Class 9 Social Science Food Security in India Exam Notes

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Class 9 Social Science Food Security in India Exam Notes. Please refer to the examination notes which you can use for preparing and revising for exams. These notes will help you to revise the concepts quickly and get good marks.

Food Security

It means availability, accessibility and affordability of food to all people at all times. food security depends on the Public Distribution System (PDS).

Dimension of food security :

(A)Availability of foods means food production  with in the country, food imports and the previous years stock stored in government granaries.

(B)Accessibility means food is within reach of every person.

(C)Affordability implies that an individual has enough money to buy sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet one’s dietary needs.

Food security is ensured in a country only if -       

(A)Enough food is available for all the persons.

(B)All the persons have the capacity to buy food of acceptable quality.

(C)There is no barrier on access to food.

Why Food Security?

The poorest section of the society might be food insecure most of the times while persons above the poverty line might also be food insecure when the country faces a national disaster/calamity like earthquake, tsunami,  drought etc.

How is food security affected during a calamity ?

1.Due to a natural calamity, say drought, total production of food, grains decreases.

2.It create a shortage of food in a affected areas.

3.Due to shortage of food, the prices go up.

4.At the high prices, some people cannot afford to buy food.

If such calamity (Drought) happens in a very wide area or is stretched over a longer time period, it may cause a situation of starvation. A massive starvation might take a turn of famine.
 
 Features of famine :
 
1. Wide spread deaths due to starvation.
 
2. Epidemics caused by forced use of contaminated water or decaying food.
 
3. Loss of the body resistance due to weakening from starvation.
 
WHO ARE FOOD INSECURE ?
 
The worst affected groups are landless people with little or no land to depend upon, traditional artisans providers of traditional services, petty self employed workers and destitutes including beggars.
In the urban areas food insecure families are those whose working members are generally employed in ill paid occupations and casual labour market. These workers are largely engaged in seasonal activities and are
paid very low wages that just ensure bare survival.
 
 Social composition :

1. The SCs, STs and some section of the OBCs (lower caste among them) who have either poor landbase or very low land productivity are prone to food insecurity.
 
2. The people affected by natural disasters, who have to migrate to other areas in search of work are also among the food insecure people.
 
3. A high incidence of malnutrition prevails among women especially pregnant and nursing mother and children under the age of 5 years.
 
 Areas of Food Insecurity :

1. The food insecure people are disproportionately large in some regions of the country, such as economically backward states with high incidence of poverty, tribal and remote areas, regions more prone to natural disasters etc.
 
2. The state of Uttar Pradesh (eastern and south eastern parts) Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, West Begal, Chattisgarh, parts of Madhya Pradesh and Maharastra account for largest number of food insecure people in the country.
Hunger is not just an expression of poverty, it brings about poverty. The attainment of food security therefore involves eliminating current hunger and reducing the risk of future hunger.
 
There are two types of dimensions of hunger -

1. Chronic hunger         2. Seasonal hunger
 
1. Chronic hunger : It is consequence of diets persistently inadequate in terms of quantity and/or quality. Poor people suffer from chronic hunger because of their very low income and in turn inability to buy food even for survival.
 
2. Seasonal Hunger : It is related to cycles of food growing and harvesting. This is prevalent in rural areas because of the seasonal nature of the agricultural activities and in urban areas because of the casual labour, e.g. there is a less work for casual construction labour during the rainy season. This type of hunger exists when a person is unable to get work for the entire year.

SELF SUFFICIENCY IS FOOD GRAIN

 Self sufficiency : Though after the success of Green Revolution an new Agricultural Policy the imports of food grains have considerably fallen but still India is not, self dependent in case of food security. Success of wheat Revolution in July 1968 later was replicated in rice. The highest rate of growth was achieved in Punjab and Haryana, where food production jumped from 7.23 million tones in 1964-65 to reach an all time high of 30.33 million tones in 1995-96. Production in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa and the north eastern states continued to stagger. Tamil Nadu and Andra Pradesh, on the other hand, recorded significant increases in rice yield.
 
FOOD SECURITY IN INDIA
Food security system has two components -
(A) Buffer stock 
(B) Public Distribution System
(A) Buffer stock : It is stock of food grains, namely wheat and rice procured by the government through Food Corporation of India (FCI).
 
FCI : The food corporation of India was set in 1965. The main function of FCI are -
 
(A) To procure food grains directly from the farmers.
 
(B) To store the food grains
 
(C) To distribute the food grains to various agencies.
 
 Minimum Support Price : The farmers are paid a pre-announced price for their crops. This price is called minimum support Price (MSP). The MSP is declared by the government every year before the sowing season to provide incentives to the farmers for raising the production of these crops. The purchased food grains are stored in granaries. This buffer stock is created by the government. This is done to distribute food grains in the deficit areas and among the poorer strata of society at price lower than the market price also known as Issue Price. This also helps to resolve the problem of shortage of food during adverse weather conditions or during the period of calamity.
 
(B) Public Distribution System : Supply of essential commodities to the people through government agencies is known as public distribution system. It is used as an important activity of the state to ensure food security to the people, particularly the poorer ones. Under PDS the central government has assumed responsibility for supply of essential commodities like wheat, rice sugar, ediable oils and kerosene. This schemes is implemented with the help of the government in states and union territories. There are more than 4.55 Lakh fair price shops to distribute the essential commodities. The prices of the goods sold through PDS in fair price shops is less than that of the market price. The cost of this price difference is borne by the government. This amount is known as subsidy.
 
Types of ration card :

1. Antyodaya cards for the poorest of the poor.
 
2. BPL card for those below poverty line.
 
3. APL cards for all other.
 
Three important food intervention programmes :
 
(A) Public distribution system.
 
(B) Integrated Child Development Services (introduced in 1975)
 
(C) Food for work (Introduced in 1977-78)
 
→ CURRENT STATUS OF PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

1. In the beginning the coverage of PDS was universal with no discrimination between the poor and non poor.
 
2. In 1992, Revamped Public Distribution System (RPDS) was introduced in 1700 blocks in the country. The target was to provide benefits of PDS to remote and backward areas.
 
3. From June 1997, in a renewed attempt Targeted Public distribution system (TDPS) was introduced to adopt the principle of targeting the poor in all areas. It was for the first time that a differential price policy was adopted for poor and non poor.
 
4. In 2000, two special schemes were launched i.e.
Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) and the Annapurana scheme (APS) with special target groups of poorest of the poor and indigent senior citizen.
 
 Advantages of Public Distribution System :

1. The PDS has proved to be the most effective instrument of government policy over the years in stabilising prices and making food available to consumers at affordable prices.
 
2. It has been instrumental in averting widespread hunger and famine by supplying food from surplus region of the country to the deficit ones.
 
3. In addition, the prices have been under revision in favour of poor house hold in general.
 
4. The system, including the MSP and procurrent has contributed to an increase in food grain production and provided income security to farmers in certain regions.
 
 Disadvantages of Public Distribution System :
 
1. Instances of hunger are prevalent despite overflowing granaries.
 
2. FCI godowns are overflowing with grains.
 
3. In July 2002, the stock of wheat and rice with FCI was 63 million tones which was much more than the minimum buffer norms of 243 million tones.
 
4. The decline in stocks continued in the subsequent years.
 
5. The high level of buffer stocks food grains is very wasteful.
 
6. The PDS dealers are some times found resorting to malpractices like diverting the grains to open market to get better margin, selling or quality grains at ration shop, irregular opening of the shops.
 
♦ Role of cooperatives in food security :
The co-operative societies are the societies which are run by local people who are democratically elected by the people. These co-operation provide the people the basic necessities of like food grains, milk, vegetable etc at reasonable rates.
The consumer co-operative structure in the country has four tiers.
 
1. The National Co-operative, Consumer Federation of India Limited (NCCF)
 
2. State Co-operative Consumer Organisation.
 
3. Consumer Co-operative Stores
 
4. Primary Stores The NCCF has its Head Office at New Delhi Main function of NCCF are -
 
1. To provide essential and other commodities to the consumers at reasonable prices.
 
2. To protect the consumers against artificial scarcity, over charging of prices supply of sub-standard goods and the unfair trade practices.
 
3. To stabilize the prices of essential goods.
 
4. To strengthen the consumer Co-operative societies.
 
GREEN REVOLUTION AND PRODUCTION OF MORE FOOD GRAINS
Green Revolution means revolution in the field of agriculture production by introducing the various technological and institutional reforms and also by bringing new tracts of wasteland under cultivation. To meet this situation, the government took up many schemes for the improvement of agriculture :
 
1. Agriculture was given top priority in the First Five - Year Plan.
 
2. Several schemes for irrigation were undertaken and arid and semi-arid areas were brought under cultivation.
 
3. New and scientific methods of farming were adopted.
 
4. Few high-yielding varieties of seeds were developed.
 
5. Farmers were also encouraged to use manures and a break-through was made in the sixties and India saw a boom in agriculture.
 
PROBLEMS OF THE WORKING OF THE RATION SHOPS

Some scholars criticise the public Distribution System on various grounds and stress the need of reforming the whole system. They point out the following problems in the working of the Ration Shops or the Public
 
Distribution system :
1. Firstly, it is pointed out the quality of rationed articles issued to the poor is much less than required by them. As a result, the poor have to depend on markets than the ratio shops for their food needs.
 
2. Secondly, the ration shop dealers resort to malpractices. They divert the grains of the open market to get a better margin.
 
3. Some ration shop dealers sell poor quality of grains at the ration shops.
 
4. Still others open their shops irregularly so that the poor people could not draw their ration quota.
 
5. Some dealers weigh less and cheat the illiterate customers.
 
6. Some ration shops are unable to sell their poor quality grains, which becomes a great headche for the FCI.
 
7. With the introduction of three types of cards and three different prices for the same article to the different people, the whole system of public distribution System has became much complicated. In such a case many ration shop dealers themselves surrender them and they shift to other business.
 
8. Any family above the poverty line gets very little discount at the ration shop so there is very little charm for them to buy their items from the ration shops.
 
REASON OUT WHY
(i) Why farm labourers remain unemployed during a part of the year ?
Because agriculture is a seasonal activity and during the four months of plant consolidation and maturing there is no work in the field.
 
(ii) Why it is said that high level of buffer stocks of food grains is very undersirable ? Because it leads to wastage and deterioration of grain quality.
 
(iii) Why do some people criticise the system of Minimum support Price ?
The rising Maximum Support Prices year after year have led to the rise in prices of various commodities.
 
(iv) Why is agriculture a seasonal activity ?
 
(a) There is a work in the field during sowing, transplanting and harvesting alone.
 
(b) For about 4 months in a year during the period of plant consolidation and maturing, there is very little or no work in the fields. As such agriculture is a seasonal activity.
 
(v) Why is the Buffer Stock created by the Government ?
 
1. The first reason for this is that to resolve the problem of shortage of food arising due to adverse weather conditions like drought or too much of rains.
 
2. This is done to face the shortage of food in any part of the country which is affected by any calamity such as tsunamis, earthquakes, cyclone, storms or famine etc.
 
3. This stock is also used to help the poor strata of the society at a price lower than the market price.
 
4. This stock helps a lot in distributing in different areas.
 
GLOSSARY
 
1. Food Security : Food security at the individual, house hold, regional, national and global level exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious foods. It implies availability, accessibility and affordability of food to all people at all times.
 
2. Famine : It is characterised by wide spread death due to starvation and epidemics caused by forced use of contaminated water or decaying food and loss of body resistance due to weakening from starvation.
 
3. Malnutrition : It is the state of not having enough food or not getting nutritious food.
 
4. Buffer stock : It is the stock of food-grains namely rice and wheat procured by the government through FCI.
 
5. Food corporation of India : It was set up under the Food Corporation Act 1964. As the country’s nodal organisation for implementing the national food policy. It provides food grains at reasonable prices, maintain buffer stock and intervenes in the market for price stabilization of agricultural goods
 
6. Minimum Support Price : The FCI purchases food grains from the farmers in states where there is surplus production. The farmers are paid a pre announced price for their crops. It is fixed to protect the small farmers.
 
7. Issue Price : It is price lower than the market price at which the government distributes food grains among the
poorer strata of society.
 
8. Bengal Famine : It was the most divesting famine that occurred in India in 1943. Killing 30 Lakh people in the province of Bengal.
 
9. Public Distribution System (PDS) : It implies distribution of food among the poorer section of the society by the government through government regulated shops.
 
10. Fair Price Shops : These are the outlets from where poor people can produce food items at subsidized prices.
 
11. Subsidy : It is a payments that a government makes to a producer to supplement the market price of a commodity. It can keep consumer prices low while maintain a higher income for producer.
 
12. Rationing : It is a term given to government controlled distribution of resources and scarce goods or services. It restricts how much people are allowed to buy at a particular time with in a particular period.
 
EXERCISE
A. VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
 
Q.1 What is food security ?
 
Q.2 Name the factors on which the food security depends upon ?
 
Q.3 Name the two dimensions of hunger.
 
Q.4 Mention any two factors responsible for seasonal hunger.
 
Q.5 What is chronic hunger ? Name any one factor responsible for chronic hunger.
 
Q.6 Define green revolution.
 
Q.7 What are the function of FCI ?
 
Q.8 What is public distribution system ?
 
Q.9 What is TPDS ?
 
Q.10 What are cooperative societies ?
 
Q.11 What is subsidy ?
 
Q.12 Name any two Yojanas introduced with one objective of each of food security.
 
Q.13 How does calamity affect food security ?
 
Q.14 How does rising MSP affect food security ?
 
Q.15 How is food security ensured in a country ?
 
Q.16 Which areas in India lack food security ?
 
Q.17 Write a short note on fair price shops ?
 
Q.18 Why do people criticise the system of minimum support Price ?
 
B. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
 
Q.1 Mention any four limitation of PDS.
 
Q.2 Explain the major dimension of food security.
 
Q.3 Explain the impact of green revolution.
 
Q.4 “In most of the years the food stock in buffer stock remained consistently higher than the buffer norms” Why ?
 
Q.5 What is public distribution system ? What is its importances ?
 
Q.6 What are the major objective of Academy Development Science ?
 
Q.7 Distinguish between seasonal hunger and chronic hunger.
 
Q.8 How does PDS ensure food security in India.
 
Q.9 What are the problems in the functioning of ration shops ?
 
Q.10 Which are the groups worst affected by food insecurity ?
 
Q.11 How has PDS been removed by the Indian Government to improve and ensure food security ?
 
Q.12 Discuss briefly the three important food intervention programmes introduced by the Indian Government ?
 
Q.13 How is food security affected during a calamity ?
 
Q.14 What is famine ? What are the main features of famine ?
 
Q.15 Describe M.S.P. ?
 
Q.16 Why is the buffer stock created by the government ?
 
C. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
 
Q.1 What factors have led to the decline of the PDS ?
 
Q.2 Why there is need for food security in India ?
 
Q.3 What are advantages and disadvantage of PDS ?
 
Q.4 Explain the current states of PDS.
 
Q.5 Explain the role of co-operatives in food security.
 
D. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

Q.1 In which recent year food grain stock with the government was maximum ?
(A) July 2002
(B) July 1998
(C) July 1999
(D) July 2000
 
Q.2 What is the minimum buffer stock norms for the FCI ?
(A) 20 million tones
(B) 24.3 million tones
(C) 22 million tones
(D) 23 million tones
 
Q.3 In which year did our country cross the 200 million tones per year mark in food grain production ?
(A) 2001-02 
(B) 2003-04
(C) 2005-06 
(D) 2007-08
 
Q.4 In which decade did India experience the highest decade increase in the food grain production ?
(A) 1950-60
(B) 1960-70
(C) 1970-80
(D) 1980-90
 
Q.5 Antyodaya Anna Yojana was launched in -
(A) Dec 2002
(B) Dec 2001
(C) Dec 2000
(D) Dec 2005
 
Q.6 ............... hunger is related to cycle of food growing and harvesting -
(A) Chronic 
(B) Seasonal
(C) Both of them
(D) None of these
 
Q.7 The basic cause of chronic hunger is -
(A) High income 
(B) Low income
(C) Lack of work 
(D) All the above
 
Q.8 The basic cause of seasonal hunger is -
(A) High income 
(B) Low income
(C) Enough work 
(D) Lack of work

Q.9 How many types of ration card available in our country ?
(A) 1 
(B) 2
(D) 3 
(D) 4
 
Q.10 Integrated child developed services was introduced in -
(A) 1972 
(B) 1975
(C) 1977 
(D) 1980
 
Q.11 Food for work programme was launched in
(A) 1975-76 
(B) 1976-77
(C) 1977-78 
(D) 1978-79
 
Q.12 BPL cards for those people who are -
(A) Poorest of poor 
(B) Below poverty line
(C) All the people 
(D) All the above
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