Question : Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.
(i) A landmass bounded by sea on three sides is referred to as
(a) Coast (b) Peninsula
(c) Island (d) None of the above
Answer: (b) Peninsula
(ii) Mountain ranges in the eastern part of India forming its boundary with Myanmar are collectively called as
(a) Himachal (b) Purvachal
(c) Uttarakhand (d) None of the above
Answer: (b) Purvachal
(iii) The western coastal strip, south of Goa is referred to as
(a) Coromandel (b) Kannad
(c) Konkan (d) Northern Circar
Answer: (b) Kannad
(iv) The highest peak in the Eastern Ghats is
(a) Anai Mudi (b) Mahendragiri
(c) Kanchenjungaa (d) Khasi
Answer: (b) Mahendrag iri
Question : Answer the following questions briefly:
(i) What are tectonic plates?
Answer : Due to internal heat of the earth, the currents of the semi-molten rocks begin to move towards the crust and tear it apart dividing it into large fragments called lithospheric or tectonic plates. There are seven such major plates namely, South America, North America, Pacific, Indo–Australian, Eurasian, African and Antarctic.
(ii) Which continents of today were parts of the Gondwana land?
Answer : Gondwana land is the name given to the hypothetical ‘super-continent’ located in Southern hemisphere. Gondwana Land included South America, part of Africa (south Africa including Madagascar), part of Asia (India, Arabia, Malaya), Australia and Antarctica, prior to its breakup under the forces causing continental-drift.
(iii) What is bhabar?
Answer : The ‘Bhabar’ is that narrow belt of the plain which is covered with pebbles and lies along the foothills of the Shiwaliks from the Indus to the Teesta. This belt is laid down by numerous streams descending down the hills.
(iv) Name the three major divisions of the Himalayas from north to south.
Answer : The three major divisions of the Himalayas from north to south are:
a) The northernmost range which is known as the great Himalayas or Inner Himalayas or the Himadri.
b) The range lying to the south of the Himadri which is known as Himachal or the lesser Himalaya.
c) The outermost range of the Himalayas which is known as the Shiwaliks. These are the foothill ranges and represent the southernmost division of the Himalayas.
(v) Which plateau lies between the Aravali and the Vindhyan ranges?
Answer : Malwa plateau or Central Highland
(vi) Name the island group of India having coral origin.
Question : Distinguish between
(i) Converging and diverging tectonic plates.
(ii) Bhangar and Khadar
(iii) Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats.
Answer : (i) The internal heat of the earth makes the molten rocks to rush towards the surface of the earth and drive the crust into large fragments known as “Tectonic Plates”. These plates are drifting oven the mantle of the earth. As a result when the two or more plates are pushed towards each other they are called ‘Converging Plates’. On the other hand if they are moving away from each other, they are called ‘Diverging Plates’.
(ii) According to the age of the soils of the Northern Plain they have been differentiated by two names: (a) Bhangar and (b) Khadar. The difference between these two are mentioned below:
a) Bhangar - These are the older alluvium or old soil and form the largest part of the Northern Plains. They lie above the flood plains of the rivers and present a terrace like structure. It often contains Kankar nodules made of calcareous deposits.
b) Khadar - The newer and younger deposits of the flood plains are known as ‘Khadar’.
So, these are the new alluvium or new soil and are very fertile. Thus, Khadar is ideal for intensive agriculture.
Question : Describe how the Himalayas were formed.
Answer : The Indian Peninsula drifted towards the north and finally collided with the much larger Eurasian Plate. As a result of this collision, the sedimentary rocks which were accumulated in the geosynclines (known as Tethys) got folded and formed the mountain systems of the West Asia and Himalaya.
Question : Which are the major physiographic divisions of India? Contrast the relief of the Himalayan region with that of the Peninsular plateau.
The major physiographic divisions of India are the following:
a) The Himalayan Mountain Wall of the north.
b) The Northern Plains.
c) The Peninsular Plateau.
d) The Indian Dessert.
e) The Coastal Plains.
f) The Islands.
The following table compares and contrasts between the relief of the Himalayan region with that of the Peninsular plateau.
Question : Give an account of the Northern Plains of India.
Answer : The Great Northern Plain extends from the Punjab Plain in the west to the Brahmaputra valley in the east. The Northern Plain has been formed by the interplay of the three major river systems namely - the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra along with their tributaries. The deposition of alluvium in a vast basin lying at the foothills to the south of the Himalayas over millions of years formed this fertile plain. It spreads over an area of 7 lakh square km. The plain is about 2400 km long and 240 - 320 km broad. The rich soil cover combined with the abundant water supply and favourable climate made this agriculturally a very productive part of India. Because of this factor the density of population is also the highest in this region among all the physiographic divisions of India. The Northern Plain is broadly divided into three sections:
a) The Punjab Plain - It is the western part of the Northern Plain formed by the Indus and its tributaries. This section is dominated by the Doabs.
b) The Ganga Plain - It is the largest part of the Northern Plain and extends between Ghaggar and Teesta rivers.
c) The Brahmaputra Plain - It forms the eastern part of the Northern Plain by the river Brahmaputra and its tributaries. It is narrower than the Ganga Plain and is a flood prone area.
In the south-east side of the Northern Plain lays the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta which is the largest delta of the world.
Question : Write short notes on the following.
(i) The Indian Desert
(ii) The Central Highlands
(iii) The Island groups of India
(i) Lying towards the west of the Aravali Hills, the Indian Desert is an undulating sandy plain covered with crescent-shaped and longitudinal sand dunes. This region is characterised by very little rainfall, an arid climate and low vegetation cover.
Streams appear only during the rainy season. Luni is the only large river in this region.
(ii) The part of the Peninsular Plateau lying to the north of the Narmada River, covering a major area of the Malwa Plateau, is known as the Central Highlands. They are bound by the Vindhya Range f rom the south and by the Aravali Hills from the northwest. The further westward extension merges w ith the Indian D esert while the eastward extension is marked by the Chotanagpur Plateau. The rivers draining this region fl ow from southwest to northeast. T he Central Highlands a re wider in t he west but narrower in the east.
(iii) India has two groups of islands. The Lakshadweep Islands lie in the Arabian Sea, to the southwest of the mainland. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands lie in the Bay of Bengal, to the southeast of the mainland.
Lakshadweep is composed of small coral islands, covering a small area of 32 square kilometres. Kavaratti Island is its administrative headquarters. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are bigger in size and a re more numerous and s cattered. The entire group of islands is divided into Andaman (in the north) and Nicobar (in the south).
Both these island groups are rich in flora and fauna, and a re of great strategic importance to the country.
Question : Project/Activity
Locate the peaks, passes, ranges, plateaus, hills, and duns hidden in the puzzle. Try to find where t hese features a relocated. You may start your search horizontally, vertically or diagonally.
Question : Very short question type
1. What were the two divisions of Pangea?
2. Define Terai region.
3. What are corals?
Q. Name the famous National Park located in the ‘Terai’ region.
5. Name the hill ranges that forms a rift valley in the Peninsular plateau.
6. What is the flow of the rivers in the Deccan Plateau that indicates its slope?
7. Which passes are found in the Western Ghats?
8. Why Northern plains are also known as depositional plains?
9. Name the famous and the largest lake along the eastern coastal plain.
10. Which rocks are primarily found in the part of peninsular plateau?
Question : Name the division of the HIMALAYAS demarcated by the river valleys.(west to east).
Question : Write down the physical division of the Northern Plains.
Question : Explain the formation of the Himalayas.
Question : Compare and contrast the three parallel ranges of the HIMALAYAS.
Question : Give the main characteristics of the PURVANCHALS.
Click on link below to downloadCBSE Class 9 Social Science Physical Features of India Assignment Set B