Class 9 Social Science Population Exam Notes

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Class 9 Social Science Population Exam Notes. Please refer to the examination notes which you can use for preparing and revising for exams. These notes will help you to revise the concepts quickly and get good marks.


Population is the total number of people living in a country at a given point of time.The people, who constitute the population, act as the producers as well as the consumers of goods and services.

The main objective of studying population is to estimate :

1.The total manpower available for production.

2.The total amount of goods and services required for their consumption.

Three major aspects of the population :

1.Population size and distribution : How many people are there and where are they located ?

2.Population growth and processes of population change : How the population has grown and changed through time?

3.Characteristics or qualities of the population : What are their age, sex-composition, literacy levels, occupational structure and health conditions ?.

Population size and distribution : Population size and distribution is estimated by census.

Census : It is the process of collection, compilation and publication of information relating to different aspects of people living in a country at a specific time. A census is an official enumeration of population done periodically.

India’s population as on March 2001 stood at 1.028 million which accounts for 16.7 % of the world population.

These 1.02 billion people are unevenly distributed over our country’s vast area of 3.28 million km2, which accounts for 2.4 % of the world area.

According to 2001 census data reveals that Uttar Pradesh with a population size of 166 million people is the most populous state of India. Uttar Pradesh accounts for about 16 % of the country’s population. Sikkim has population of 0.5 million and Lakshadweep has only 60 thousand people.

Almost half of India’s population lives in five states. These are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh. Rajasthan the biggest state in terms of area, has only 5.5 %of the population of India.

India's Population Distribution By Density

Population Density : It is calculated as the number of persons per unit area.

India is one of the most densely populated countries of the world. The population density of India in the year 2001 was 324 persons per sq. km.
♦ Densely Populated Areas : There are those areas which have population of more than 300 persons per sq. km. The population is dense due to fertile soil and good rainfall or sufficient irrigation facilities.
Area - Satluj and Gangetic Plain, Malabar Coastal Plain, Coromandal coast.
 States : Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Kerala, Tamil Nadu.
 Medium Density : These are those areas which have population about 100 - 300 persons per sq. km.
Area : Brahmputra valley, industrial area.
States : Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Orissa Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu.
 Thinly populated : These are those areas which have population less than 100 persons per sq. km.
Area : Great Indian Desert, Hills of north eastern states.
States : Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Assam, Tripura, Nagaland, Meghalaya Manipur, Mizoram, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.

 Population growth and Process of Population change

 Population growth : Magnitude and Pace are two important element of population increases.
 Magnitude : It refers to the number of person added each year or each decade to a given population.
 Pace : It refers to the speed or the rate at which the increase take place. It is recorded in percent per year.
Population Growth : It refers to the change in number of inhabitants of a country during a specified period of time. (during the last 10 years).

There are three main processes of change of population, birth rates, death rates and migration.
 Birth rate : It is the number of live births per thousand person in a year.
 Death rate : It is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.
♦ Migration : It is the movement of people across regions and territories. Migration can be internal (with in the country) or international (between the countries).
 Internal Migration : It is that under which people move from one part of the country to other.
 Reasons of Internal Migration :

1. Rising population in rural areas.
2. Lack of demand for labour in agriculture.]
3. Increased employment opportunities, better education and living standards in Urban areas.
4. Expansion of industrial and service sectors in Urban areas.
 International migration : Movement of people from one country to another is known as international migration.
 Causes of Rapid growth of Population :
1. High Birth Rate 2. Decline in Death Rate 3. Child Marriage
4. Poverty 5. Marriage as a Necessity 6. Illiteracy
It refers to the number of people in different age groups in a country.
 Children (0-14 age group) : They are economically unproductive and need to be provided with food, clothing, education and medical care.'
 Working age : (15 - 59 years) : They are economically productive and biologically reproductive. They comprise the working population.
 Aged : (above 59 year) : They can be economically productive though they may have retired. They may be working voluntarily but they are not available for employment through recruitment.
It is defined as the number of females per 1000 males in the population.
 Literacy Rates : It is a very important quality of a population. Only an informed and educated citizen can make intelligent choices and undertake research and development project.
 Literate : A person aged 7 years and above who can read and write with understanding in any language is trealed as literate.
Literacy rate according to the census 2001
India : 64.84 %
Males : 75.26 %
Females : 53.67 %
The distribution of the population according to different types of occupation is referred to as the occupational structure.
1. Primary Sector : Agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, logging, fishery etc. are collectively known as Primary activities. These are primary because production is carried on with the help of nature.
2. Secondary Sector : Manufacturing industries are known as secondary activities. All manufacturing units like small scale industry large scale industry, construction work etc.
3. Tertiary sector : It is a sector which provides services to both primary as well as secondary sector. It include transport, communication, banking, insurance, public administration etc.
Health does not mean survival only, it concerns physical, mental, economic and social well being of an individual as well. It is an important component of population composition, which affects the process of development.
 Improvement in the Health Status :
1. Diseases like small pox and plague have been eradicated. Malaria has been brought under control.
2. The mortality rate, too has been reduced to less than half.
3. Life expectancy has gone upto 61 years in 2001 from a mere 41 years during 1951-61.
4. Government has created an extensive network of community Health centres and Primary Health Centres.

Adolescents are generally grouped in the age group of 10-19 years,. It constitutes one fifth of the total population of India. They are the most important resources for the future. Nutrition requirements of adolescents are higher than those of a normal child or adult. Poor nutrition can lead to deficiency and stunted growth. A large number of adolescent girls suffer from anaemia. The adolescent girls have to be sensitised can be improved through the spread of literacy and education among them.
 National Population Policy :
1. The government of India initiated the comprehensive family planning programme in 1952.
2. The family welfare programme has sought to promote responsible and planned parenthood on a voluntary basis.
3. The national population policy 2000 is a culmination of years of planned efforts.

 Family welfare programme :
1. Provides free and compulsory school education up to 14 years.
2. Reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per thousand live births.
3. Promoting delayed marriage for girls.
4. Achieving universal immunisation of children against all vaccine preventable disease.
5. Making family welfare a people centred programme.
NPP 2000 identified adolescents as one of the major sections of the population that need greater attention.
 Major objectives of the policy :

1. To fulfill nutritional requirements
2. Protection from unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases.
3. Encouraging delayed marriage and child bearing.
4. Education of adolescents about the risk of unprotected sex.
5. Making contraceptive services accessible and affordable.
6. Providing food supplements.
7. Strengthening legal measures to prevent child marriage.
1. Natural resources : They are various useful gifts which are provided by nature like soil, water, minerals etc.
2. Census : Official enumeration of population along with certain economic and social statistics in a given teritory, carried out on a specific day. It is generally conducted periodically.
3. Migration : The movement of people across regions and territories.
4. Birth Rate : The number of infants born for every 1000 persons in a year.
5. Death Rate : The number of deaths per 1000 persons a year is called death rate.
6. Sex Ratio : Number of women per 1000 of men population.
7. Density of population : The average number of persons per unit area.
8. Metropolis : A very large city or agglomeration of population in a district or a country and is often a chief centre seat of some form of activity administrative, commercial or industrial.
9. Natural growth rate of population : Difference between birth rate and death rate.
10. Dependency ratio : The ratio between economically working population and the dependent population is known as the dependency ratio.
11. Demography : It is the study of the population statistics, trends and changes over a time based on birth rate, death rate and fertility rate.
12. Age composition : The number of people in different age groups in a country.
13. Occupational structure : It refers to the distribution of country’s people according to different occupations.
14. Population growth : It is the change in the number of inhabitants of a country during a specific period of time.
15. Literate : According to the census 2001, a person aged 7 yrs and above who can read and write with understanding in any language is treated as literate.
16. Adolescence : It is a period in which a person is no longer a child and not yet an adult. Such persons are grouped in the age group of 10-19 years.

Q.1 What is the significance of studying population?
Q.2 Name most populous states of India.
Q.3 Define the term density of population.
Q.4 Give the formula for density of population Also give the density of population of India.
Q.5 In how many types is the population of India divided and state them.
Q.6 Define annual growth rate of population.
Q.7 What is the population of in the region of moderate density. State at least two
states and a union territory each belonging to the region ?
Q.8 What is the population in the region of low density ?
Q.9 Name the states having the highest and the lowest density of population.
Q.10 State four factors which affect the distribution of density of population.
Q.11 State the implication of high density population in India.
Q.12 Why peninsular states have moderate population densities ?
Q.13 Define sex-ratio ? Give two reasons responsible for unfavourable sex-ratio ?
Q.14 What do you understand by growth rate ?
Q.15 How is populations living in various regions compared ?
Q.16 Why is north India plain thickly populated ?
Q.17 Why is there less population in Rajasthan ?
Q.18 Define the term birth rate ?
Q.19 What is dependent ratio of population ?
Q.20 What do you mean by migration ? What are its two types ?
Q.21 Give two reasons for migration of people zrom rural to urban areas is India.
Q.1 What is the importance of studying population ?
Q.2 What is the main causes of the rapidpo pulation growth in India ?
Q.3 Why has Kerala a better sex ratio than the rest of the country ?
Q.4 What is migration ? What are two types of migrations in India ?
Q.5 What is natural growth rate of population ?
How can birth rate be brought down ? Give two methods ?
Q.6 Describe occupational structure ?
Q.7 How can we control the rapid growth of population in India ? Explain any five measures.
Q.8 Write a short note on population growth ?
Q.9 “Health situation in India is still a cause for serious concern”. Give reasons.
Q.10 What are the main objective of new national population policy ?
Q.11 What is adolescent population ? How is this age group a very critical stage in a national’s life ?
Q.12 Define census. What is the importance of the study of population ?
Q.13 Describe age compositions.
Q.14 How is population growth related to female literacy ?
Q.15 Discuss the causes of decline in death rate.

Q.1 Write a note on the population distribution in India pointing out the geographical factors influencing the same.
Q.2 Why has the rapid growth of population in the metropolitan cities of India become serious problem ?
Q.3 What are the demerits of over population ? explain giving examples from different parts of India.
Q.4 Why is necessary to change the present occupational structure of India ? Explain by giving five examples.
Q.5 Explain five factors which are responsible for the uneven distribution of population.
Q.1 India has .............. of total world population.
(A) 17.7 % 
(B) 16.7 %
(C) 18.2 % 
(D) 20 %
Answer.(B) 16.7 %
Q.2 Literacy rate in India according to 2001 census is -
(A) 55.3 % 
(B) 62.25 %
(C) 63.35 % 
(D) 67 %
Answer.(C) 63.35 % 
Q.3 Kerala’s literacy rate is -
(A) 90.92 % 
(B) 100 %
(C) 95 % 
(D) 97 %
Answer.(A) 90.92 % 
Q.4 The percentage of children below 15 years is-
(A) 35.20 % 
(B) 34.33 %
(C) 34.44 % 
(D) 50 %
Answer.(B) 34.33 %
Q.5 The percentage of senior citizen is -
(A) 9.6 % 
(B) 6.10 %
(C) 6.97 % 
(D) 10 %
Answer.(C) 6.97 % 
Q.6 The percentage of working population is -
(A) 58.7 % 
(B) 57.35 %
(C) 56.8 % 
(D) 50 %
Answer.(A) 58.7 % 
Q.7 What is the marriage age for boys and girls -
(A) 21 yrs & 18 yrs
(B) 15 yrs and 10 yrs
(C) 14 yrs and 12 yrs
(D) all the above
Answer.(A) 21 yrs & 18 yrs
Q.8 What is life expectancy in India ?
(A) 55 yrs 
(B) 50 yrs
(C) 61 yrs 
(D) 65 yrs
Answer.(C) 61 yrs 
Q.9 Which state has the highest literacy level -
(A) Rajasthan
(B) Gujarat
(C) Punjab 
(D) Kerala
Answer.(B) Gujarat
Q.10 Which state has the lowest literacy level -
(A) Karnataka 
(B) Tamil Nadu
(C) Haryana 
(D) Bihar
Answer.(D) Bihar
Q.11 According to 2001 census the sex ratio in India is -
(A) 950 
(B) 933
(C) 960 
(D) 970
Answer.(B) 933
Q.12 Name the state having the highest density of population -
(A) Punjab 
(B) Haryana
(C) West Bengal 
(D) Rajasthan
Answer. (C) West Bengal 
Q.13 Name the state having the lowest density of population -
(A) Rajasthan 
(B) Uttar Pradesh
(C) Arunachal Pradesh 
(D) Bihar
Answer. (C) Arunachal Pradesh 
Q.14 What is the annual growth rate of population of India -
(A) 1.93 % 
(B) 5 %
(C) 7 % 
(D) 10 %
Answer. (A) 1.93 % 
Q.15 Which is the most densely populated country of the world -
(A) Pakistan 
(B) Bhutan
(C) Nepal 
(D) India
Answer.(D) India
Q.16 Which is the most populous state of India -
(A) Uttar Pradesh
(B) West Bengal
(C) Bihar
(D) Punjab
Answer. (A) Uttar Pradesh
Q.17 Which is the least populous state of India -
(A) Haryana
(B) Tamil Nadu
(C) Sikkim
(D) Madhya Pradesh
Answer. (C) Sikkim
Q.18 What is India share in total area of the world -
(A) 2.4 % 
(B) 3.3 %
(C) 5.5 % 
(D) 6.2 %
Answer. (A) 2.4 % 
Q.19 The position of India in terms of population size -
(A) First 
(B) Second
(C) Third 
(D) Fourth
Answer. (B) Second
Q.20 Total population of India according to 2001 census -
(A) 1, 028 million
(B) 900 million
(C) 7500 million
(D) 1200 million
Answer. (A) 1, 028 million

Question And Answer

Question : Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) Migrations change the number, distribution and composition of the population in
(a) The area of departure
(b) Both the area of departure and arrival
(c) The area of arrival
(d) None of the above
Answer: (b) Both the area of departure and arrival

(ii) A large proportion of children in a population is a result of
(a) High birth rates
(b) High death rates
(c) High life expectancies
(d) More married couples
Answer: (a) High birth rates

(iii) The magnitude of population growth refers to
(a) The total population of an area
(b) The number of persons added each year
(c) The rate at which the population increases
(d) The number of females per thousand males
Answer: (b) The number of persons added each year

(iv) According to the Census 2001, a “literate” person is one who
(a) Can read and write his/her name
(b) Can read and write any language
(c) Is 7 years old and can read and write any language with understanding
(d) Knows the 3 ‘R’s (reading, writing, arithmetic)
Answer: (a) Can read and write his/her name

Question : Distinguish between population growth and population change.

Answer : Population growth is about increase or decrease in the population. Population change is about changes in population composition; like age structure, sex ratio, literacy rate, occupational structure, etc.

Question : Answer the following questions briefly.

(i) Why is the rate of population growth in India declining since 1981?
(ii) Discuss the major components of population growth.
(iii) Define age structure, death rate and birth rate.
(iv) How is migration a determinant factor of population change?
Answer :
(i) The family planning programme helped in increasing the awareness about the benefits of smaller family size. This helped in reducing the rate of population growth in India since 1981.

(ii) Birth rate, death rate and migration are the major components of population growth. A higher birth rate; coupled with a lower death rate leads to population growth. International migration can lead to population growth of more number of people are coming from other countries than the number of people going outside the country.

(iii) Age Structure: Relative percentage of various age groups in the population is called age structure of the population. Age group is generally divided into children (upto 14 years), working age (15 – 59 years) and aged (60 years and above).
Death Rate: The number of deaths per 1000 persons is called death rate.
Birth Rate: The number of live births per 1000 persons is called birth rate.

(iv) Migration within the country is called internal migration, while that between two countries is called international migration. Internal migration has no change on population size but it changes the population composition of a particular area. International migration can lead to a growth or degrowth in population; depending on the degree of immigration and emigration.

Question : What are the significant features of the National Population Policy 2000?

Answer : NPP 200 has put special emphasis on the adolescent population. Focus is given to special nutritional needs of the adolescents. Awareness programmes are conducted to increase awareness about STDs, unwanted pregnancies, child marriage, risks of unprotected sex, etc.

Question : What are the advantages of having a healthy population?

Answer : A healthy population helps in building a productive workforce for the country. Even the non-productive age group needs to be healthy to reduce the burden of healthcare. Healthy children would grow into healthy adults and would be able to contribute better in the economy. Healthy elders would mean less strain on the resources.

Question : What is the relation between occupational structure and development?

Answer : Occupational structure greatly affects the development of a country. A large portion of the Indian population is still dependent on the primary sector for employment; which is one of the reasons for lack of development in India. Examples of developed nations suggest that when a greater portion of population engages in secondary and tertiary activities, it leads to proper development.

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