Class 9 Social Science Democracy in the Contemporary World Exam Notes. Please refer to the examination notes which you can use for preparing and revising for exams. These notes will help you to revise the concepts quickly and get good marks.
Definition : Democracy has been defined differently by different scholars. In fact, democracy comes from a Greek word, ‘Democratic’. In Greek, ‘Demo’ means people and ‘Krati’ means rule. Thus democracy means the rule of the people. As all the people cannot be engaged in this work of rule so this job is entrusted to their representatives who rule on behalf of the people. So, in simple words, we can say that democracy is a form of government in which the rulers are elected by the people. Abraham Lincoln, a US President, has defined democracy as “ the government of the people, by the people and for the people.” This definition is perhaps the most popular definition to this day.
Chief Characteristics of Democracy : Democracy may be defined in any way, but these definitions do have some common features regarding democracy which may be narrated below :
1.In a democracy rulers elected by the people take all the main decisions and there is none above them to direct or guide.
2.In a democracy, elections are held regularly on the basis of universal adult franchise. These elections offer a fair opportunity to the people to change their present rulers.
3.In a democracy, all the people, without any distinction of caste, creed, colour or sex, are given this choice and opportunity on a equal basis.
4.In a democracy, the exercise of their choice of electing their rulers leads to a government limited by the rules of the Constitution and citizens’ rights.
Difficulties which People Face in Non-Democratic Countries :
People face various difficulties in nondemocratic countries like Chile, Myanmar, Pakistan, many kingdoms and Sheikhdoms etc.
In nondemocratic countries, the people are not allowed to criticise the government. Doing so means imprisonment, harassment and troubles one after the other.
1.In non-democratic countries, the rule of the king or the so called military rule prevails and the question of elections does not arise.
2.In non-democratic countries, no opposition is tolerated so the question of political parties, especially of the opposition parties, does not arise. Only those political parties can survive which toe to the line of the government.
3.In non-democratic countries, the workers are not allowed to form their independent Trade Unions. Only such Trade Unions can survive which, rightly or wrongly, support the policies of the government.
5. In non-democratic countries, all the people are at the mercy of the dictator or the military rulers. Anybody can be detained, arrested or even put to death without any trial.
6. In non-democratic countries, nobody can even aspire for an big post. If he is ready to be a tool in the hands of the ruler/dictator/military leaders, he can hope to get some good post. But he will have to kill his concscience and become dumb and deaf.
EFFECTS OF DEMOCRACY IN THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD
Now it is an admitted fact that democracy is the best form of government. Some of its good effects on contemporary world can be analysed below :
1. Democracy has ensured the safety of all the citizens under its umbrella.
2. Democracy has ensured the freedom of speech to all its adherent who can criticise the government if it is going astray.
3. Democracy has ensured free elections which enables the people to change their government after a specific period.
4. Democracy has ensured the existence of the different political parties which can always try to capture power and form the government.
5. Democracy has ensured the freedom of the press which can act as a lever to warn the government whenever it tries to go astray.
6. Democracy has ensured freedom to the workers to form their own trade unions.
7. Democracy has enabled all its citizens to aspire for any post, even if they belong to ordinary families like Sh. Lal Bahadur Shastri and Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, our former President.
♦ Chile : Why democracy is the best form of government can be best understood when we see the people rising against military dictatorships and they did not sit ideal till they had established democratic governments in their country. One such country is Chile, situated in the south part of South America.
There Salvador Allende was ruling on democratic lines as President from 1970 to 1973. But his government was toppled by a military coup on 11 September, 1973. The Presdient died in the military attack and a government duly elected by the people was overthrown by the military through conspiracy and violence. The General Augusto Pinochet ruled the country for the next 17 years with the help of his armed forces. Thus was military dictatorship established in Chile. Many people who refused to join the coup were imprisoned and tortured. All this resulted in the unpopularity of
Pinochet government. Under strong opposition by the people, he was forced to hold a referendum in 1988. He was of the opinion that people would support him but the people of Chile had not forgotten their democratic traditions. They voted against Pinochet and his military rule. Slowly and slowly under
the next four President, the army’s role in the country’s government was eliminated. Pinochet’s military rule was openly condemned by the people. In January 2006, Mrs. Michelle Bacshelet, whose family had been tortured during the military rule, was got elected as the President of Chile. Thus
democracy was once again restored in Chile.
In Poland, in Europe, there was dictatorship of one political party i.e., the Polish United Workers Party. No other party was allowed to contest the elections. In 1980, a communist government backed by USSR (or Russia) was ruling there. All the big factories and properties in Poland were owned by the government and as such no body had the right to strike. But forced by circumstances, sometimes the workers were forced to resort to strike. Such an incident happened in Gdansk, when on the question of unjustly dismissing a woman crane operator, the workers went on strike on 14th August, 1980. Soon Lech Walesa, another dismissed worker (an electrician) led this strike. The workers demanded the release of all political prisoners, taking back the dismissed workers, end of censorship and the right to form independent Trade Unions. The strike was so successful that the Government had to give in and
almost all the demand of the workers were accepted.
As a result of the Gdansk agreement, the workers formed a new Trade Union called ‘Solidarity’. The government, however, was not ready to allow people the freedom to organise, protest and express opinion quit freely so Martial Law was imposed in the country. Another wave of strikes began and ultimately upto 1988, the new Trade Union Solidarity became very powerful and successful in establishing true democracy in Poland. The reasons for the success and popularity of Solidarity are not too far to seek :
1. The first reason for the popularity of this Trade Union was this that it was the first independent Union which was formed in any of the communist countries.
2. This Trade Union fought against the widespread corruption and mismanagement within the Polish government.
3. The members of this Trade Union made many sacrifices. At last this Union proved successful and when the right to free election was given to the people, this union won 99 out of 100 seats and its leader Lech Walesa became the first popularly elected President of Poland in 1989.
In the 20th century, many previously undemocratic countries made successful advances towards democracy. But it is a pity that even in some big countries, people could not express their opinion freely for a long time. One such country is Portugal in Europe.
Following are some features that make Portugal under Salazar (1926-1934) a case of non-democracy.
1. After overthrowing the democratic government in Portugal in 1926, he ordered the killing of all opposition leaders.
2. His government started a ‘Concentration Camp’ on a barren island to punish those who were involved in working class protests.
3. Spies of the secret police were placed at public places - cafes, railway stations, offices, universities, hospitals, post offices etc.
4. Because of the fear of arrest, the citizens could not dare to discuss politics freely.
5. Even, when after 1945, he allowed the opposition to contest elections, only they were given one month to campaign which was not enough to mobilise the public opinion in their favour.
6. No opposition was allowed after elections.
7. The elections were held irregularly every four or seven years.
Because of the above repressive measures, the opposition could not ever win even a single seat.
Myanmar, formerly Burma, got its independence in 1948. It started its journey as a democratic country but soon in 1962, the democratic rule ended there when there was a military coup in that country.
The following examples/facts clearly prove that the army rule in Myanmar is undemocratic :
1. An elected government of Aung Sang Suk Kyi was toppled by the military rulers.
2. The elected pro-democracy leaders along with Aung Sang Kyi were put under house arrest.
3. Political activities were jailed for seven to fifteen years on very trivial offences.
4. Anyone caught expressing views against the military regime can be sentenced to prison upto twenty years.
5. As a result of the above coercive policies of the military regime of Myanmar between 6 to 10 lakh people were forced to leave their country and seek shelter elsewhere.
Nepal : In the 1990s, the king there gave up many of his powers and agreed to be guided by the elected representatives of the people. In 2005, the new king of Nepal dismissed the elected government and tried to take back all the freedoms that were given to the people by the old ruler in the previous decade. But since then, Nepal is under turmoil and the Maoists have turned against the new ruler. The king is thus under pressure to restore democracy in that country and act as a Constitutional monarch.
→PHASES IN THE EXPANSION OF DEMOCRACY
(A) The Beginning :
(i) French Revolution of 1789 did not establish a secure and stable democracy in France. Throughout the nineteenth century, democracy in France was overthrown and restored several times. Yet the French Revolution inspired many struggles for democracy allover Europe.
(ii) In Britain, the progress towards democracy started much before the French Revolution. But the progress was very slow. Through the eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries, series of political events reduced the monarchy and feudal lords. The right to vote was granted to more and more
(iii) The British colonies of North America declared themselves independent in 1776. In the next few years these colonies came together to form the United States of America. They adopted a democratic constitution in 1787.
(iv) In the nineteenth century struggles for democracy often centered round political equality, freedom and justice. One major demand was the right for every adult citizen to vote. Many European countries that were becoming more democratic did not initially allow all people to vote.
In some countries only people owning property had the right to vote. Often women did not have the right to vote. In the United States of America, the blacks all over the country could not exercise the right to vote until 1965.
(v) By 1900, New Zealand was the only country where every adult had voting right. Early democracies were established in Europe, North America and Latin America.
(B) End of Colonialism : For a very long time most countries in Asia and Africa were colonies under the control of the European nations. People of the colonised countries had to wage struggles to achieve independence. They not
only wanted to get rid of their colonial masters, but also wished to choose their future leaders. Many of these countries became democracies immediately after the end of the Second World War in 1945.
(C) Recent phase : The big push towards democracy came after 1980. The period after 1980 witnessed to fast emergence of democracies in different parts of the world.
(i) Democracy was revived in several countries of Latin America
(ii) Soviet Union disintegrated in 1991. As a result, Soviet influence over the former east European countries vanished' they changed themselves into democracies. The former 15 republics of the USSR got independent and opted for democracy.
(iii) In India's neighborhood, countries like Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal made a transition to democracy. Besides the aspiration of the local people in all these countries, a major reason for expansion of democracy was the open support extended by the USA to such demands.
♦ Causes for the Expansion of Democracy :
Now when we have studied about the expansion of democracy in the modern world, let us analyse what were the causes for the expansion of democracy in the 20th century.
The different reasons for the adoption of democracy are the following :
1. It is the Best Form of Government : Of all the different forms of governments like dictatorship, military rule and one party rule. Democracy is the best form of government. The people all over the world love it and whenever they get a chance, they replace other forms of government. The idea of democracy has a power of its own and once the people become accustomed to democracy, they never leave it.
2. Freedom of Speech : In democracy, the people are free to express their feelings without any fear of arrest as is the case in Myanmar, Chile, Portugal, Ghana or any other country under dictatorship or military rule.
3. People are Free to Elect their Government : In democratic country, people are free to elect their government. If they find any government not to their benefit and well being, they can change it in the next elections.
4. People are Free to be Elected : In a democracy any citizen can aspire for any post. People belonging to ordinary families like Lal Bahadur Shastri and Sh. Manmohan Singh can rise to any position like that of the Prime Ministership or Presidentship.
5. Democracy ensures Socio-Economic Equality : Those people who have suffered from the deep rooted inequality in the social and economic field see a ray of hope in democracy.
6. External Changes also play a Vital Role in the Establishment of Democracy : Not only internal developments but also many external developments like the Second World War, decolonisation and collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990, also helped democracy.
→DEMOCRACY AT THE GLOBAL LEVEL
There is no denying the fact that democracy is the best form of government and more and more countries are becoming democratic. Now a question generally arises, does an increase in the number of democratic countries all over the world automatically lead to greater democracy at the global level.
Some may agree to this view. They even advocate that in order to establish democracy in the nondemocratic countries, they i.e., the other democractic countries, should issue sanctions against them.
In their view, in certain cases, some powerful countries should combine together and launch an attack on undemocratic countries as was done by USA in Iraq on 14 th March, 2003. Such a thing can be done by the world body i.e., U.N.O. But most of the authors do not agree with either of the above views due to various reasons :
♦ Should Democracy be Established by External Forces ?
Most of the people lay emphasis on the point that democracy should evolve through long struggle of its own people rather than it should be promoted by some external forces. They give the following reasons to support their views :
1. Firstly, It is said that democracy that is evolved through the long struggle of its people is closer to the idea of democracy because it creates no bad taste. The people have made sacrifices to achieve democracy so they know its value and they would do anything to guard it from all dangers.
2. Secondly, it is said that external help to promote democracy has not proved quite useful. It has proved dangerous both for the interests of the people and for the interest of their country.
3. Thirdly, it is pointed out that in the garb of promoting democracy in another country, the powerful countries begin to grind their own axe. They are usually found in promoting their own economic and military interests.
4. Fourthly, it is said that external help if at all proves helpful is only a nightmare. It leads to temporary improvement and does not prove durable.
5. Fifthly, those who try to maintain democracy with external help lose the trust and confidence of their own people.
6. Lastly, propping up democracy with the help of any external force goes against the spirit of democracy. The gift of democracy in a begging bowl adversely affects the self-respect of a country.
♦ How far is it True that if Every Country becomes Democratic the World would itself become Democratic ?
Most of the authors do not agree with this view. They hold the opinion that expansion of democracy within nations has not led to greater democracy at the international level. They give the following arguments in support of their view
1. Whereas democracy has given solace to the people in the national level, but in the international level, it has failed to do so because the democratic spirit is not there.
2. The United Nations represents almost all the countries (now 193) of the world, but everything roams about the five permanent members of the Security Council i.e., USA, Russia, U.K., France and China.
Any one of them can reject or stall any decision of the Security Council. It means the rest of the countries (193-5=188) are more or less like pawns in the hands of these five countries.
3. Take another example of the International Monetary Fund. Here too, the string is held by the G-8 countries (U.S.A., Russia, U.K., France, Germany, Italy, Canada and Japan) because they contribute most and they are weighted by how much they contribute to the International Monetary Fund.
4. Not only this, the President of the World Bank is always a citizen of U.S.A. nominated by the Treasury Secretary (or Finance Minister) of the U.S. Government. What more mockery of the international justice can be there ?
5. Take the case of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) which is a global institution where all decisions on their relations between different nations of the world have to be taken by consensus. But in actual practice, all decisions are taken in informal meetings which are kept secret and only few powerful
countries are invited. It is clear from the above discussion that whereas more and more nations are becoming democractic, the international organisations are becoming less democractic. But if the world has to become more democratic, equal participation of all the member nations should be ensured.
→ Reason Out Why ?
(i) Why is it necessary for people to discuss politics without fear ?
As a result of the presence of secret police in public places, the people could not discuss politics without fear. Without freedom of speech people could not possibly discuss anything and form their opinion about anything.
(ii) Elections were held in Salazar’s Portugal. Why should it not be called a democracy ? Elections, without the freedom of speech, was a mere farce. It was like a body without the soul. How could a dead body be expected to work, act or react.
(iii) Why do countries and cities change their names given by their colonial rulers ? Can you think of examples of similar change of name from India ?
Countries change their name, after independence, because no one wants to like the names given to them by their colonial rulers, who ruled them arbitrarily and unjustly.
In India, Madras has been changed to Chennai, Calcutta to Kolkata and Bombay to Mumbai. Likewise, the province of Madras has been changed to Tamil Nadu, Bombay to Maharastra etc.
(iv) Can you think of reasons why people like to have change in their undemocratic government ?
Freedoms denied to the people when a Democracy is overthrown by the Military. In 1973, a military rule or a non-democratic government was established in Chile, while in Poland, there was a nondemocratic government before 1989. In both these countries, the people were denied the following freedoms when they did not have democracies :
1. The people had no ‘Right to Freedom of Speech’ as was the case with the women of Calama in Chile.
2. The people had no ‘Right to form Associations or Trade Unions’ as was the case with the workers (crane operators and electricians) in Poland.
3. The people had no ‘Right to have Free Elections’ as was the case in Poland before the dawn of democracy there.
4. It was because of the above reasons (i.e., no freedom of speech, no freedom of forming their own Trade Unions, no right to have free elections), the people liked to have a change in their dictatorial government.
(v) Why was an independent trade union so important for Poland ? Because only it could save the interest of the workers.
1. Democracy : A form of government which is chosen by the people to work for their welfare and can be voted out by them.
2. Dictatorship : It is form of government in which a person or group of persons possess absolute power without effective constitutional limitations.
3. Solidarity : A trade union movement founded by Lech Walesa which helped to end communist rule in Poland.
4. Decolonisation : The process of transfer of power from the colonial powers to independent nations governments in Asia and Africa.
5. United Nations Organisation : An organisation founded in 1945 that includes most countries in the world and serves as a international forum to settle international disputes.
6. Veto : The special right to override the decision of the Security Council enjoyed by the five permanent members of the Security Council of United Nations.
7. Constitutional Monarchy : A government headed by a king or queen whose powers are limited by a constitution.
8. Revolution : The term means a recognised momentous change in the situation. A revolution can result in the sudden overthrow of an established government or system by force and bloodshot e.g., the French Revolution.
9. Glorious Revolution : In 1688 William III of Orange, the son-in-law of James II and ruler of Holland, became King of England without any bloodshed.
The unpopularity of James II prompted a group of politicians to invite William III to England. Ultimately due to evens following this revolution, England more or less became a constitutional monarchy.
10. World Trade Organisation : It was set up in 1995 by members of the United Nations to promote trade between countries.
11. Trade Union : An association of workers for the purpose of maintaining or improving their working conditions.
12. Strike : Mass refusal by workers or employees to perform work due to certain grievances or because demands are not being met.
13. Referendum : A direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to accept or reject a particular proposal. This is also called as Plebiscite.
14. Political Prisoners : Persons imprisoned or detained or kept under house arrest, because the government considers their ideas and activities a threat to its authority.
15. Coup : The sudden overthrow of a government which may or may not be violent in nature. 16. Coalition : An alliance of people, associations parties or nations which may be temporary or a matter of convenience.
17. Censorship : A condition under which the freedom of expression is taken away. Anything that the government finds objectionable cannot be published.
A. VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1 Who was General Augusto Pinochet ? Who did he over throw and with whose help ?
Q.2 State two feature of the system of government that existed in Poland in 1980.
Q.3 State two features of democracy.
Q.4 State two features of dictatorship.
Q.5 State two difference between a democracy & dictatorship.
Q.6 Why the collapse of the U.S.S.R had a negative impact on democracy ?
Q.7 What is wrong in someone being elected President for life ?
Q.8 Mention any two steps which were taken by the President of Chile which led to military coup ?
Q.9 Explain universal adult franchise.
Q.10 Who is Aung San Suu Kyi ?
Q.11 What is Veto Power ? Do you think it promotes world democracy ?
Q.12 Mention any two indicators which showed that after military coup of 11 sep, 1973, Chile became a non democratic country.
Q.13 Give two arguments why Pakistan is not a democratic country ?
Q.14 Name any four non democratic countries of the world.
Q.15 Who was elected as President of Chile in 1970? What steps did he take to help the poor ?
B. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1 How did Poland become a democracy ?
Q.2 How did French Revolution pave the way for democracy in Europe ?
Q3 Identify four features that made Myanmar a non democratic country.
Q.4 Who was Kwame Nkrumah ? State two of his achievements. How did he deviate from the path of democracy ?
Q.5 How was democracy restored in Chile ?
Q.6 What do you know about solidarity ? Why was it popular in 1990 ?
Q.7 What was the impact of the end of colonialism on the new independent countries.
Q.8 Give four suggestion to promote democracy in the world.
Q.9 Do you think UNO works democratically ? Give reason for your answer.
Q.10 Explain Aung San Suu Kyi's struggle for democracy.
Q.11 Why do we prefer democracy than any other form of the government ?
Q.12 Mention any two limitations on the people in a non-democratic country.
Q.13 What was Gdansk agreement ?
Q.14 Name any three events which contributed to the establishment of democracy in the world.
C. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTION QUESTIONS
Q.1 Why had democracy spread throughout the world in the last hundred years or so ?
Q.2 Do International organisations functions in a democratic manner ? Give reason for your answer.
Q.3 Distinguish between democratic & non democratic conditions.
Q.4 Explain the different phases of the spread of democracy in the world.
Q.5 Explain the role of USA in Iraq.
D. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
Q.1 Which state in India has a similar shape to Chile ?
(D) West Bengal
Q.2 Which of the following is not reason for the spread of democracy in the first decade after 1945 -
(A) Demand by the people
(B) In position by foreign countries
(C) Collapse of the foreign ruler
(D) All of them
Answer.(B) In position by foreign countries
Q.3 Which of the following would you consider as sure effect of democracy -
(A) People making choice for food items
(B) People making choice of their rulers
(C) People making choice of their army men
(D) None of these
Answer.(B) People making choice of their rulers
Q.4 Which of the following does not lead to the spread of democracy ?
(A) Struggle by the people
(B) Invasion by foreign countries
(C) End of colonialism
(D) People’s desire for freedom
Answer.(B) Invasion by foreign countries
Q.5 Identify two countries in Latin America that become democratic after 1975 -
(A) Brazil, Argentina
(B) U.S.A., U.K.
(C) Japan, Italy
(D) Norway, Ghana
Answer.(A) Brazil, Argentina
Q.6 Which political party did Allende belong to-
(D) Popular unity
Answer.(D) Popular unity
Q.7 Which of the following Asian country became democratic between 1900 and 1950 -
Q.8 Which of the following European countrytha t was not democratic in 2000 -
Q.9 Which of the following country was democratic in 19th century -
(D) New Zealand
Answer.(D) New Zealand
Q.10 Who is the President of the World Bank -
(A) Finance Minister of U.S.A.
(B) Finance Minister of U.K.
(C) Prime Minister of Canada
(D) Defence Minister of USA
Answer.(A) Finance Minister of U.S.A.
Q.11 What is a coup ?
(A) The right of a person, party or nation to stop a certain decision or law
(B) A direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal
(C) A system of rules that takes effect when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice
(D) It is the sudden overthrow of government illegally.
Answer.(D) It is the sudden overthrow of government illegally.
Q.12 To which organisation a government will approach for a loan ?
(A) The security Council
Q.13 How many members are there in the Security Council ?
Q.14 Which out of the given statement is not true for Veto power ?
(A) The 15 members of the Security Council have the veto power
(B) The 5 permanent members of the Security Counsil have the veto power
(C) Veto means 'I forbrid'.
(D) India does not have veto power
Answer.(A) The 15 members of the Security Council have the veto power
Q.15 Which of the following statements is not true regarding IMF ?
(A) It is one of the biggest moneylenders for any country in the world
(B) The voto of each country is weighed by how much money it has contributed to the IMF
(C) It is a democratic institution
(D) USA, Japan and France are its members
Answer.(C) It is a democratic institution
Q.16 A direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal is termed as-
Q.17 A condition under which the freedom of expression is taken away is called.
Q.18 A system of rules that takes place when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of Justice. This is
(B) Justice law
(C) Common law
(D) Martial law
Answer.(D) Martial law
Q.19 Which of these countries is not a permanent member of Security Council ?
Q.20 What is coalition ?
(A) An association of workers for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment
(B) An alliance of people, associations,parties or nations
(C) Territory under the immediate politicalcontrol of another state
(D) A condition under which the freedom of expression is taken away.
Answer.(B) An alliance of people, associations,parties or nations
Question And Answer
Question : Describe one way in which in the nineteenth century, technology brought about a change in equipment and give one example where no change in equipment took place.
Answer : Vulcanised rubber was used for making pads and gloves. The cricket bat has remained more or less same over the years. These two examples show the effect and non-effect of technological changes on cricket.
Question : How have advances in technology, especially television technology, affected the development of contemporary cricket?
Answer : Cricket became a marketable game which could generate huge revenues. Cricket boards became richer by selling television rights to television companies. The TV channels made money by selling advertising slots. For companies, cricket provided opportunity to advertise their products and services to a large and captive audience. Cricketers became celebrities because of continuous television coverage. Apart from getting better pay from their cricket boards, the cricketers also began to earn huge sums of money by appearing in commercials. Television coverage resulted in expansion of audience base for the game. People from small towns and villages could see and experience the joy of cricket. Many children from the small towns could dream of becoming cricketers, by emulating their idols.
Question : Test cricket is a unique game in many ways. Discuss some of the ways in which it is different from other team games. How are the peculiarities of Test cricket shaped by its historical beginnings as a village game?
Answer : Compared to other modern sports, a typical game of cricket takes a longer time to finish. A Test Match is played for five days and it still ends in a draw. A oneday match takes a whole day to finish. Even the shortest version; the Twenty- Twenty; takes about four hours to finish. Most of the modern sports take around ninety minutes to finish. The lengthy nature of cricket is because of its origin in the pre-industrialization days when the economy was purely agrarian. During off seasons for farming; people had plenty of time to watch a cricket match for several days. Cricket grounds can be of different shapes and sizes in different parts of the world. Cricket was the earliest modern team sport to be codified. The rules and regulations of cricket evolved on their own over a period of time. During its early years, cricket was played on the commons. The size of the commons land was variable and no boundary was present. The length of the boundary line was decided by the umpires after taking the consensus of the captains of the two teams.
Question : Give brief explanations for the following:
- The Parsis were the first Indian community to set up a cricket club in India.
- Mahatma Gandhi condemned the Pentangular tournament.
- The name of the ICC was changed from the Imperial Cricket Conference to the International Cricket Conference.
- The shift of the ICC headquarters from London to Dubai
The Parsis were the first Indian community to set up a cricket club in India.
The Parsis were rich businessmen and were the first to ape the western lifestyle.
Hence, they were the first Indian community to set up a cricket club in India.
Mahatma Gandhi condemned the Pentangular tournament.
The Pentagular tournament was a contest among teams which were formed on communal lines. Hence, Mahatma Gandhi condemned this tournament.
The name of the ICC was changed from the Imperial Cricket Conference to the International Cricket Conference.
The term ‘Imperial’ in the earlier version carried the connotations of the colonial period and hegemony. When other cricket playing nations grew in prominence,the name was changed to International Cricket Conference in 1965.
The shift of the ICC headquarters from London to Dubai.
The ICC headquarters were shifted from London to Dubai mainly to shift the office to a tax-free destination. Many cricket playing nations did not have double taxation treaty with England. So, shifting the HQs was a purely commercial decision. Some analysts also see it as a symbolic shift of power from Europe to Asia.
Question : Explain why cricket became popular in India and the West Indies. Can you give reasons why it did not become popular in countries in South America?
Answer : Playing cricket was a manifestation by the elites of aping their colonial masters.Hence, cricket became popular in British colonies; like India and the West Indies.South America was never under the British rule and hence cricket could not become popular in South American countries.
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