Question : Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.
(i) Migrations change the number, distribution and composition of the population in
(a) The area of departure
(b) Both the area of departure and arrival
(c) The area of arrival
(d) None of the above
Answer: (b) Both the area of departure and arrival
(ii) A large proportion of children in a population is a result of
(a) High birth rates
(b) High death rates
(c) High life expectancies
(d) More married couples
Answer: (a) High birth rates
(iii) The magnitude of population growth refers to
(a) The total population of an area
(b) The number of persons added each year
(c) The rate at which the population increases
(d) The number of females per thousand males
Answer: (b) The number of persons added each year
(iv) According to the Census 2001, a “literate” person is one who
(a) Can read and write his/her name
(b) Can read and write any language
(c) Is 7 years old and can read and write any language with understanding
(d) Knows the 3 ‘R’s (reading, writing, arithmetic
Answer: (a) Can read and write his/her name
Question : Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) Why is the rate of population growth in India declining since 1981?
(ii) Discuss the major components of population growth.
(iii) Define age structure, death rate and birth rate.
(iv) How is migration a determinant factor of population change?
(i) The family planning programme helped in increasing the awareness about the benefits of smaller family size. This helped in reducing the rate of population growth in India since 1981.
(ii) Birth rate, death rate and migration are the major components of population growth. A higher birth rate; coupled with a lower death rate leads to population growth. International migration can lead to population growth of more number of people are coming from other countries than the number of people going outside the country.
(iii) Age Structure: Relative percentage of various age groups in the population is called age structure of the population. Age group is generally divided into children (upto 14 years), working age (15 – 59 years) and aged (60 years and above).
Death Rate: The number of deaths per 1000 persons is called death rate.
Birth Rate: The number of live births per 1000 persons is called birth rate.
(iv) Migration within the country is called internal migration, while that between two countries is called international migration. Internal migration has no change on population size but it changes the population composition of a particular area.
International migration can lead to a growth or degrowth in population; depending on the degree of immigration and emigration.
Question : Distinguish between population growth and population change.
Answer : Population growth is about increase or decrease in the population. Population change is about changes in population composition; like age structure, sex ratio, literacy rate, occupational structure, etc.
Question : What is the relation between occupational structure and development?
Answer : Occupational structure greatly affects the development of a country. A large portion of the Indian population is still dependent on the primary sector for employment; which is one of the reasons for lack of development in India. Examples of developed nations suggest that when a greater portion of population
engages in secondary and tertiary activities, it leads to proper development.
Question : What are the advantages of having a healthy population?
Answer : A healthy population helps in building a productive workforce for the country.
Even the non-productive age group needs to be healthy to reduce the burden of healthcare. Healthy children would grow into healthy adults and would be able to contribute better in the economy. Healthy elders would mean less strain on the resources.
Question : What are the significant features of the National Population Policy 2000?
Answer : NPP 200 has put special emphasis on the adolescent population. Focus is given to special nutritional needs of the adolescents. Awareness programmes are conducted to increase awareness about STDs, unwanted pregnancies, child marriage, risks of unprotected sex, etc.
• People are themselves resources with varying qualities.
• Population is the point of reference from which all other elements are observed and from which they derive significance and meaning.
• The Census of India provides us with information regarding the population of our country.
Population Size and Distribution
• Uttar Pradesh accounts for about 16 per cent of the country’s population.
• India’s population as in March 2001 stood at 1,028 million accounting for 16.7 per cent of the world’s population.
• Population density is calculated as the number of persons per unit area.
• Population density is affected by relief of the area.
Population Growth and Processes of Population Change
• The numbers, distribution and composition of the population are constantly changing.
• Growth of population refers to the change in the number of inhabitants of a country/territory during a specific period of time.
• When more than a billion people increase even at lower rate, the total numbers added becomes very large.
• The declining trend of the growth rate is indeed a positive indicator of the efforts of birth control.
• The natural increase of population is the difference between birth rates and death rates.
• The number of death per thousand persons in a year is the Death Rate.
• Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories.
• Migration changes not only population size but also the population composition of urban and rural populations in terms of age and sex composition.
• The age composition of a population refers to the number of people in different age groups in a country.
• The population of a nation is generally grouped into three broad categories, namely children (generally below 15 years), working age (15 - 59) years) and aged (above 59 years).
• Sex ratio is defined as the number of females per thousand males in the population.
• The sex ratio in India has always remained unfavourable to females.
• A person of seven years of age or above who is able to read and write with a certain understanding is called a literate.
• The distribution of the population according to different types of occupation is referred to as the occupational structure.
• Primary activities include agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, fishing, mining and quarrying etc. Secondary activities include manufacturing industry, building and construction work etc. Tertiary activities include transport, communications, commerce, administration and other services.
Question : What is a human resource?
Question : Define census.
Question : Define:
a. Population growth
b. Population density
c. Age composition
d. Sex ratio
e. Annual growth rate of population
f. Life expectancy
g. Death rate
h. Birth rate
Question : What is the relationship between occupational structure and economic development?
Question : Who is a Literate?
Question : Describe India’s age composition.
Question : What are the implications of the present age composition of India?
Question : What are the reasons unfavorable for the male-female sex ratio in India?
Question : What is meant by Occupational Structure? What is the share of tertiary and secondary activities in India?
Question : What are the three main processes of change in population?
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