Class 9 Social Science Natural Vegetation and Wild Life Exam Notes

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Class 9 Social Science Natural Vegetation and Wild Life Exam Notes. Please refer to the examination notes which you can use for preparing and revising for exams. These notes will help you to revise the concepts quickly and get good marks.

Introduction

Our country is one of the twelve mega bio diversity countries of the world. With about 47,000 plant species India occupies tenth place in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity. There are 15000 flowering plant in India which about 6 % in the world’s total number of flowering plant. India also has 89000 species of animals as well as rich variety of fish in its fresh and marine waters.

Virgin Vegetation : Natural vegetation refers to a plant community which has grown naturally without human aid and has been left undisturbed by humans for a long time. This is termed as virgin vegetation.

Flora : The term flora is used to denote plants of a particular region or period.

Fauna : The species of animals are referred to as fauna.

The huge diversity in flora and fauna kingdom is due to the following reasons.

Land : Land affects the natural vegetation directly and indirectly. The fertile level is generally devoted to agriculture. The undulating and rough terrains are areas where grass land and wood lands develop and give shelter to a variety of wild life.

Soil : It is one of the most important factor of affecting vegetation. Different types of soil have different vegetation changes in soil conditions have given rise to peculiar type of vegetation in many areas such as mangrove forests, swamp and sandy coastal forest.

Temperature : Temperature and humidity are the important factors which determines the character and extent of vegetation. On the slope of the Himalayas and hills of the Peninsula above the height of 900 metres, the fall in temperature affects the type of vegetation and its growth, and changes it from tropical to subtropical temperate and alpine.

Sunlight : The variation in sun’s radiant energy at different places is due to difference in latitude, altitude, season and duration of the day. Due to the abundance of sunlight, trees grow faster in summer.

Precipitation : It determines the density of vegetation. Areas of heavy rainfall have more dense vegetation as compared to other areas.

Importance Of Forests

1.Forests are renewable resources and play a major role in enhancing the quality of environment.

2. They modify local climate, control soil erosion, regulate stream flow, support a variety of industries, provide livelihood for many community and offer panoramic or scenic view for recreation.
 
3. It control wind force and temperature and cause rainfall.
 
4. It provides humus to the soil and shelter to the wild life.
 
 Ecosystem : All the plants and animals in an area are interdependent and inter related to each other in their physical environment, thus forming an ecosystem.
 
 Biome : A very large ecosystem on land having distinct types of vegetation and animal life is called a biome.
 
→TYPE OF VEGETATION

The following major types of vegetation may be identified in our country.
 
1. Tropical Rain Fores
 
2. Tropical Deciduous Forest 
 
3. Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs
 
4. Montane Forest 
 
5. Mangrove Forests
 
 Tropical Rain forests :

1. These forests are found in areas with an annual rainfall of 200 cm or more.
 
2. These forests grow in the areas of high temperature and high rainfall.
 
3. In these forests trees grow very vigorously, reaching a height of 60 m and above.
 
4. These forests yield hard wood trees.
 
5. Rainy parts of Western Ghats, Assam, West Bengal, Island groups of Lakshadweep, and the Andaman and Nicobar Island and Orissa have this ty pe of forest.
 
6. Ebony, Mahogany, Rosewood and Shisham are some of the important trees.
 
7. A large number of species are found together. It creates difficulty in the commercial use of any particular variety.
 
♦ The Tropical Deciduous Forest :

They are also called the monsoon forests. On the basis of availability of water, these forests are divided into moist and dry deciduous.
 
Moist deciduous :

1. These forests are found in the areas of 100 to 200 cm of rainfall.
 
2. Due to longer dry season, the trees in these forests are deciduous. i.e. they  shed their leaves during the dry season.
 
3. Shisham, sandal wood and sal are the common trees found in these forests. Other economically importanttrees are khair, rosewood, shisham etc. Bamboo are also very commonly found in these forests.
 
4. This vegetation belt covers a vast area of India extending from north-eastern states, along the foot hills of the Himalayas, Jharkhand, West Orissa and Chhattishgarh and go on the eastern slopes of the Western Ghat.
 
Dry Deciduous :
 
1. These are found in the areas having rainfall between 100 cm to 70 cm.
 
2. These are found in the rainier parts of the Peninsular plateau and the plains of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
 
3. These are open stretches. Teak and sal are the important trees.
 
4. Most of these forests have been cleared for cultivation and grazing.

 The Thorn Forest
 
1. These forests occur in areas which have less than 70 cm rainfall annually.
 
2. They are found in the north western parts of the country including semi arid areas of Rajasthan, Gujarat,Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana.
 
3. The commonly found trees in these forests are short stunted and scattered.
 
4. Besides Acacia (Babul), date palm, euphorbies and cactus trees, different shrubs and grasses commonlygrow in between these trees.
 
5. In these forests the common animals found are goats, wild asses, horses, camels, wolves, tigers and lions etc.
 
 Montane Forests :
 
1. The wet temperature types of forests are found between a height of 1000 and 2000 metres.
 
2. Between 1500 and 3000 metres, temperate forest containing coniferous trees like pine, de order, silver, fir,spruce and cedar are found.
 
3. These forests cover mostly the southern slope of the Himalayas, places having high altitude in southern andnorth east India.
 
4. At high altitude (more than 3600 metres) above sea level, temperate forests and grass lands give way to thealpine vegetation.
 
5. Silver fir, Junipers, pines and birches are the common trees of these forests.
 
6. Alpine grassland are used extensively for grazing by nomadic tribes like Gurjars and Bakarwals.
 
7. The common animals found in these forest are Kashmir stag, spotted dear, wild sheep, jack rabbits Tibetanantelope, Yaks, now leopard, squirrels shaggy horn wild ibex, bear and red panda, sheep and goats with thick hair.
 
 Mangrove Forests :
 
These are found in the coastal having accumulated mud and silt. Dense mangrove are the common varieties with roots of plants submerged under water. These forests are found in the deltas of Ganga, Mahanadi, Godavari and Kaveri.
 
→ WILD LIFE

India is also rich in its fauna. It has more than 89000 of animal species, 1200 species of birds. They constitute 13 % of the world total. There are 2500 species of fish which accounts for 12 % of the world stocks. It also shares between 5 and 8 percent of the world’s amphibians, reptiles and mammals.
Elephants are found in the hot wet forests of Assam, Karnataka and Kerala.
One horned rhinoceroses live in swampy and marshy land of Assam and West Bengal.
Wild ass and camels are found in arid areas of the Rann of Kachchh and the Thar desert. Indian bison, nilgai (blue bull) chousingha, gazel and different species of deer are some other animals found in India. It also has several species of monkeys.
India is the only country in the world that has both tigers and lions. Lions are found in Gir forest in Gujarat. Tigers are found in the forest of Madhya Pradesh, the Sunderbans of West Bengal and the Himalayan region.
The Himalayan ranges are the home of several animals. Yak, the shaggy horned wild ox, the Tibetan antelope, the bharal (blue sheep), wild sheep and the kiang are found in Ladhak’s region. In the rivers, lakes and coastal areas, turtles, crocodiles and gharials are found.
There are also a variety of birds found in different parts of India. The chief among them are peacocks, geese, pheasant, ducks, mynahs, pigeons, parrots, cranes, hornbills and sunbirds etc. They belong to both forests and wet lands.
 
♦ Uses of animals :
 
1. They also provide us drought power, transportation, meat, eggs.
 
2. Fish provide us nutritive food.
 
3. Many insects help in pollination of crops and fruit trees and exert biological control on such insect which are harmful.
 
4. They also maintain the ecological balance.
Due to excessive exploitation of plants and animals resources by human being, the ecosystem has been disturbed.
 
 Causes for imbalance :
 
1. Hunting by greedy hunters for commercial purpose
 
2. Pollution due to chemical and industrial waste, acid deposits.
 
3. Inhabitation
 
4. Introduction of alien species
 
5. Reckless cutting of the forest to bring land under cultivation.
 
6. Inhabitation
 
 Steps taken by government to protect flora and fauna :
 
1. Fourteen biosphere reserves have been set up in the country to protect flora and fauna. The Sunderbans in the West Bengal, Nanda Devi in Uttaranchal, the Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu and the Nilgiris (Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu) have been included in the world network of biospheres.
 
2. Financial and technical assistance is provided to many Botanical Gardens by the government since 1992.
 
3. Project Tiger, Project Rhino, Project Great Indian Bustard and many other eco developmental projects have been introduced.
 
4. 89 National park, 49 wildlife sanctuaries and zoological gardens are set up to take care of Natural heritage.
 
 Fourteen Bio-reserves :

1. Sunderbans 2. Gulf of Mannar 3. The Nilgiris 4. Nanda Devi
5. Nokrek 6. Great Nicobar 7. Manas 8. Simplipal
9. Dihang - Dibang 10. Dibru Saikhowa 11. Agusthyamolai 12. Kanchenjunga
13. Pachmari 14. Achankmar - Amarkantak
 
GLOSSARY
 
1. Natural Resources : These are the gifts produced by nature such as air, water, soil etc.
 
2. Ecology : The science which deals with the inter relation between various organisms and physical environment.
 
3. Endangered species : Plants and animals which are extinct or in the danger of getting extinct.
 
4. Wild life sanctuary : A reserved area for preserving natural beauty. e.g. Ranthambhor wild life sanctuary.
 
5. Biosphere : Part of the earth which is covered by living organisms both plants and animals.
 
6. Soil : The upper layer of the ground containing weathered rock and humus.
 
7. Coniferous forest : Evergreen trees that bear needle like leaves.
 
8. Deciduous forest : Type of trees that lose their leaves every year.
 
9. Ecosystem : An integrated unit consisting of the community of living organisms and the physical environment.
 
10. Flora : Plants of a particular region or period are referred to as flora.
 
11. Fauna : Species of animals are known as fauna.
 
12. Forest : Extensive area covered with trees.
 
13. Biome : A very large ecosystem on land having distinct types of vegetation and animal life is called a biome.
 
14. Vegetation : It refers to a plant community which has grown naturally without human aid and has been left undisturbed by human for a long time.
 
EXERCISE

A. VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
 
Q.1 What is eco-system ?
 
Q.2 Name some non flowering plants.
 
Q.3 What are the factors that form flora and fauna?
 
Q.4 Where are evergreen forests found ?
 
Q.5 Name some commercially useful trees of tropical rain forests.
 
Q.6 What are the two parts of tropical deciduous forests ?
 
Q.7 Name some trees of alpine forest ?
 
Q.8 What type of trees grow in tidal forest ? Give an example.
 
Q.9 Where are rhinoceros found ?
 
Q.10 Name some nimble animals of India.
 
Q.11 Which are the different species of deer in India ?
 
Q.12 Write the name of two bio-sphere reserves.
 
Q.13 Why are plants important ?
 
Q.14 What is virgin vegetation ?
 
Q.15 What is a biome ?
 
Q.16 What is vegetation ?
 
Q.17 Where is the alpine vegetation found ?
 
Q.18 What are endangered species ?
 
Q.19 Why are elephants found mostly in Assam, Kerala and Karnataka ?
 
Q.20 Why tropical Evergreen forests are found in most-parts of the western ghats ?
 
B. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Q.1 Describe the altitude zone of vegetation in the mountainous region.
 
Q.2 What are the major factors responsible for threat to nature ?
 
Q.3 Write some steps taken by the government for the protection of and conservation of great biological diversity of India.
 
Q.4 Why is throny type of vegetation found in Rajasthan ? Give the reasons.
 
Q.5 Write short notes on tropical deciduous forests.
 
Q.6 Why have the deciduous forests been given this name ? Name some places where these are found.
 
Q.7 Distinguish between dry deciduous and moist deciduous ?
 
Q.8 Why is there need to conserve bio diversity ?
 
Q.9 Why are the evergreen forests found on Western slopes of the Western Ghats ? Give two reasons.
 
Q.10 Explain the fauna of Himalayan regions.
 
Q.11 Mention some characteristics of mangrove tidal forests.
 
Q.12 Write short notes on the tropical rain forests.
 
Q.13 Mention any four features of thorn forests.
 
Q.14 Write any three objectives of biosphere reserves.
 
Q.15 What is meant by vegetation ? How much natural is the ‘Natural vegetation’ of India today ?
 
C. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
 
Q.1 How are forests useful to man ?
 
Q.2 Why has India a rich heritage of flora and fauna ?
 
Q.3 Give a brief account of the wild life in India.
 
Q.4 Discuss how relief and rainfall influence the distribution of natural vegetation in India.
 
Q.5 What is the great need of conserving wild life?

D. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
 
Q.1 Dachigam wild life sanctuary is in ..............
(A) Jammu and Kashmir
(B) Punjab
(C) Haryana
(D) Assam
 
Q.2 Name the national bird of India ..........
(A) Great Indian Bustard
(B) Peacock
(C) Monal
(D) Falcon
 
Q.3 Name the national animal of India -
(A) Tiger 
(B) Lion
(C) Leopard 
(D) Rhinoceros
 
Q.4 .............. type of vegetation is found in the region having more than 200 cm of rainfall.
(A) Evergreen Forest 
(B) Tidal
(C) Thorn Forest 
(D) Dry deciduous
 
Q.5 What was the first form of life that existed on the earth ?
(A) Plant 
(B) Animal
(C) Humanbeings 
(D) All the above
 
Q.6 Name an important tree of moist decidous forest -
(A) Sal 
(B) Teak
(C) Pine 
(D) Silver fer
 
Q.7 Sunderban forest get its name from the -
(A) Sundari trees 
(B) Teak
(C) Sal 
(D) Pine

Q.8 How many species of birds are known ?
(A) 1800 
(B) 1500 
(C) 1000
(D) 1200
 
Q.9 How many species of plants are there ?
(A) 40,000 
(B) 42000
(C) 47000 
(D) 50,000
 
Q.10 Which natural vegetation is most predominant in India -
(A) Tropical deciduous
(B) Tropical Rain
(C) Tropical thorn
(D) None of these
 
Q.11 How many species of animals does India possess ?
(A) 70,000 
(B) 80.000
(C) 75000 
(D) 89000
 
Q.12 What is India rank in the world in plant diversity ?
(A) 7
(B) 9
(C) 10
(D) 12
 
Q.13 How many tiger reserves are there at present ?
(A) 10
(B) 17
(C) 20
(D) 24
 
Q.14 Where are wild asses are found in India ?
(A) Rajasthan 
(B) Punjab
(C) Haryana 
(D) Uttar Pradesh
 
Q.15 How many species of fish are known ?
(A) 2000 
(B) 2500 
(C) 1500 
(D) 3000

Class 9 Social Science Natural Vegetation and Wild Life Exam Notes

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