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Revision Notes for Class 12 Informatics Practices Database Fundamentals
Class 12 Informatics Practices students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Database Fundamentals in Class 12. These exam notes for Class 12 Informatics Practices will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks
Database Fundamentals Notes Class 12 Informatics Practices
A transaction is a logical unit of work(LUW) that must succeed or fail in its eternity.
A user views a transaction as a logical sequence of read and write operations whereas The system views a transaction as a logical sequence of read and write operations.
Transaction Handling Issues:
A transaction can be handled in either of the following two ways:
i) Serially ie. Serial Execution of transactions.
ii)Concurrently ie.Simultaneous execution of transactions.
To ensure data integrity, the database system maintains the following properties of a transaction termed as ACID properties.
Data Communication and DBMS:
What is Client /Server computing?
A client is any process that requests to the server for specific services.A server is a process that provides requests for the clients.Both clients and server can reside in the same computer or in different computers connected by a network.
The three components of Client/Server Architecture:
• The Client or The Front End application.
• The Server or The Back End Application.
• The Communication Layer or Middleware.
Network Protocol for Data Communication:
A protocol means the rules that are applicable for a network.Protocol defines the standardized formats for data packets,techniques for detecting and correcting errors and so on.
There are various protocols that work on the network.TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/internet protocol) is the native protocol of Internet.
TCP/IP is called as a reliable delivery protocol. The TCP layer of TCP/IP is used to verify that whatever was sent by sending machine is received intact by the destination.
The IP layer of TCP/IP determines the route for sending packets from sending machine to the receiving machine. Also it packs the messages into small network transportable packets called datagrams. (A datagram is a collection of the data that is sent as a single message.)
The distributed database may be defined as a database stored and running on a collection of machines that do not have shared memory, yet looks its users like a single database on single computer.
Advantages of distributed databases:
• Incremental Growth.
• Distributed Query/Parallel Evaluation.
• Improved Performance.
Allocation of Data in Distributed Database:
A distributed database is broken up into logical units called fragments,which may be assigned for storage at various sites.also,certain data may be stored at more than one site ie.Replication of data. In a distributed database there are various approaches of data allocation:
• Centralized data at one location.
•Partitioned or fragmented data.
• Complete replication.
Distributed database supports data fragmentation.Data fragmentation can be in any of following Ways.
• Horizontal Fragmentation.
• Vertical Fragmentation.
• Mixed Fragmentation.
Data replication means storing some data at more than one site.Dat acan be replicated in any of the following ways:
• Partial replication.
• Full replication.
Advantages of distributed database:
· Organizational structure.
· Share ability.
· Improved availability.
· Improved reliability.
· Local autonomy.
· Improved performance.
· Incremental Growth.
· Local autonomy.
Disadvantages of distributed database:
· Increased Cost.
· Increased Security requirements.
· Lack of Standards.
o What is the concept of database transaction?
o What is the function of redo and undo logs?
o Explain the ACID properties of a transaction.
o What is the role of TCP/IP protocol?
o Discuss the problems that are encountered in concurrent execution of transactions.
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CBSE Class 12 Informatics Practices Database Fundamentals Notes
We hope you liked the above notes for topic Database Fundamentals which has been designed as per the latest syllabus for Class 12 Informatics Practices released by CBSE. Students of Class 12 should download and practice the above notes for Class 12 Informatics Practices regularly. All revision notes have been designed for Informatics Practices by referring to the most important topics which the students should learn to get better marks in examinations. Studiestoday is the best website for Class 12 students to download all latest study material.
Notes for Informatics Practices CBSE Class 12 Database Fundamentals
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Database Fundamentals Notes for Informatics Practices CBSE Class 12
All revision class notes given above for Class 12 Informatics Practices have been developed as per the latest curriculum and books issued for the current academic year. The students of Class 12 can rest assured that the best teachers have designed the notes of Informatics Practices so that you are able to revise the entire syllabus if you download and read them carefully. We have also provided a lot of MCQ questions for Class 12 Informatics Practices in the notes so that you can learn the concepts and also solve questions relating to the topics. All study material for Class 12 Informatics Practices students have been given on studiestoday.
Database Fundamentals CBSE Class 12 Informatics Practices Notes
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Notes for CBSE Informatics Practices Class 12 Database Fundamentals
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