NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 15 Biodiversity and Conservation. The NCERT solutions for Class 11 Mathematics have been made by Mathematics teacher of one of the best CBSE school in India. These NCERT solutions have been made to give detailed answers and expanations of the concepts as per NCERT which can be easily understood by the students. Refer to other links also to download mathematics NCERT solutions, worksheets, sample papers and Exemplar Solutions.
Class 12 Biology
Chapter 15 Biodiversity and Conservation
Question 1: Name the three important components of biodiversity.
Answer Biodiversity is the variety of living forms present in various ecosystems. It includes variability among life forms from all sources including land, air, and water. Three important components of biodiversity are:
(a) Genetic diversity
(b) Species diversity
(c) Ecosystem diversity
Question 2: How do ecologists estimate the total number of species present in the world?
Answer The diversity of living organisms present on the Earth is very vast. According to an estimate by researchers, it is about seven millions. The total number of species present in the world is calculated by ecologists by statistical comparison between a species richness of a well studied group of insects of temperate and tropical regions. Then, these ratios are extrapolated with other groups of plants and animals to calculate the total species richness present on the Earth.
Question 3: Give three hypotheses for explaining why tropics show greatest levels of species richness.
Answer There are three different hypotheses proposed by scientists for explaining species richness in the tropics.
(1) Tropical latitudes receive more solar energy than temperate regions, which leads to high productivity and high species diversity.
(2) Tropical regions have less seasonal variations and have a more or less constant environment. This promotes the niche specialization and thus, high species richness.
(3) Temperate regions were subjected to glaciations during the ice age, while tropical regions remained undisturbed which led to an increase in the species diversity in this region.
Question 4: What is the significance of the slope of regression in a species − area relationship?
Answer The slope of regression (z) has a great significance in order to find a species-area relationship. It has been found that in smaller areas (where the species-area relationship is analyzed), the value of slopes of regression is similar regardless of the taxonomic group or the region. However, when a similar analysis is done in larger areas, then the slope of regression is much steeper.
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