Class 9 Social Science Poverty As Challege Exam Notes

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Class 9 Social Science Poverty As Challege Exam Notes. Please refer to the examination notes which you can use for preparing and revising for exams. These notes will help you to revise the concepts quickly and get good marks.

Problem Of Poverty

Poverty : It is the situation in which person is unable to get minimum basic necessities of life i.e., food, clothing and shelter for his or her sustenance.

Mass Poverty : When a large section of people in an economy are deprived of these basic necessities, that economy is said to be in mass poverty.

Poverty is used in two ways.

1.Relative poverty 2.Absolute povert

Relative poverty : Under relative poverty the economic condition of different regions, or condition of different regions , or countries is compared.

Two indicators of Relative Poverty are

1.Per capita Income 2.National Income

 According to a report submitted by UNO those countries are treated as per whose poor capita  income is less than US $ 725 per annum.

Absolute poverty : It refers to the measure of poverty keeping in view the per capita intake of calories and minimum level of consumption.

Per Capital Income = National Income/Population

National Income : It is the total value of goods and services produced with in the country plus net income from abroad.

Measurement Of Poverty

There are two approaches by which the number of poor is estimated :

(1) Expenditure Method (2) Income Method

Expenditure Method :

(A) Under expenditure method first of all the minimum nutritional food requirement for survival is  estimated.

(B) The food value is converted to calories.

(C) The caloric value of food is then converted to money value i.e.rupees.

(D) A minimum amount of money which is required for purchasing cloth and other necessities is added to the money value of food.
 
(E) The total equivalent amount is considered as poverty line.
 
(F) All those families which spent less than the poverty line families.
 
2. Income Method :

A person is considered poor if his or her income or consumption level falls. Below as given minimum level necessary to fulfill basic needs. Each country uses an imaginary line that is considered appropriate for its existing level of development and its accepted minimum social norms.
 
(A) This method is used by the government while distributing food through Public Distribution System at the local level.
 
(B) Under this a poverty line is fixed by the government. For example for the year 1999-2000 it was fixed at Rs. 328 per capita per north for rural areas and Rs. 454 per capita per month for Urban areas.
 
(C) All the families whose total income in a month is less than the poverty line fixed by the government are considered Below Poverty Line (BPL).
 
♦ Poverty Estimates : It is the line which indicates the level of purchasing power required to satisfy the minimum need of person. In other words it represents the capacity to satisfy the minimum level of human needs.
 
The line divides the population in two groups, one of those who have this purchasing power or more is known as Above Poverty Line and other group of those people who do not have this much of purchasing power is known as Below the Poverty Line.
 
The number of persons living below the poverty line in 2001-02 was 26.02 crore. Among them 19.32 crore are living in rural area and 6.7 crore in urban areas. In 1973-74 about 55 % of India’s population was living below poverty line. 1999-2000, this has come down to 26 %. This means only about a quarter of the population in India is now living below poverty line.
 
→VULNERABLE GROUPS

→Vulnerability : Vulnerability to poverty is a measure, which describes the greater probability of certain communities (say, members of a backward caste) or individuals (such as a widow or a physically handicapped person) of becoming, or remaining, poor in the coming years. Vulnerability is determined by the options available to different communities for finding an alternative living in terms of assets, education, health and job opportunities. Further, it is analysed on the basis of the greater risks these groups face at the time of natural disasters (earthquakes, tsunami), terrorism etc.
 
 Who are Vulnerable :Poverty and occupation both are co-related. Most of the poor people include agricultural and casual labourers, the tribals and the disabled or the physically challenged. According to the 
estimates of Planning Commissions agricultural labour house hold constitute 25 % of the total labour house hold and of these 57.60 % live below poverty line. In those states where agricultural labourers are a great share, Poverty is also higher. In case of Urban poor, the poverty occurs primarily due to the outflow of the rural poor into Urban areas. The casual workers, the unemployed daily wage earners, domestic servants, Rickshaw Pullers, Hotel and Restaurant Workers fall in the category of the urban poor.
 Class 9 Social Science Poverty As Challege Exam Notes
Poverty in India also has another aspect or dimension. The proportion of poor people is not the same in every state. Recent estimates show that in 20 states and union territories, the poverty ratio is less than the national average. On the other hand, poverty is still a serious problem in Orissa, Bihar, Assam, Tripura and Uttar Pradesh. Orissa and Bihar continue to be the two poorest states with poverty ratios of 47 and 43 per cent respectively. Along with rural poverty urban poverty is also high in Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. States like Punjab and Haryana have traditionally succeeded in reducing poverty with the help of high agricultural growth rates. Kerala has focused more on human resource development. In West Bengal, land reform measures have helped in reducing poverty. In Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu public distribution of food grains could have been responsible for the improvement.
 
→GLOBAL POVERTY SCENARIO
♦ The proportion of people in developing countries living in extreme economic poverty— defined by the World Bank as living on less than $1 per day—has fallen from 28 per cent in 1990 to 21 per cent in 2001.
 
Although there has been a substantial reduction in global poverty, it is marked with great regional differences. Poverty declined substantially in China and Southeast Asian countries as a result of rapid economic growth and massive investments in human resource development. In Sub-Saharan Africa, poverty
in fact rose from 41 per cent in 1981 to 46 percent in 2001 (see graph 3.3). In Latin America, the ratio of poverty remained the same.
Class 9 Social Science Poverty As Challege Exam Notes
CAUSES OF POVERTY

1. British Rule : Britishers rules India for more than 100 years. Prior to the Brithsh rule, traditional industries, for instance textile, were flowshing in India. During the British rule, they adopted policies to discourage such industries. This left millions of weavers poor.
 
2. Rural Economy : In India, 70 % of the total population is engaged is agriculture but its contribution to the national predominantly an agricultural country, it is very much backward in agriculture.
 
3. Heavy Pressure of Population : Population in India has been increasing very rapidly. Main factors accounting for it is sharp fall in death rate but stable birth rate for the last many decades. This pressure of population serves as a big stumbling block to economic development. Inspite of increase in total production, per capita income is very low.
 
4. Chronic unemployment and Under employed : Due to increasing pressure on land per hectare availability of land is decreasing. Due to division of land production is decreasing. Agricultural sector is also facing problem of disguised unemployment.
 
5. Lack of proper Industrialisation : India is very backward from the industrial point of view. Hardly 3 % of population (working) is engaged in large scale industries. No doubt, consumer’s good industries have developed to a large scale but capital and producers goods industries have not year developed properly. We still have to depend on foreign countries with regard to these industries.
 
6. Social factors : Social factors like illiteracy, large size of family, law of inheritance and caste system are also responsible for prevalence of poverty ridden people.
 
→ REMOVAL OF POVERTY

Following are some of the measures under taken by the government alleviation of poverty.
 
1. Trickle down effect :

(A) Under this government laid stress on the development of agriculture and industries.
 
(B) It was assumed that development of industry and agriculture would create employment opportunities and incomes, which would lead to rapid economic development.
 
(C) It was assumed that the benefit to a particular section across the country, particularly the poorer ones. This is also known as trickle down effect.
 
2. Land Reforms :

Due to economic policies of the Britishers there was a huge gap between the income of the rich and poor. Wealth and other resources like land was concentrated in the hands of a few. In order to reduce the gap the government introduced following land reforms.
 
1. Abolition of Zamindari system
 
2. Land ceiling
 
3. Fixation of Rents
 
3. Promotion of cottage and small scale industries : Cottage and small scale industries, which employ more labourers and less machinery, is being encouraged. The government has reserved some products solely for these industries.
 
4. Income redistribution measures : In order to reduce the gap between the poor and the rich, the government made an attempt through income redistribution measures. This has been done by taxing -
 
(A) The rich and middle class
 
(B) The commodities of luxury consumption.
 
(C) Subsidising the provision of essential goods to lower income groups.
 
→ POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMMES
 
1. Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SJGSY) (launched in 1999) Main objectives.
 
(A) Help the existing poor families to come above the poverty line.
 
(B) Families below poverty line are provided with financial assistance.
 
(C) This is a centrally sponsored scheme.
 
2. Sampoorna Gramin Rojgar Yojana (SGRY) (launched on 1-09-2001) Main objective.
 
1. To provide opportunities to surplus labour.
 
2. To provide security of fertilisers and manures.
 
3. Development of the basic infrastructure.
 
4. Development of the regional economic and social conditions.
 
3. Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana (PMRY) : PMRY started in 1993 with the objective of providing selfemployment opportunities to the educated unemployed youth and to setup village industries.
 
4. Swarnajayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana : This was started in the 1997. The main objectives are :
 
1. To alleviate poverty from Urban Areas.
 
2. To provide self employment to the educated unemployed in Urban Areas.
 
5. Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY) (Launched in 2000-01) Objectives :
 
To provide basic services such as Primary Health, Primary Education, Rural Shelter, Rural drinking water.
 
GLOSSARY
 
1. Poverty : It is a state in which people do not have sufficient income to fullfill the basic necessities of life like food, clothing and shelter.
 
2. Absolute Poverty : It refers to the total number of people living below poverty line.
 
3. Relative poverty : It refers to poverty of people in relation to other people, regions or nations.
 
4. Poverty line : It is the level of income which divides the population as poor and non poor. It is drawn on the basis of minimum consumption expenditure.
 
5. International poverty line : It is defined by world bank as an income of less than $ 1 per day.
 
6. Social exclusion : It is the state of living in very poor condition and excluded from facilities, benefits and opportunities that other enjoys.
 
7. Vulnerability : It describe the level of poverty when people have a greater probability of being adversely affected than other people of the time of natural disasters.
 
8. Economic growth : It is the term which defines an increase in real output of a country.
 
9. Mass poverty : It is a situation in which a large section of people in economy are deprived of the basic necessities.
 
EXERCISE

A. VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
 
Q.1 What is poverty ?
 
Q.2 How does rapid growth of population responsible for poverty ?
 
Q.3 Mention two methods of estimate poverty ?
 
Q.4 Mention any two steps which have been taken by the government to alleviate poverty.
 
Q.5 What is poverty line ?
 
Q.6 Mention any two objectives of the Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana.
 
Q.7 Mention any two poverty alleviation programmes.
 
Q.8 Name any four poverty ridden states.
 
Q.9 Mention any two land reforms introduced by the government.
 
Q.10 What is mass poverty ?
 
Q.11 Mention the major indicators of poverty.
 
Q.12 How is poverty line estimated periodically.
 
Q.13 Why is calorie requirement higher in rural areas then in Urban areas ?
 
Q.14 Despite less calorie requirement, Urban areas have a higher poverty line. Why ?
 
Q.15 Which groups are the most vulnerable in India ?
 
Q.16 Who are the Urban poor ?
 
Q.17 Why does the poverty line is vary with time and place ?
 
Q.18 Is it possible to achieve better success in poverty reduction ? How ?
 
Q.19 What do you mean by poverty alleviation programme.
 
Q.20 Who is the poorest of the poor ?
 
B. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
 
Q.1 Explain briefly how the poverty lines is estimated in India ?
 
Q.2 Describe the poverty trends in India since 1973.
 
Q.3 Discuss briefly the global poverty trends as studied by the world Bank.
 
Q.4 Give a brief account of inter state disparities in poverty in India.
 
Q.5 Give a brief account of inter state disparities in poverty in India.
 
Q.6 What are the main features of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 ?
 
Q.7 How does economic growth lead to poverty reduction ?
 
Q.8 Discus the major dimensions of poverty.
 
Q.9 The result of poverty alleviation programmes have been mixed. Give any four reasons.
 
Q.10 Explain poverty as seen by the social scientists.
 
Q.11 Mention any four social factors responsible for poverty ?
 
Q.12 Give the poverty trends in India since 1973.
 
C. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
 
Q.1 Explain the major causes of poverty
 
Q.2 Explain the steps taken by government for the removal of poverty
 
Q.3 Describe measurement of poverty.
 
Q.4 Suggest some measures to remove poverty in India.
 
D. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
 
Q.1 What is the number of persons living below poverty line in 2001-02 ?
(A) 26.02 crore 
(B) 20.52 crore
(C) 22.67 crore 
(D) 24.52 crore
 
Q.2 Which region has high percentage of people living below poverty line -
(A) Rural 
(B) Urban
(C) Hilly 
(D) All the above
 
Q.3 What is accepted average calorie requirement in rural areas in India -
(A) 2000 cal (B) 2600 cal
(C) 2400 cal (D) 3000 cal
 
Q.4 What is the accepted average calorie requirement in Urban areas in India -
(A) 1500 cal (B) 2100 cal
(C) 2400 cal (D) 2700 cal
 
Q.5 What is the poverty line for the rural areas in India at present -
(A) Rs. 400 per month
(B) Rs. 350 per month
(C) Rs. 328 per month
(D) Rs. 375 per month
 
Q.6 What is the poverty line for the Urban areas in India at present ?
(A) Rs 454 per month
(B) Rs. 300 per month
(C) Rs. 600 per month
(D) Rs. 550 per month
 
Q.7 Swarna jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana was launched in -
(A) 1997 
(B) 1998
(C) 1996 
(D) 1999
 
Q.8 Prime Minister’s Rozgar Yojana was started in -
(A) 1990 
(B) 1991
(C) 1992 
(D) 1993
 
Q.9 Which is the poorest state in India -
(A) Bihar 
(B) Orissa
(C) Rajastahn
(D) Gujarat
 
Q.10 The population of India in 2000-01 was -
(A) 100 crore 
(B) 98 crore
(C) 102 crore 
(D) 105 crore
 
Q.11 Contribution of agriculture in Indian economy is -
(A) 25 % 
(B) 30 %
(C) 35 % 
(D) 50 %

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