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Magnetism And Matter Class 12 Physics NCERT
Class 12 Physics students should refer to the following NCERT Book chapter Magnetism And Matter in standard 12. This NCERT Book for Grade 12 Physics will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks
Magnetism And Matter NCERT Class 12
MAGNETISM AND MATTER
Magnetic phenomena are universal in nature. Vast, distant galaxies, the tiny invisible atoms, men and beasts all are permeated through and through with a host of magnetic fields from a variety of sources. The earth’s magnetism predates human evolution. The word magnet is derived from the name of an island in Greece called magnesia where magnetic ore deposits were found, as early as 600 BC. Shepherds on this island complained that their wooden shoes (which had nails) at times stayed struck to the ground. Their iron-tipped rods were similarly affected. This attractive property of magnets made it difficult for them to move around. The directional property of magnets was also known since ancient times.
A thin long piece of a magnet, when suspended freely, pointed in the north-south direction. A similar effect was observed when it was placed on a piece of cork which was then allowed to float in still water. The name lodestone (or loadstone) given to a naturally occurring ore of ironmagnetite means leading stone. The technological exploitation of this property is generally credited to the Chinese. Chinese texts dating 400 BC mention the use of magnetic needles for navigation on ships. Caravans crossing the Gobi desert also employed magnetic needles.
A Chinese legend narrates the tale of the victory of the emperor Huang-ti about four thousand years ago, which he owed to his craftsmen (whom nowadays you would call engineers). These ‘engineers’ built a chariot on which they placed a magnetic figure with arms outstretched. Figure 5.1 is an artist’s description of this chariot. The figure swiveled around so that the finger of the statuette on it always pointed south. With this chariot, Huang-ti’s troops were able to attack the enemy from the rear in thick fog, and to defeat them.
In the previous chapter we have learned that moving charges or electric currents produce magnetic fields. This discovery, which was made in the early part of the nineteenth century is credited to Oersted, Ampere, Biot and Savart, among others. In the present chapter, we take a look at magnetism as a subject in its own right. Some of the commonly known ideas regarding magnetism are:
(i) The earth behaves as a magnet with the magnetic field pointing approximately from the geographic south to the north.
(ii) When a bar magnet is freely suspended, it points in the north-south direction. The tip which points to the geographic north is called the north pole and the tip which points to the geographic south is called the south pole of the magnet.
(iii) There is a repulsive force when north poles ( or south poles ) of two magnets are brought close together. Conversely, there is an attractive force between the north pole of one magnet and the south pole of the other.
(iv) We cannot isolate the north, or south pole of a magnet. If a bar magnet is broken into two halves, we get two similar bar magnets with somewhat weaker properties. Unlike electric charges, isolated magnetic north and south poles known as magnetic monopoles do not exist.
(v) It is possible to make magnets out of iron and its alloys. We begin with a description of a bar magnet and its behaviour in an external magnetic field. We describe Gauss’s law of magnetism. We then follow it up with an account of the earth’s magnetic field. We next describe how materials can be classified on the basis of their magnetic properties. We describe para-, dia-, and ferromagnetism. We conclude with a section on electromagnets and permanent magnets.
5.1 Answer the following questions regarding earth’s magnetism:
(a) A vector needs three quantities for its specification. Name the three independent quantities conventionally used to specify the earth’s magnetic field.
(b) The angle of dip at a location in southern India is about 18º. Would you expect a greater or smaller dip angle in Britain?
(c) If you made a map of magnetic field lines at Melbourne in Australia, would the lines seem to go into the ground or come out of the ground?
(d) In which direction would a compass free to move in the vertical plane point to, if located right on the geomagnetic north or south pole?
(e) The earth’s field, it is claimed, roughly approximates the field due to a dipole of magnetic moment 8 × 1022 J T–1 located at its centre. Check the order of magnitude of this number in some way.
(f ) Geologists claim that besides the main magnetic N-S poles, there are several local poles on the earth’s surface oriented in different directions. How is such a thing possible at all?
5.2 Answer the following questions:
(a) The earth’s magnetic field varies from point to point in space. Does it also change with time? If so, on what time scale does it change appreciably?
(b) The earth’s core is known to contain iron. Yet geologists do not regard this as a source of the earth’s magnetism. Why?
(c) The charged currents in the outer conducting regions of the earth’s core are thought to be responsible for earth’s magnetism. What might be the ‘battery’ (i.e., the source of energy) to sustain these currents?
(d) The earth may have even reversed the direction of its field several times during its history of 4 to 5 billion years. How can geologists know about the earth’s field in such distant past?
(e) The earth’s field departs from its dipole shape substantially at large distances (greater than about 30,000 km). What agencies may be responsible for this distortion?
(f ) Interstellar space has an extremely weak magnetic field of the order of 10–12 T. Can such a weak field be of any significant consequence?
Explain. [Note: Exercise 5.2 is meant mainly to arouse your curiosity. Answers to some questions above are tentative or unknown. Brief answers wherever possible are given at the end. For details, you should consult a good text on geomagnetism.]
5.3 A short bar magnet placed with its axis at 30º with a uniform external magnetic field of 0.25 T experiences a torque of magnitude equal to 4.5 × 10–2 J. What is the magnitude of magnetic moment of the magnet?
5.4 A short bar magnet of magnetic moment m = 0.32 JT–1 is placed in a uniform magnetic field of 0.15 T. If the bar is free to rotate in the plane of the field, which orientation would correspond to its
(b) unstable equilibrium? What is the potential energy of the magnet in each case?
5.5 A closely wound solenoid of 800 turns and area of cross section 2.5 × 10–4 m2 carries a current of 3.0 A. Explain the sense in which the solenoid acts like a bar magnet. What is its associated magnetic moment?
5.6 If the solenoid in Exercise 5.5 is free to turn about the vertical direction and a uniform horizontal magnetic field of 0.25 T is applied, what is the magnitude of torque on the solenoid when its axis makes an angle of 30° with the direction of applied field?
5.7 A bar magnet of magnetic moment 1.5 J T–1 lies aligned with the direction of a uniform magnetic field of 0.22 T.
(a) What is the amount of work required by an external torque to turn the magnet so as to align its magnetic moment:
(i) normal to the field direction, (ii) opposite to the field direction?
(b) What is the torque on the magnet in cases (i) and (ii)?
5.8 A closely wound solenoid of 2000 turns and area of cross-section 1.6 × 10–4 m2, carrying a current of 4.0 A, is susp ded through its centre allowing it to turn in a horizontal plane.
(a) What is the magnetic moment associated with the solenoid?
(b) What is the force and torque on the solenoid if a uniform horizontal magnetic field of 7.5 × 10–2 T is set up at an angle of 30º with the axis of the solenoid?
5.9 A circular coil of 16 turns and radius 10 cm carrying a current of 0.75 A rests with its plane normal to an external field of magnitude 5.0 × 10–2 T. The coil is free to turn about an axis in its plane
perpendicular to the field direction. When the coil is turned slightly and released, it oscillates about its stable equilibrium with a frequency of 2.0 s–1. What is the moment of inertia of the coil about its axis of rotation?
5.10 A magnetic needle free to rotate in a vertical plane parallel to the magnetic meridian has its north tip pointing down at 22º with the horizontal. The horizontal component of the earth’s magnetic field at the place is known to be 0.35 G. Determine the magnitude of the earth’s magnetic field at the place.
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