Class 9 Social Science Working of Institutions Exam Notes

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The Legislature:Parliament

The Indian Parliament is an important organ of the Central Government. Let us study its composition and powers.

Composition The Indian Parliament has two Houses. The Lower House is called the Lok Sabha or the House of the People and the Upper House is known as the Rajya Sabha or the Council of States. The total membership of the Lok Sabha is 551. Out of them the President of India can, however, nominate two members belonging to the Anglo-Indian community, if it is not adequately represented in the House. The total membership of the Rajya Sabha has been fixed at 250. Out of this number 238 are elected by the different 28 States and seven Union Territories while 12 are nominated by the President in order to give representation to eminent people in the field of literature, science, art or social service.

Essential Qualifications for the Members of the Parliament :

A person must have the following qualifications to become member of the parliament of India :

1.He should be a citizen of India.

2.He should be 25 years old for the Lok Sabha and 30 years old for the Rajya Sabha.

3.He should not hold any office of profit under the Government of India.

4.He should not be either an insolvent or a bankrupt and should not have served a sentence for an offence.

An M.P. gets a salary of Rs. 12000 per month in addition to many allowances [such as Daily Allowance 
(Rs. 500), Constituency Allowance (Rs. 10,000 per month) and office expenses (Rs. 14,000 per month)] etc.

Speaker of the Lok Sabha :

 In order to conduct the business of the Lok Sabha at the center and Vidhan Sabha in the states in a proper manner, the Indian Constitution has made a provision for the office of the Speaker and the Deputy-Speaker. The Lok Sabha at the Centre and Vidhan Sabhas in the States elect the Speaker in their very first session from among its own members.

The Speaker is an important, or perhaps the most important member of the Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha. He presides over the meetings of the Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha and conducts its business. Resolutions or bills can be moved only with his permission. It is he who decides whether a bill is a money bill or not. It is he who adjourns meetings of the Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha. All members, including Government members and ministers, have to obey his authority.

POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE PARLIAMENT
 
Although the primary function of the Parliament is law-making, our Parliament has to perform a galaxy of other functions too.
 
1. Legislative or Law-making Functions :

(a) It frames new laws and amends or repeals them, if necessary, on the 97 Subjects of the Union List and all the Residuary Subjects which have not found a place in any of the lists.
 
(b) In certain cases, it can enact laws on the Subjects of the State List also.
 
(c) The Parliament along with the State legislature can pass laws regarding the 47 Subject on the Concurrent List. In case of any clash, the law passed by the Parliament shall prevail.
 
(d) The Union Parliament has the sole right to amend the Constitution, although in certain cases, these amendments should be ratifide by a majority of the states. The States. can, in no case, initiate an amendment to the Constitution.
 
2. Control on the National Finance or Financial powers :
The Union Parliament is the custodian of the national purse. Neither a penny can be spent on any item nor a paisa can be collected by way of taxes without the prior approval of the parliament. The Parliament passes the Budget of the Union Government. It is, however, empowered to vote a cut in the Budget or to reject it altogether. Thus, the Parliament acts as the controller of the national finance.
 
3. Control over the Government or the Executive Powers :
The most important function of the Parliament is to exercise control over the Government.
 
(a) The Government is directly responsible to the Parliament for its acts of Commission and Commission, if the Government flouts the constitution, it can be voted out of office by passing a vote of no-confidence against the Prime Minister the Ministry as a whole or any of its members.
 
(b) The members of the Parliament can move an adjournment motion on any urgent matter requiring an immediate attention of the Government. If such a motion is admitted, the Minister in charge of such a department, where any untoward event has happened, is reprimanded for the flaws or failure of his ministry.
 
(c) Then again, an hour a day in the daily routine of the Parliament, when in session, is reserved for asking questions from the Government. The members can ask any question relating to the administration of the state and the Ministers are obliged to answer them. In this way, they can keep a check on the functioning of the various departments under different ministers.
 
(d) Not only this, the parliament can hold the strings of the Government tight by voting a cut in the annual budget. The salaries and allowances of the ministers are decided by the parliament.
 
4. Judicial Powers or Functions :
The Parliament enjoys certain judicial powers also. It can impeach the president, a judge of the Supreme Court or the High Court, in case they are found counteracting against the Constitution or misusing their status or indulging in corruption of any nature.
 
5. Electoral Powers or Functions :
The Parliament plays an important role in the election of the president and the Vice-President. Moreover, the Lok Sabha elects its own speaker and Deputy Speaker from its own members, the Rajya Sabha elects its Deputy Chairman.
 
→ HOW IS A BILL PASSED IN THE PARLIAMENT ? 
 
The proposal for a law when introduced in the legislature is called a bill. When a bill is passed by the proper procedure, it is called a law. Until, it is not passed, bill is not called a law.
 
→Passing of an Ordinary Bill : After introduction, a bill is considered several times before its passage. The progress of considering the bill
is known as its reading. In case of Ordinary Bill, three readings are gone through in each House.
In the first stage only the name and the purpose of the bill is given and the same is circulated among all the members of the House can introduce the bill. If the house is in favour of the introduction of the bill, which is called its first Reading, then the bill goes to the second stage.
In the second stage clause by discussion of the bill is taken and some changes are made by the approval of the House. Sometimes, a bill is sent to a small committee for its special recommendations. If these recommendations are approved by the House they are incorporated in the bill.
Then comes the last stage or the third stage when the bill as a whole is put to vote. If it is passed by a simple majority, then it is sent to the other House, where the same procedure is followed.
Finally, when the bill is passed by both the Houses of Parliament, It is sent to the President for his assent after his assent, it becomes a law.
 
→ Difference in the Procedure of passing an Ordinary Bill and a Money Bill : 1. An ordinary Bill can be introduced in any of the two Houses of the Parliament (Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha) but a Money Bill can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha.
 
2. An Ordinary Bill can be introduced both by the Government or by any member of the House, but a Money Bill can only be introduced by the Government.
 
3. An Ordinary Bill is to be passed by both the House of the Parliament and then it is sent to the President for his assent. If both the Houses don’t agree, then a joint sitting of the two Houses is called under the chairmanship of the Speaker of the Lok Sabha and then it is passed or rejected by an majority of the members present.
 
As for a Money Bill is concerned, the Rajya Sabha has no powers whatsoever to make a change in the bill passed by the Lok Sabha. It can only delay the passage of the Money Bill for 14 days only and after that the Money Bill is deemed to have been passed by both the Houses.
 
♦ When can the Parliament legislate on the subject provided in the State list ?
The constitution has established a federation in India but still the Centre has made more powerful. In certain circumstances the Parliament can legislate on state matters.
 
1. If the Rajya Sabha or the Council of States by 2/3 majority passes a resolution that a particular subject mentioned in the state list has assumed a national importance then the Parliament can legislate on that Subject.
 
2. If the legislature of two or more states requests the Parliament, then it can make laws on that subject.
 
3. When a state of emergency is proclaimed in the country.
 
♦ No-Confidence Motion :
 
In a Parliamentary set-up the Council of Ministers works till it enjoys the confidence of the Legislature. If a successful motion of no-confidence is passed in the Parliament, the Council of Ministers has to resign and if on the other hand, the majority votes against the motion, the Government survives. No-confidence motions are very important. Because when a debate is held on the no-confidence motion members discuss the general policies of the Government in detail and not the matter of a particular bill. In such a way much light is shed on different problems and the attitude of different parties towards them.
 
→ THE CENTRAL EXECUTIVE
 
The Central Executive consists of the President, the Vice-President, the Prime Ministers and the Bureaucracy of the Civil Services. The president is the head of the state, while the Prime Minister is the head of the Government. Let us know about them in some details.
 
→ THE PRESIDENT
His Term of office. The President of India holds office for five years. He can be re-elected once after the expiry of his tenure.
 
He gets a monthly salary of Rs. 50,000 in addition to a number of allowances, perks and privileges.
 
♦ His Qualifications :
 
(a) He should be a citizen of India.
 
(b) He should be of thirty-five years of age at the time of election.
 
(c) He should not be an insolvent of bankrupt.
 
(d) He should not hold any office of profit under the Central ot State Government. If He holds any office he should vacate such a post before seeking the election.
 
(e) He should not be a pronounced offender or a sentenced criminal under the law of the land.
 
♦ Election of the President :
The President of India is not directly elected by the people. He is elected indirectly by an electoral college composed of the elected members of both the Houses of the Parliament as well as the Legislative Assemblies of the states in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote. Under this system, no vote goes waste. The vote is cast by the ballot. The value of the vote of a member of the State Legislative Assembly is determined by the population of that state. The voting strength of all the Legislative Assemblies of all the States taken together is equal to the voting strength of the two Houses of the Parliament.
 
The Person to be elected as the President of India must get a particular quota. The quota is determined by the following formula :
Total No. of Votes / No. of states = 1
 
The President is elected for five years term If he so desires, he can seek election for another five years. He used to get a salary of twenty thousand rupees which could not be reduced during his term of office. In August 1998, the Indian Parliament passed a bill hiking the pay of the President from Rs.20,000 to Rs. 50,000 in addition to his usual allowance, perks and privileges as detailed in the Second Schedule (Part- A) of the Constitution. This hike has been necessitated because of the revision of the pay scales of the Central Government employees as a result of the recommendations of the Fifth Pay Commission.
 
♦ Removal of the President : There is a special procedure for the removal of the President. He can be removed by impeachment for violation of the Constitution. This impeachment can be initiated in either House of the Parliament by at least one-fourth of the total members of that House. The notice for this purpose is sent to the President and after 14 days later, It can be taken up for consideration by the House concerned. Such a resolution must be passed by two-third majority of the total number of the House. Then the other House investigates the charges. If the other House approves the charges by two-third majority again, the President is removed.
the President has the full right to defend himself personally or through his authorised counsel. The procedure for the removal of the President has thus been made difficult because the President holds an important of rather most important position under the Constitution.
 
♦ Powers and Functions of the President :
The President of India enjoys vast powers. He has to perform various functions spread over to executive, legislative, judicial and financial fields. It must be mentioned here that in actual practice, these powers are actually exercised by the Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers.
 
♦ Executive Powers of the President :
 
(i) Administration of the whole country is carried on in his name.
 
(ii) He makes important appointments like those of the Prime Minister of India, Central Ministers, Governors of the States, Ambassadors and Judges.
 
(iii) He is the Supreme Commander of the Indian Armed Forces and declares war as well as concludes peacetreaties.
 
(iv) He receives the credentials of ambassadors form other countries.
 
(v) The President has the power of directing, co-ordinating and controlling the state Governments.
 
(vi) The administration of the Union Territories and the Border Areas is the responsibility of the President.
 
♦ Legislative Powers of the President :
 
The President of India enjoys various legislative powers also.
 
(i) The first session of the Parliament is addressed by the President in which he lays emphasis on the internal and external policies of the Government.
 
(ii) He can summon or prorogue either House of the Parliament.
 
(iii) He can dissolve the Lok Sabha and order fresh elections.
 
(iv) He can address a Joint Session of the Parliament of each one of the Houses separately.
 
(v) He nominates 12 members to the Rajya Sabha from different strata of society and 2 members to the Lok Sabha to represent the Anglo-Indian community in India if none of their member gets a seat in the Lok Sabha.
 
(vi) He can send messages to either House of the Parliament.
 
(vii)He is an integral part of the Parliament; therefore, no bill passed by both the Houses of the Parliament can become a law unless he signs it.
 
(viii) He issues ordinances when the Parliament is not in session.
 
♦ Judicial Powers of the President :

The President has been given a number of power in the judicial sphere also :
 
(i) He appoints the Chief Justice and other Judges of the Supreme Court of India and the State Higt courts.
 
(ii) He can seek advice of the Supreme Court on any question of law or an important issue.
 
(iii) He has the powers to grant pardon and to remit of suspend a sentence of punishment of any appeal for mercy He can commute even death sentence to imprisonment for life or otherwise. 
 
(iv) He is not answerable before any Court of law for the discharges of his duties.
 
(v) No criminal suit can initiated against him during his tenure of office.
 
♦ Financial Powers of the President of India :
 
(i) No money-bill can be presented it the Lok Sabha without the President’s prior permission.
 
(ii) Budget of the Central Government is presented to Lok Sabha by the Union Finance Minister only with the permission of the President.
 
(iii) He appoints Finance Commission after five years or earlier of there arises such a need.
 
(iv) He distributes the shares of the Income Tax between the union and the States. All these powers of the President are however, exercised by him only on the advice of the Cabinet.
 
♦ Ceremonial Powers of the President of India : 1. Being Supreme Commander of all the three services, Army, Navy, and Air force, he takes salute on 26th January on the Republic Day.
 
2. The Diplomats of all foreign countries present the letters of their credentials before the President of India.
 
3. The President of India receives the Heads of different States whenever they happen to pay a visit to India.
 
♦ Emergency Powers of the President :
Of all the powers vested in the President of India, the Emergency Powers are the most important. The President of India has three types of Emergency Powers which has a direct bearing on that State.
 
1. Emergency caused by War, Foreign Aggression or/and Internal Disturbances and its effects on that state. If the president declares a state of emergency then the Parliament can enact laws for the whole country. The Fundamental Rights of Citizens stand suspended and the administration takes a Unitary Form of Government.
 
2. Emergency caused by the Constitutional Breakdown and its Effects on the State. If the Governor of a State reports to the President that continuation of a Government according to the provisions of the Constitution is not possible, the President can declare emergency in that state. In such a situation, the Council of Minister and the legislature are dissolved and the administration is carried on by the Governor as per directive of the President.
 
3. Financial Emergency and its Effects on the state. If here is an imminent danger to the financial stability of the country, the President can proclaim Financial Emergency. Consequent to this proclamation the president can reduce the pay and allowances of the government servants. He can also exercise control over the finances of the States.
 
♦ Position of the President :
From the above discussion, it becomes quite clear that the President holds an office of great prestige, but if we go a little deep we see that he enjoys very little power. The president cannot declare emergency all by himself. It is on the advice of the Prime Minister that the President cannot declare emergency all be himself. It is on the advice of the Prime Minister that the President can declare a state of emergency. A written request is sent by the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister to the President and only then he can declare a state of emergency. Moreover, such a declaration must be approved by the parliament within one month.
 
THE VICE-PRESIDENT OF INDIA

♦ Election of the Vice-President :
 
The Vice-President of the Indian Union is elected jointly by the Houses of the Parliament. The procedure for his election consists of a secret ballot, proportion representation and single transferable vote. An absolute majority of votes polled is also required for the election of the Vice-President. He now gets salary of Rs. 40,000 per month besides various allowances and privileges.
 
♦ Functions of the Vice-President of India :
 
(a) Ex-Officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha : Like the Vice-President of the U.S.A., the Vice-President of the Indian Union acts as the ex-official Chairman of the Rajya sabha.
 
(b) Acting as the President of India : If the office of the President falls vacant due to his resignation, death, Impeachment illness or absence from the country the vice-President of India, like his counter-part in the U.S.A., takes over as the President. But unlike the Vice-President of the U.S.A., our Vice-President holds this office only till a new President is elected.
 
→ THE PRIME MINISTER
♦ Appointment, Position, Powers and Functions of the Prime Minister :
Appointment of the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is the leader of majority group in the Parliament.
 
The majority group selects one person as their leader. This very leader, after due confirmation of the President, comes to be knows as the Prime Minister. So long as he enjoys the confidence of the Parliament he remains at his post. The moment he loses its confidence he ceases to be the Prime Minister. Thus the real source of his power is the confidence of the Parliament and the people.
 
♦ Constitutional Status on Position of the Prime Minister or why is he more Powerful than the President ?
 
The office of the Prime Minister is very important under the Indian Constitution. according to the wording of the constitution, The Prime Minister is the Prime advisor of the President and holds office till his pleasure. But in Practice, the Prime Minister exercises all the powers enumerated in the name of the president. The Prime Minister exercises all the powers enumerated in the name of the President. The Prime Minister is the real ruler and the leader of the country. He is directly elected by the people while the President is indirectly elected. This very fact makes his position more powerful than the President sometimes, it is also said that he is First among Equals’. But to say so is to undermine his position. He can appoint and drop any minister as and when he desire so. He, Undoubtedly, holds the most important position in the country as he wields many powers.
 
♦ Powers of the Prime Minister :
1. The Prime Minister has the right to form his Council of Ministers and to make distribution of Portfolios among them. if any Minister disagrees with the Prime Minister. the latter can get him removed from the Council of the Ministers.
 
2. He allocates work to the different members of the council of Ministers. He acts as a co-ordinator among the various Minister so that the whole work of administration is carried on smoothly. the independence of India, their duties have been multiplied manifold. In addition to the above duties, they have to perform various general welfare duties as well, such as education, health, construction of rail and roads, maintenance of the means of transport and communication etc. As such, a great many qualities are expected in a public servant. First of all, he should be intelligent so that he can understand his work well.
Secondly, he should be honest in his dealings and hard-working in his profession. Thirdly, he should be regular and punctual and should be fully devoted to his job Fourthly, he should be polite, cooperative and always prepared to serve the people. It is also the duty of the people to cooperate with these Civil servants so that they are able to perform their jobs smoothly and efficiently.
 
→THE JUDICIARY
In a federal state like India, U.S.A., etc. many a time conflicts can arise between the Central and the State Government or between two or more states. As for example, there are certain conflicts between Haryana and the Punjab over the question of the distribution of river waters or certain Part of Hindi speaking or Punjabi speaking areas. In such a case who shall settle or decide the different disputes arising between the Central and state Government or between two or more states. So the Supreme Court or Judiciary is a must for the smooth running of every federation.
How does the Judicial set up function ? At head of the Judicial system there is the Supreme Court followed/by the High Courts.
 
The Supreme Court is the highest judicial tribunal of India and as such it wields very extensive powers. It enjoys vartous Original, Appellate and Advisory Powers.
 
1. Its Original jurisdiction extends to disputes arising between the Union Government and the states, between one state and the other and the citizen and the State. the Supreme Court is the guardian of the Fundamental Rights of the citizens.
 
2. The Appellate Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court extends to both the criminal and the civil cases. It can hear appeals both in criminal and civil cases against the decision of the High Courts of different States.
 
3. The Supreme Court also acts as the Guardian of the Indian Constitution. It can declare the laws passed by the Parliament and State Legislatures ultra vires (or voids) if such laws infringe any Article of the Constitution.
 
4. In its Advisory, capacity the Supreme Court can guide the President on matters which he refers to it from time to time.
 
5. The Supreme Court, as head of all the Courts of the country, also supervises and controls their working.
 
Then the High Courts, like the Supreme Court, also interpret the Constitution of the country and can declare any law of the state legislature as invalid if they find such a law of action against the Constitution. They can determine the constitutional validity of any legislation or the execution of the state, when it is challenged before them. This power is knows as the judicial review. Sometimes, this action of the High Courts striking down the laws of the executive led to the tension between the State Legislative Assemblies on the one hand and the State judiciary on the other.
The High Court also acts as the Guardian of the fundamental rights of the citizens. Moreover, High Courts have been given powers to give judgements and directives to protect public interest and human rights. If public interest of any citizen of affected by the action of the government, he can approach the courts. This is called the public interest litigation. They also check malpractices like corruption and bribery on the part of any public officer. They interfere to prevent misuse of government powers.
Appeals against the District Courts and other Subordinate Courts can also be heard by the High Courts. At the lowest level of judiciary come the District courts and other Subordinate Courts. They decide both the criminal and the civil cases in their own areas. Appeals against their decisions are heard by the High Courts of their respective states.
Of all the political institutions in the country, legislature executive, judiciary etc., the judiciary enjoys highconfidence of the people.
 
♦ Independence of Judiciary :
For a successful federal democracy, it is most essential that the court of law should be independent to administer justice and to interpret the Constitution and the different laws passed by various legislatures from time to time. Independence of judiciary implies that neither the executive nor the legislature nor any government or private agency should be able to influence the judges. in the course of their discharge of duties as a judge Such an independence of judiciary has been ensured in India by means of the following provisions :
 
1. Security of Service : The judges have sometimes to give decisions against the Government, which can be embarrassing. As such they have been given full security of service. It has been provided in the constitution that the judges shall be appointed by the president but cannot be removed from office by him. Only in the event of a gross misbehaviour, acting against the provisions of the Constitution, Corruption orm isuse of office can a judge be removed from service by means of an impeachment by the Parliament.
 
2. Security of Pay and Allowances : In order to make a judge desist form accepting bribes or falling prey to any financial implications, they have been given handsome salaries, besides many allowances and other facilities. The Judges of the Supreme Court formerly used to get a monthly salary of Rupees 10,000 in the case of the Chief Justice and Rs. 9,000 in case of other Judges. However, as a result of the recommendations of the Fifth pay Commission their pay has been further hiked. The Judges of the Supreme Court will get Rs. 30,000 per month while the Chief Justice will get above Rs. 30,000 level.
3. Independent Procedure of the Court : The Supreme Court and the High
 Courts are free to decide their own procedure of work and their establishment. They are not likely to be influenced by any outside agency.
 
4. No Practice after Retirem ent : In order to make the Judges impartial, they have not been allowed topractice after retirement.
 
5. Free Decisions and Decrees : The judges are free to announce their decisions and decrees in their Conuts without any danger to their courts without any danger to their person, property and fame. Their decisions cannot be criticised by the public or the press. Their personal safety is the duty of the State and is ensured at all costs.
 
GLOSSARY

1. Bureaucracy : Large number of government officials who help the ministers to run the machinery of administration.
 
2. Council of Ministers : A body of minister collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha.
 
3. Cabinet : A body of senior minister who control important ministries.
 
4. Collective Responsibility : For any decision or action of the Cabinet, the Council of Ministers are collectively responsible. If any of the cabinet decisions are not approved by the Parliament the centire Council of Ministers has to resign.
 
5. Emergency : Extraordinary or abnormal situation in a country.
 
6. Ex-officio : By virtue of the position held.
 
7. Electoral College : A specially constituted elected body to elect the President and vice president of India.
 
8. Emergency Powers : Powers given to deal with an unexpected and critical situation.
 
9. First among Equals : Ranking equal to other yet holding a position of pre-eminence.
 
10. Impeachment. : A special parliamentary procedure to prosecute or to remove the President and Judges etc. for violation of the constitution.
 
11. Money Bills. : Bills dealing with money matters like taxes, income, expenditure and grants.
 
12. No Confidence Motion : A motion moved by the opposition to prove that it has no confidence in the Council of Ministers. If such a motion is passed by the majority of members of the Lok Sabha the ministry has resign.
 
13. Ordinace. A : direction issued by the president when Parliament is not session. It has the form of law for six months.
 
14. Parliamentary form of Government : A system of government where parliament is supreme and the Council of Minister are collectively responsible to Parliament.
 
15. Planning Commission : An autonomous body headed by the Prime Minister and concerned with matters related to five-year plans or economic planning.
 
16. President Rule : If the President gets a report from the Governor or any other source that the government of the state cannot be carried on in accordance with the Constitution, he can imporse president’s rule. Government then becomes unitary in nature
 
17. Prorogue : To discontinue a meeting of Parliament for a time without dissolving it.
 
18. Starred Question : A question marked with a star for oral answer by a minister in parliament.
 
19. Question Hour : During a parliamentary session, a time is fixed for asking questions and answer them orally.
 
20. Lok Sabha : The Indian Parliament is bicameral in nature. The Lok Sabha also known as the lower House is composed of the elected representatives of the people.
 
21. Rajya Sabha : The Rajya Sabja or Upper House represents the interests of the states and Union Territories.
 
22. Speaker : He is the presiding officer of the Lok Sabha and is responsible for the efficient conduct of business in the Lok Sabha.
 
23. Executive : It is an organ of government which implements the laws passed by the legislature.
 
24. Legislative : It is the organ of government which makes laws and keeps a check on the executive.
 
25. Judiciary : It is the organ of government which ensures that justice is meted out impartially and settles disputes between the individuals and the state.
 
26. Apellate Jurisdiction : The power of a Superior Court to hear and decide appeals against the judgment of lower courts.
 
27. Civil Cases : Cases relating to property, taxes contracts etc.
 
28. Criminal Cases : Cases involving violation of penal laws such as murder, theft, assault etc.
 
29. Court of Record : The Supreme Court and the High Courts of Record. All their decisions and proceeding are recorded which can be used or cited in similar cases in future.
 
30. Independence of the Judiciary : The Constitution has made provisions to keep the judiciary independent of the control of the executive so that the judiciary is not biased in favour of the government.
 
31. Jurisdiction : Refers to the territorial limits within which the court’s authority can be exercised. Area of authority is called jurisdiction.
 
32. Original Jurisdiction : Type of cases which come directly before the supreme Court.
 
33. Lok Adalats : The People’s courts set up for the purpose of speedy settlement of certain disputes. They are like family courts.
 
34. Subordinate Courts : The courts which function under the supervision and order of the High court.
 
35. Unified judiciary : India has a single judicial system for the entire country connected by a number of courts with the Supreme Court at the apex of the entire judicial system.
 
36. High Court : The highest court at the State level.
 
37. Advisory Jurisdiction : The Supreme Court can advice the President on any question of law or any matter of Public importance.
 
38. Supreme Court : The last court of appeal. It lies at the apex of the entire judicial system.
 
39. Office Memorandum : A communication issued by an appropriate authority stating the policy or decision of the government.
 
40. State : Political association occupying a definite territory having an organised government and having the power to make domestic and foreign policies.
 
41. Reservations : A policy that declares some position in government offices and educational institutions ‘reserved’ for people and communities who have been discriminated against and are backward.
 
42. Political Institutions : A set of procedures for regulating the conduct of government and political life in the country.
 
43. Government : A set of institutions that have the power to make, implement and interpret laws so as to ensure on orderly life.
 
44. Coalition Government : A government formed by an alliance of two or more political parties usually when no single party enjoys majority support of the members in a legislature.
 
EXERCISE
 
A. VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
 
Q.1 What are the qualifications required to be a member of Lok Sabha ?
 
Q.2 Mention two ways in which the Lok Sabha has been made more powerful than the Rajya Sabha.
 
Q.3 Mention two important functions of the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.
 
Q.4 When does the President address the joint sitting of both Houses of Parliament ? Who is the official who decides whether a bill is a money bill or not.
 
Q.5 State two provisions of the Constitution which prove the supremacy of the Lok Sabha over the Rajya Sabha with regard to money bill ?
 
Q.6 What are the qualifications required for contesting the election for the post of the President.
 
Q.7 Mention any two judicial powers of the Indian President.
 
Q.8 How and on what grounds can the President be removed form office ?
 
Q.9 Mention any two functions of the Indian Vice president. under which two circumstances can the vice President act as the President ?
 
Q.10 How is the Prime Minister of India appointed ?
 
Q.11 What is meant by the term collective responsibility of a Minister ?
 
Q.12 What is meant by the individual responsibility
 
Q.13 What are the qualifications for the appointment of a judge of the Supreme court of India ?
 
Q.14 How can a Supreme Court judge be removed from office ?
 
Q.15 How is the chief justice of India appointed ?
 
Q.16 Mention any two writs that Supreme Court can issue ?
 
Q.17 Describe the composition of the Supreme Court of India ?
 
Q.18 What is meants by Judicial Review ?
 
Q.19 What is the advisory function of the supreme court ?
 
Q.20 How does the Supreme Court work as a court
of Record ?
 
Q.21 Why is it necessary to keep the judiciary independent of the government ?
 
Q.22 What is the judicial privilege of a citizen with regard of Fundamental Rights ?
 
Q.23 What kind of jurisdiction does the Supreme
 
court exercise in cases relating to central and state government ?
 
Q.24 What were the provision of the Mandal Commission ?
 
Q.25 What was the effect of the recommendations of the Mandal Commission ?
 
Q.26 What role did parliament play in the passing of the office Memorandum ?
 
Q.27 Name the two House's of Indian Parliament what is the main difference in their roles ?
 
Q.28 What is the difference between the political executive and the permanent executive ?
 
Q.29 What are the main constraints on the Prime Minister ?
 
Q.30 When can the President exercise his discretion ?
 
Q.31 What is known as a PIL (Public Interest Litigation) ?
 
Q.32 List the main functions of the Executive ?
 
Q.33 State the main functions of the Judiciary ?
 
Q.34 What are the essential functions of the Government ?
 
Q.35 State two main social functions that a modern government performs for the people.
 
B. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
 
Q.1 How is the President of India elected ?
 
Q.2 Distinguish between the cabinet and the Council of Ministers ?
 
Q.3 Distinguish between a money bill and an ordinary bill.
 
Q.4 Mention two legislative and two nonlegislative functions of Parliament ?
 
Q.5 How has the Indian constitution ensured the independence of the judiciary ?
 
Q.6 How is the judicial system organised ?
 
Explain its importance in Indian democracy ?
 
Q.7 What is appellate jurisdiction ? Explain the three types of appeals that can be made to the Supreme Court.
 
Q.8 What are the functions of the Supreme Court ? State any four functions.
 
Q.9 What are the functions of a modern government?
 
Q.10 What are the merits of a presidential system of Government ?
 
Q.11 What are the disadvantages of the Presidential System of Government ?
 
Q.12 What are the merits of a Parliamentary system of Government ?
 
Q.13 What are the disadvantages of the parliamentary System of Government ?
 
Q.14 Why there is need for political institutions ?
 
Q.15 Distinguish between Political executive and Permanent executive.
 
Q.16 Who appoints the Prime Minister ? How is he appointed ?
 
Q.17 How can the judge of the Supreme Court removed ?
 
C. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
 
Q.1 Explain the emergency power of the President ?
 
Q.2 Examine the powers of the Indian Prime Minister?
 
Q.3 Explain a money bill. How is it passed in Parliament ?
 
Q.4 How does the Indian Parliament control the executive ?
 
Q.5 How does the Legislative procedure for passing a money bill in the parliament differ from an ordinary bill ?
 
Q.6 What are the legislative and executive power of the President ?
 
Q.7 Differentiate between the Presidential and Parliamentary forms of Government.
 
D. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
 
Q.1 What is the total strength of the Rajya Sabha ?
(A) 240 
(B) 250 
(C) 255 
(D) 260
 
Q.2 What is the total membership of the Lok Sabha?
(A) 535 
(B) 540 
(C) 550 
(D) 551
 
Q.3 Who is the real executive of the Indian union
(A) The Prime Minister
(B) The President
(C) The Union Cabinet
(D) The President & the prime minister together
 
Q.4 How many member are nominated by the president in Rajya Sabha ?
(A) 12 
(B) 14 
(C) 16 
(D) 18
 
Q.5 What is the maximum period allowed to lapse between the two sessions of Parliament ?
(A) 4 Months 
(B) 6 Months
(C) 8 Months 
(D) 10 Months

Q.6 Who can dissolved the House of people ?
(A) Prime minister 
(B) Speaker
(C) President 
(D) None of these
 
Q.7 What is duration of term of the members of the Rajya Sabha ?
(A) 4 yrs 
(B) 5 yrs
(C) 6 yrs 
(D) 7 yrs
 
Q.8 Money bill can be introduced in the .....
(A) Lok Sabha 
(B) Rajya Sabha
(C) State Assembly 
(D) All of these
 
Q.9 Who decide whether a bill is a money bill or not
(A) Prime Minister 
(B) President
(C) Home Minister 
(D) Speaker

Q.10 Who appoints the Prime Minister of India ?
(A) Speaker
(B) President
(C) Vice president
(D) Supreme Court Judge

Class 9 Social Science Working of Institutions Exam Notes

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Contemporary India Chapter 1 India Size and Location
Class 9 Social Science India Size and Location Exam Notes
Contemporary India Chapter 2 Physical Features of India
Class 9 Social Science Physical Features of India Exam Notes
Contemporary India Chapter 3 Drainage
Class 9 Social Science Drainage Exam Notes
Contemporary India Chapter 4 Climate
Class 9 Social Science Climate Exam Notes
Contemporary India Chapter 5 Natural Vegetation and Wildlife
Class 9 Social Science Natural Vegetation and Wild Life Exam Notes
Contemporary India Chapter 6 Population
Class 9 Social Science Population Exam Notes
Democratic Politics I Chapter 2 Constitutional Design
Class 9 Social Science Constitutional Design Exam Notes
Democratic Politics I Chapter 3 Electoral Politics
Class 9 Social Science Electoral Politics Exam Notes
Democratic Politics I Chapter 4 Working of Institutions
Class 9 Social Science Working of Institutions Exam Notes
Democratic Politics I Chapter 5 Democratic Rights
Class 9 Social Science Democratic Rights Exam Notes
Economics Chapter 1 The Story of Village Palampur
Class 9 Social Science The Story of Village Palampur Exam Notes
Economics Chapter 2 People as Resource
Class 9 Social Science People As Resources Exam Notes
Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge
Class 9 Social Science Poverty As Challege Exam Notes
Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India
Class 9 Social Science Food Security in India Exam Notes
India and Contemporary I Chapter 1 The French Revolution
Class 9 Social Science French Revolution Exam Notes
India and Contemporary I Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
Class 9 Social Science Socialism In Europe and The Russian Revolution Exam Notes
India and Contemporary I Chapter 3 Nazism and the Rise of Hitler
Class 9 Social Science Nazism And The Rise Of Hitler Exam Notes
India and Contemporary I Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism
Class 9 Social Science Forest Society and Colonialism Exam Notes
India and Contemporary I Chapter 5 Pastoralists in the Modern World
Class 9 Social Science Pastoralists in the Modern World Exam Notes

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