSE Class 10 Physics Sources of Energy Study Notes. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.

SOURCES OF ENERGY

ENERGY

The ability of a body to do work is called energy. It is measured by the amount of work hat a body can do. It is a scalar quantity and its SI unit is Joule.

FUEL AND ITS USES:
A fuel is defined as any substance which burns easily to produce energy. e.g., coal, petrol, kerosene, natural 
gas,charcoal, wood, etc are fuels. A good fuel is defined as any substance which burns easily to produce adequate amount of heat energy without giving too much undesirable by-products. e.g., petrol, natural gas, LPG, CNG, Biogas, etc are good fuels. In fact, fuels are the concentrated store of energy. The characteristics of a good fuel are:

i. It should produce large amount of useful energy per unit volume or mass.
ii. It should be easily accessible
iii. It should be easy and safe to transport, handle and store.
iv. It should most importantly be economical.
v. It should not produce too much objectionable byproducts like harmful or poisonous gases.
vi. It should have proper ignition temperature.
vii. It should have moderate rate of combustion

SOURCE OF ENERGY and ITS CHARACTERISTICS
Any system from which useful energy can be obtained or tapped is called a source of energy. Any system from which adequate amount of useful energy can be obtained or tapped at a constant rate at a constant rate without giving too much objectionable byproducts is called a good source of energy. The characteristics of a good source of energy are:
i. It should produce large amount of useful energy per unit volume or mass.
ii. It should be easily accessible
iii. It should be easy and safe to transport, handle and store.
iv. It should most importantly be economical.
v. It should not produce too much objectionable byproducts like harmful or poisonous gases.

FOSSIL FUELS
Fossil fuels are defined as the fuels preserved under the earth’s crust as the remains of plants and animals. They are the rich compounds of carbon which were originally made by the plants with the help of solar energy. Typical examples of fossil fuels are petroleum, coal and natural gas.
Fossil fuels are believed to be formed over millions of years by the burial of plant and animal remains due to unusual sequence of geological processes operating within the earth’s crust. The remains of plants and animals which died millions of years ago were gradually buried deep in the earth and got covered with sediments like sand and mud and were thus locked away from the reach of oxygen. The covers of the sediments prevented their oxidation and decay while the weights of sediments squeezed out water and other volatile materials. In the absence of oxygen and under the continuous combined effect of high pressure, heat and bacteria, these buried remains of plants and animals are converted into fossil fuels like petroleum, coal and natural gas. The buried remains of large plants and animals are believed to form petroleum and natural gas.

Disadvantages of burning fossil fuels:
i. The burning of fossil fuels causes air pollution.
ii. The acidic oxides released on burning fossil fuels cause acid rain, which affects our water and soil resources.
iii. The burning of fossil fuels produces green house gases and hence cause green house effect.
iv. These fuels are non-renewable formed over millions of years.
v. The fossil fuels are limited in nature.

Pollution caused by burning fossil fuels can be reduced as follows:
i. Increasing the efficiency of the combustion process
ii. Using various techniques to reduce the escape of harmful gases and ash to the surroundings. e.g, using electrical precipitators, efficient engines, etc.
iii. Planting more and more trees.
iv. Using ecofriendly renewable sources of energy.
TURBINE: Turbine is a system consisting of a rotor with assembled blades, which are free to rotate. It is used for converting the kinetic energy of a fluid such as flowing water or a gas into the mechanical energy which inturn is used to run the shaft of the dynamo to generate electricity.

THERMAL POWER PLANT:
Thermal power plant is a power plant in which fuel is burnt to produce heat energy which is then converted nto 
electrical energy. Large amount of fossil fuel are burnt everyday in power stations to heat up water to produce steam, which further runs turbine to generate.

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