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The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Social Science Worksheet Pdf
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Class 10 Social Science Worksheet for The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
Q.- Name the French artist who prepared a series of four prints visualising his dream of a new world.
Ans- The French engraver and draughtsman Frederic Sorrieu composed a series of four prints which visualised his dream of a new world.
Q.- What was the main aim of the French revolutionaries?
Ans- The main aim of the French revolutionaries was to make a France a nation and liberate the people by creating the feeling of a collective identity.
Q.- Who had hosted the meeting of representatives of European powers at Vienna in 1815?
Ans- The Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich had hosted the meeting of representatives of European powers at Vienna in 1815.
Q.- Who was Johann Gottfried Herder?
Ans- Johann Gottfried Herder was a German philosopher, poet and literary critic who claimed that real German culture was to be discovered among the common people (das volk).
Q.- Which three issues were visualized by Frederic Sorrieu?
Ans-Frederic Sorrieu was a French artist who prepared a series of four prints visualizing his dreams of a world.
i. The first print of the series shows the people of Europe and America of the ages and social classes marching in a long train. They are offering homage to the statue of Liberty as they pass by it.
ii. His second vision named utopian vision, the people of the world are grouped as distinct nations, identify through their flags and national costume.
iii. On the earth in the foreground of the image lie the shattered remains of the symbols of absolutist institutions. His work shows his dream on democratic and social republics.
Q.- "The decade of 1830 had brought great economic hardship in Europe." Support the statement with arguments.
Ans- The 1830s were years of great economic hardship in Europe.
i. Enormous increase in population: The first half of the nineteenth century saw an enormous increase in population all over Europe.
ii. Unemployment and Migration: In most countries, there were more job seekers than employment. Population from rural areas migrated to the cities to live in overcrowded slums.
iii. Stiff competition from imports: Small producers in towns were often faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machine made goods from England,where industrialisation was more advanced than on the continent.
iv. Widespread pauperism: The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and country.
Q.- Explain any three provisions of the Napoleon Civil Code, 1804.
Ans-The Napoleon Civil Code, 1804, generally known as the Napoleonic Code, has the following provisions:
i. Simplified administration: Napoleon simplified the administrative divisions,abolished feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
ii. No birth-based privileges: Napoleon abolished all privileges based on birth and established equality before the law. He also secured the right to property.
iii. Free trade & no guild restrictions: The uniform laws, standardised measurements and currencies boosted free trade. Moreover, removal of guild restrictions that hindered growth of manufacturing was also scrapped by Napoleon.
iv. Improvement of infrastructure: Transport and communication system was improved.
Q.- "A wave of economic nationalism strengthened the wider nationalist sentiments growing in Europe."? Which class brought about this change? How did they bring about this change? Explain.
Ans- A wave of economic nationalism strengthened wider nationalist sentiments growing in Europe. This wave of change was brought about by the new middle class.
In the given ways the change was brought about by the new middle class:
i. Formation of the Zollverein in 1834.
ii. The elimination of tariff barriers by the union.
iii. There was a reduction in the number of currencies from over thirty to two.
iv. The formation of a network of railways that further helped mobility and connected economic interests to national unification.
Q.- How would you categories the factors which promoted the building up of the dominance of English ethnic in British Isles?
Ans-The factors which promoted building up of the dominance of English ethnic in British Isles can be categorised as following:
i. Economic Prosperity: The Industrial revolution helped in the economic prosperity of the English nation. It succeeded in extending its influence over the other nations of the island with the help of trade and wealth.
ii. English Parliament: The English parliament which had seized power from the monarchy in 1688 at the end of a protracted conflict was the instrument through which a nation state with England at its centre came to be forged.
iii. The Act of Union 1707: According to this Act, the United Kingdom of Great Britain was formed and Scotland was merged into England. British parliament became stronger.
iv. Majority of English members in the British Parliament: Due to the Act of 1707 United Kingdom was formed and the parliament dominated by the English members. This was a major factor to uplift the identity of British.
v. Setback to Scotland’s distinctive culture and identity: Catholic clans that inhabited the Scottish Highlands suffered terrible repression whenever they attempted to assert their independence. The Scottish Highlanders were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language.
Q.- How did the Balkan issue become one of the major factors responsible for the First World War?
Ans-The Balkan issue became one of the major factors responsible for the First World War in the following ways:
i. Balkans was a region of geographical and ethical variations comprising modern day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia, Herzegovina,Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were known as slaves.
ii. A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkan together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.
iii. As the different Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence, the Balkan area became as area of intense conflict.
iv. The Balkan states were jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of other. Balkans also became as area of big power rivalry.
v. Each European power such as Russia, Germany, England, Austria-Hungry was keen on countering the hold of other powers over Balkans and this led to a series of wars, eventually the First World War.
Q.- Explain the three features of the class of landed aristocracy of Europe.
Ans-During the mid-eighteenth century, a landed aristocracy was dominant class in Europe both politically and socially.
i. The members of this landed aristocracy were united by a common way of life that cut across regional division.
ii. They owned huge properties both in rural and urban areas.
iii. Their families were tied together by matrimonial relations and they wielded much power in their respective countries.
Q.- What were the impacts of Treaty of Vienna on European people?
Ans-Representatives of the European power, Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria signed
treaty of Vienna in 1815. Following were its impact on the European people:
i. Deposed Bourbon dynasty was restored to power. Future expansion of French was prevented.
ii. Prussia was given new important territories on its Western frontier, while Austria was given control of the Northern Italy.
iii. In the east, Russia was given part of Poland while Prussia was given a portion ofnSaxony.
iv. The treaty slowed down the growth of nationalism. There was an effort to restore Monarchies that had been overthrown by Napoleon and to create a new conservative order in Europe.
Q.- Explain any four reasons how the initial enthusiasm of the people of France soon turned to hostility after Napoleon's takeover of France.
Ans-At the very beginning, the French Armies were welcomed as harbingers of liberty and fraternity. But the initial enthusiasm soon gave way to hostility. This is because people soon understood that the new administrative arrangements did not go hand in hand with political freedom.
The four factors which outweighed the advantages of the administrative changes are:
i. Taxation on people at an increased rate.
ii. Strict censoring of printing media and books.
iii. Conscription on a forced basis into the French Armies to satisfy its imperialist ambition.
Q.- Name the Balkan countries.
Ans- The Balkan nations comprise Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, Macedonia, Greece, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia which are inhabited mostly by the slaves.
Q.- Name the painting prepared by Frederic Sorrieu in 1848.
Ans- The painting prepared by Frederic Sorrieu in 1848 was ‘The Dream of Worldwide Democratic and Social Republics-The Pact between Nations’.
Q.- What was the major issue taken up by the liberal nationalists?
Ans- The Freedom of Press was one of the foremost issues addressed by the liberal nationalists.
Q.- What was the major change that occurred in the political and constitutional scenario due to French Revolution in Europe?
Ans- The French Revolution resulted in the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy under King Louis XVI of the Bourbon monarchy to a body of French citizens, thus turning the nation into a Republic
Q.- List any three features of the Civil Code of 1804 usually known as the Napoleonic Code.
Ans- Napoleon incorporated revolutionary principles in the administrative field to make the whole system more rational and effective. His civil code of 1804 was known as Napoleonic Code.
i. It did away with all the privileges based on birth.
ii. It established equality before the law and secured the right to property.
iii. It simplified administrative divisions and abolished feudal system. It freed peasants from serfdom and manorial duties.
iv. Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen found new-found freedom as guild restrictions were removed in towns also.
Q.- How did a wave of economic nationalism strengthen the wider nationalist sentiment growing in Europe? Explain.
Ans- Economic nationalism strengthened the wider nationalist sentiment. Economically,liberalism stood for:
i. Freedom of markets.
ii. End of restrictions on state borders on movement of capital and goods.
iii. In 1834, a Zollverein or customs union was formed by Prussia. This was joined by many German states.
iv. This union lowered the number of currencies to two from over thirty and abolished the existing tariff barriers.
v. A network of railways led to great mobility. This also gave an impetus to national unity.
Q.- How did Romanticism seek to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiments during eighteenth century?
Ans- Romanticism refers to a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of national sentiments. It aroused the nationalist sentiments in the following
i. Romantic artists and poets generally criticized the glorification of reason and science and focused on emotions, institutions and mystical feeling.
ii. Their efforts was to create a sense of shared and collective heritage, a common culture of past, as the basis of nation.
iii. Some German Romantics believed that through folk songs, the true sprit of the nation can be popularized. German culture was to be discovered among the common people.
Q.- What were the effects of revolutionary upheaval in France in 1830?
Ans- The effects of revolutionary upheaval in France in 1830 were as follows:
i. The Bourbon dynasty which was restored in 1815 was overthrown by the liberal revolutionaries.
ii. Louis Philippe became the head of the constitutional monarchy that was installed.
iii. Belgium broke away from the United Kingdom of Netherlands following an uprising in Brussels.
Q.- How had revolutionaries spread their ideas in many European states after 1815.Explain with examples.
Ans- Revolutionaries spread the idea in Europe after 1815 in the following ways:
i. The autocratic rule after 1815 had caused fear of repression so the liberalnationalists started to work underground.
ii. They established many secret societies to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas.
iii. They opposed monarchical forms of governments that were established after the Vienna Congress.
iv. They fought for liberty and freedom and thought the creation of nation-state as a necessary part of their struggle for freedom.
v. Being a revolutionary was a commitment to struggle for liberty and freedom and they considered nation states necessary for it to happen.
vi. They formed secret societies to spread ideas and train revolutionaries. For eg,Giuseppe Mazzini founded secret societies like Young Italy and Young Europe for the unification of fragmented Italy.
vii. Following Mazzini’s model, secret societies were set up in Germany, France,Switzerland and Poland.
viii. Liberalism and nationalism brought revolution in many regions of Europe like the provinces of the Ottoman Empire, Ireland, Poland besides Italy and Germany.
Q.- "Napoleon had destroyed democracy in France but in the administrative field, he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient." Analyse the statement with arguments.
Ans- Napoleon had destroyed democracy in France but in the administrative field, he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient. Revolutionary principles of administration by Napoleon are as follows:
i. The Napoleonic Code of 1804 removed privileges by birth. Everyone was equal before the law and got the right to property. The code was used in regions under French control.
ii. Simplified administrative divisions.
iii. Feudal system was abolished and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
iv. Guild restrictions were removed in towns. Artisan, peasants, businessmen, and workers found new freedom for doing their work.
v. Uniform laws, standardized weights, and measures along with a common currency made exchange and movement of goods far easier.
vi. Transport and communication systems were improved.
Q.- Outline the features of Vienna Treaty.
Ans- The treaty of Vienna was drawn up in 1815 at Vienna, Austria. For this treaty the representatives of European Powers-Russia, Britain, Prussia and Austria who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna. The meeting was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich. The objective of Vienna Congress was undoing most of the changes that had come about in the Europe during the Napoleonic War.
Q.- Compare the views of liberals and conservatives.
Ans- The comparison of liberal and conservative views are as follows:
Q.- Name the female allegory who represents France. Describe her main characteristics.
Ans- Marianne was a female allegory who represented France.
Her characteristics are as follows:
i. It represented liberty, justice, and the republic.
ii. These were the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade.
iii. The statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind people of the national symbol of unity.
iv. Her images were marked on coins and stamps of 1850.
v. This figure of ‘Marianne’ gave the abstract idea of the nation a concrete form which became an allegory of the nation also.
Q.- How did Nationalism develop through culture in Europe? Explain.
Ans- Nationalism developed through culture in Europe:
i. Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation. Art, music, literature and drama helped to express, shape and strengthen nationalist sentiments.
ii. The cultural movement of Romanticism aimed at developing a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists and poets generally focussed on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings and criticized the glorification of reason and science.
iii. Romantics like the German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder held the view that true German culture could be discovered only among the common people, the Das Volk. The true spirit of a nation was popularised through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances.
iv. The emphasis on vernacular language and the collection of local folklore were used to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were mostly illiterates.
Q.- Why were the years of 1830's of great hardship in Europe? Explain any five reasons.
Ans- The decade of 1830 had brought great economic hardship or crisis in Europe due to the following reasons:
i. The first half of the nineteenth century saw an increase in population, all over Europe. There was a scarcity of jobs and few employment opportunities
ii. Migration of rural people to the cities further made the situation worse.
iii. Small scale producers in towns sometimes faced with stiff competition from rural areas where production was carried out mainly in homes or small workshops.These products imported from rural areas were obviously cheaper than townmade products.
iv. In those parts of Europe where aristocracy was strong and enjoyed enormous powers, the peasants groaned under the burden of feudal dues and taxation.
v. Due to population, the demand for food increased. It led to rise in food prices. This increased price along with a year of bond harvests led to widespread pauperism in towns and country.
Q.- How had the female figures become an allegory of the nation during nineteenth century in Europe? Analyse.
Ans- i. In olden times, the best way to present an idea was through symbolic personifications. This was the most common and appealing way to invite people's attention.
ii. From 1789, females appeared in paintings as a symbol of liberty and revolution.Artists, in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, often made efforts to represent a country as if it were a person. The female figures were chosen to express an abstract idea of a nation. These female figures, thus, became an allegory of the nation.
iii. During the French Revolution, many symbolic personifications of 'Liberty' and 'Reason' appeared. In France, the female figure was christened Marianne, which was characterized by Liberty and the Republic - the red cap. the tricolour, the cockade. Statues of Marianne stood in public squares to remind the people of the national symbol of unity.
iv. Statues of Marianne were erected in public places to remind the public of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it.
v. Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps,
vi. Similarly, Germania became the symbol of the German nation. This work was done by the artist Philip Veit. He depicted Germania as a female figure standing against a background where beams of sunlight shone through the tricolour fabric of the national flag. In visual representations, Germania wore the crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stood for heroism. Germania became the allegory of the German nation.
vii. During the French Revolution, artists used the formal allegory to portray ideas such as Liberty, Justice and the Republic.
Q.- i. What was the zollverein?
ii. What were its wider implications?
Ans-i. Zollverein or a customs union was formed at the initiative of Prussia in 1834. It was joined by most of the German States.
ii. The idea of zollverein was aimed at binding the Germans economically into a nation. The Union did away with the tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies to only two from over thirty. It helped in awakening and raising national sentiment through a fusion of individual and provincial interests. The people of Germany realised that the only means to engender national feeling was a free economic system.
Q.- How Europe was closely allied to the ideology of liberalism?
Ans- In Europe the educated, liberal middle class spearheaded the nationalist movement.
They stood for the freedom of individual and equality of all before the low. Following were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals:
i. Political ideas -The ideology of liberalism supported the ideas of national unity and abolition of aristocratic privileges. It also advocated for a constitutional and representative government through parliament. It did not stand for the idea of universal suffrage.
ii. Social ideas - They supported freedom for the individual and idea of equality of all before the law.
iii. Economic ideas - There was freedom of market and abolition of state imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital. Zollverein abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies. Introduction of a system of weights and measures also strengthen the ideology of liberalism.
Q.- Explain any three ways in which nationalist feelings were kept alive in Poland in the eighteenth and nineteenth century.
Ans- The nationalist feelings were kept alive in Poland in the eighteenth and nineteenth century in the following ways:
i. They used music to keep their unity and identity. Karol Kurpinski, kept up the national struggle by staging his polish operas and music.
ii. The Polish people used dances like polonaise and mazurka making them into nationalist symbols.
iii. The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of struggle against Russian dominance. In 1831, there was a Polish armed rebellion against Russian rule but the rebellion was crushed.
Q.- Identify Napoleon, telling the part played by him in the France.
Ans- Napoleon was a great French General, who won many battles for the revolutionary France and raised his nation’s prestige. In many parts of Europe, like in the Dutch Republic in Switzerland, Italy and Germany, he simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from the serfdom and the manorial dues.There was a time when he had become a terror for all the European monarchs. But in the end, his limited resources collapsed in the face of fourth coalition of the European nations. He was defeated in the battle of Waterloo in 1815 A.D. and was sent as a prisoner to spend his last days at the small island of St. Helena where he died in the year 1821 A.D.
Q.- Explain the role of Giuseppe Mazzini in the unification of Italy.
Ans-Role of Mazzini in the unification of Italy was as follows:
i. Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini was born in Genoa in 1807.
ii. He became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari.
iii. At the age of 24, he was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria.
iv. He became a member of various secret societies such as Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne.
v. He wanted unification with a wider alliance of nations.
vi. He frightened conservatives through the opposition of monarchy and vision of democratic republics.
vii. He favoured war for the unification of Italy.
viii. He wanted economic development and political dominance.
Q.- Analyse the measures and practices introduced by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.
Ans-The French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices that created a sense of collective identity among the French people:
i. They introduced the ideas of La Patrie (the fatherland) and Le Citoyen (the citizen) emphasizing the concept of a united community enjoying equal rights under a Constitution.
ii. They choose a new French flag, the tricolour, to replace the Royal Standard.
iii. Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
iv. New hymns were composed and martyrs commemorated all in the name of the nation.
v. A centralised system of administration was introduced, uniform laws were made for all citizens.
vi. French language was spoken and written and became a common language in Paris.
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