CBSE Class 12 Informatics Practices Creating Procedures Notes

Download CBSE Class 12 Informatics Practices Creating Procedures Notes in PDF format. All Revision notes for Class 12 Informatics Practices have been designed as per the latest syllabus and updated chapters given in your textbook for Informatics Practices in Standard 12. Our teachers have designed these concept notes for the benefit of Grade 12 students. You should use these chapter wise notes for revision on daily basis. These study notes can also be used for learning each chapter and its important and difficult topics or revision just before your exams to help you get better scores in upcoming examinations, You can also use Printable notes for Class 12 Informatics Practices for faster revision of difficult topics and get higher rank. After reading these notes also refer to MCQ questions for Class 12 Informatics Practices given our website

Revision Notes for Class 12 Informatics Practices Creating Procedures

Class 12 Informatics Practices students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Creating Procedures in standard 12. These exam notes for Grade 12 Informatics Practices will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks

Creating Procedures Notes Class 12 Informatics Practices


Procedures makes the program modular and each module performs a specific function or task.

Modular programming approach makes the program readable,manageable,reusable and reliable.

PL/SQL supports modules of many types such as :
Anonymous Blocks

A Module or Procedure is a logical unit of work ie,a logically grouped set of SQL and PL/SQL statements that together perform a specific task

Types of PL/SQL Procedures:

PL/SQL supports two types of Procedures:

1. Local or Anonymous Procedure:These are unnamed procedures.These procedures are not stored as a database object in an Oracle database.

2. Stored Procedure: These are named procedures.These can accept input parameters and pass values to output parameters

Need of Procedures:

1. Procedures makes a program modular and serve to meet the specific requirement.
2. They make a bigger program broken down into smaller and manageable units.
3. They enhance performance of a program by saving time in network traffic as they do not need recompilation as their compiled form is stored in the database.
4. They enhance reusability as a procedure once written can be used again or reused.
5. They provide a better database security.
6. They use shared memory resources.

PL/SQL structure of a named block:


Therefore, there are four sections in the declaration of a stored procedure.

1. HEADER SECTION: Here the type of block whether procedure or Function or Package and its name and parameters are specified.
2. DECLARATION SECTION: Here local variables to this very block are specified.
3. EXECUTION SECTION: Here all the executable statements appear.
4. EXCEPTION SECTION: Here all the exceptions handling statements are specified. The declaration and exception sections are optional in any PL/SQL block.

NOTE:THE PROCEDURE specification begins with the keyword PROCEDURE and ends with the procedure name or a parameter list. Parameter declarations are optional.Procedures that take no parameters are written without parentheses.The PROCEDURE body begins with the keyword IS or AS and ends with the keyword END followed by an optional procedure name. The procedure body has three parts:a declarative part,an executable part,and an optional exception-handling part. Example : A procedure showing all the four sections.


The formal parameters of a procedure have following three major attributes.

1. Name of the Procedure.

3. Data type. The parameter modes define the behaviour of formal parameters.

The three modes are:

a. IN MODE: IN parameter lets user to pass values to the procedure being called inside.Inside the procedure,an IN parameter acts like a constant.Therefore,it can not be assigned a value.

b. OUT MODE: OUT parameter lets user to return the values to the caller of a,to the sub program ,which invokes the procedure.

c. IN OUT MODE: IN OUT parameter lets use pass initial values to the procedure being called nad return updated values to the caller subprogram. Inside the procedure,an IN OUT parameter acts like an initialized variable. 

CBSE Class 12 Informatics Practices Creating Procedures Study Notes


The data type of a formal parameter can consist of any one of the following type of declarations:

• An unconstrained type name ,such as NUMBER or VARCHAR2.

• A type that is constrained using the %TYPE or %ROWTYPE attributes.

NOTE: Numerically constrained types such as NUMBER(2) or VARCHAR(20) are not allowed in a parameter list.


Parameters can also take default values.For this the DEFAULT keyword is used.

Ex: PROCEDURE stud_data(roll IN NUMBER DEFAULT 20) IS………


PROCEDURE stud_data(roll IN NUMBER := 20) IS………


Procedure name can be added after the keyword END.


                    CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE get_stud

                   (stud_id IN student.sid%TYPE,

                    stud_name OUT student.sname%TYPE,

                    stud_city OUT



                   SELECT sname,city INTo stud_name,stud_city FROM student WHERE sid=stud_id;

                   END get_stud;


Functions are modules that carry out one specific job and return a value

Which in the declaration section is shown by keyword RETURN.


CREATE FUNCTION (list of parameters)RETURN



                         --function body

                          END ;

NOTE: A function like a procedure receives arguments from the calling program.The difference is that a function is a part of an expression and returns a single value to the calling program for its use.
The return value of a FUNCTION must be assigned to a variable or used in an expression.


Create or Replace FUNCTION factorial RETURN NUMBER IS

                            N NUMBER(5);

                            F NUMBER(5);


                            f :=1;

                           n :=&n;

                           for i in 1..n


                           f := f*i;

                          end loop;

                          return f;





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