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TERM I (NOTES)
Q.1) Explain the following terms:-
Ans) The guillotine is a device consisting of two poles and a blade with which a person is beheaded. It was named after Dr .Guillotine who invented it.
b) Subsistence crisis
Ans) the population of France rose fromabout 23 million in 1715 to 2 8million in 1789.This led to a rapid increase in the demand for food grains. Production of grains could not keep pace with the demand. So the price of bread which was the staple diet of the majority rose rapidly. Most workers were employed as labourers in workshops whose owners fixed their wages. But wages did not keep pace with the rise in prices so the gap between poor and rich widened .Things became worse whenever drought or hail reduced the harvest. This led to subsistence crisis:- an extreme situation where the basic means of livelihood is endangered.
c) Declaration of the rights ofman and citizen
Ans) The Constitution of 1791 began with the declaration of the rights of man and citizen. Rights such as the right to life, freedomof speech, freedom of opinion, equality before the law, were established as 'natural and inalienable' rights, that is, they belonged to each human being by birth and couldn’t be taken away. it was the duty of the state to protect each citizen's natural rights.
Ans) The fall of Jacobin govt. allowed the wealthier middle classes to seize power. A new constitution was introduced which denied the vote to non prosperous sections of the society.it provided for two elected legislative councils. These then appointed a directory an executive made up of five members. This was meant as a safeguard against the concentration of power in a one man executive as under the Jacobins.
Q.2) Explain the ideas put forward by the following philosophers in their books?
Ans) (a) Jean Jacques Rousseau- Rousseau proposed a form of government based on a social contract between people and their representatives in his book 'The Social Contract'.
(b) Montesquieu-in the 'Spirit of the laws, Montesquieu proposed a division of power within the govt between the legislative, the executive and the judiciary. This model of government was put into force in the USA after the thirteen colonies declared their independence from Britain.
(C) John Locke- In his 'Two Treatises of government', Locke sought to refute the doctrine of the divine and absolute right of the monarch.
Q-3)What were the taxes that the middle class had to pay during the Old Regime?
Ans) The two types of taxes were:-
1. Tithes: - A tax levied by the church, comprising one-tenth of the agricultural produce.
2. Taille: - All the members of third estate had to pay taxes to the state. These included a direct tax, called Taille,and a number of indirect taxes which were levied on articles of everyday consumption like tobacco or salt.
Q.4)Write a short note on 'Reign of Terror'?
Ans) The period from 1793-94 is referred to as the Reign of Terror. Robespierre followed a policy of severe control and punishment. All those whom he saw being the 'enemies' of the republic-ex nobles and clergy, members of his own partywho did not agree with his methods-were arrested, imprisoned and then tried by a revolutionary tribunal. If the court found them guilty they were guillotined. The govt. issued laws placing a maximumceiling on wages and prices. Meat and Bread were rationed. Peasants were forced to transport their grain to the cities and sell it at the prices fixed by the government. The use of more expensive white flour was forbidden ,all citizens had to eat plain d'egalite. Instead ofMonsieur(sir) andMadame(madam)all French men and women were henceforth citoyen and citoyenne. Churches were shut down and their buildings were converted into barracks or offices.
Q.5)Describe the legacy of French Revolution for the people of the world during 19th and 20th century?
Ans) The ideas of liberty and democratic rights were the most important legacy of French revolution. These spread from France to the rest of Europe during the nineteenth century, where feudal systems were abolished. Colonised people reworked the idea of freedom from bondage into their movements to create a sovereign nation state.
Q.6)Who were allowed to vote for the formation of the National Assembly ?
Ans)Only men above 25years of age who paid taxes equal to at least 3 days of a labourers wage were given the status of active citizens, that is they were entitled to vote. The remaining men and women were classified as passive citizens. The active citizens voted for a group of electors ,who in turn choose the assembly.
To qualify as an elector and then as a member of the assembly, a man had to belong to the highest bracket of tax payers.
Q.7)What was the immediate cause of French Revolution ?
Ans) The population of France rose fromabout 23million in 1715 to 28million in 1789.This led to a rapid increase in the demand for food grains. Products of grains could not keep pace with the demand, so the price of bread which was a staple diet of the majority rose rapidly. Most workers were employed as labourers in workshops whose
owner fixed their wages.
But wages did not keep pace with the rise in prices .So the gap between rich and poor widened. Things became poorer whenever drought or hail reduced the harvest. This led to subsistence crisis.
Q.8)What were the main objectives of the constitution of 1791 of France ?
Ans) The main objectives of the constitution of 1791 were:-
1.It vested the powers tomake laws in the National Assembly which was indirectly elected. That is, citizens voted for a group of electors who chose the assembly, only
ACTIVE CITIZENS:- Men above 25 years of age who paid taxes equal to at least 3 days of a labourers wage could vote. The others PASSIVE CITIZENS-Remaining men and all women couldn’t vote.
2. The constitution began with a Declaration of rights Man and Citizens. Rights such as right to life, freedom of speech, freedom of opinion, equality before the law, were established as natural and inalienable right, that is , they belonged to each human being by birth and couldn't be taken away. It was the duty of state to protect each citizen's natural rights.
Q.9)Describe the causes leading to the French Revolution?
Ans) POLITICAL CAUSE:- =>In 1774,Louis XVI of the Bourbourn family of kings ascended the throne of France. Upon his accession he found an empty treasury. Long years of war had drained the financial resources of France.
=) Added to this was the cost of maintaining an extravagant court at the immense palace of Versailles.
=)Under Louis XVI ,France helped the 13 American colonies to gain independence from Britain. The war added more than a billion livers to a debt that had already risen to 2 billion lives.
=) To meet its regular expenses-cost of maintaining an army, the court, running government offices, universities, the state was forced to increase the taxes.
=) French society in the 18th century was divided into three estates, and only the members of the third estate had to pay taxes.
=)In France about 60%of land was owned by nobles, the church and other rich members of the third estate while very little land was owned by peasants who made up about 90%of the population.
=) The members of the first two estates i.e.: the clergy and nobility, enjoyed certain privileges bybirth like exemption from paying taxes to the state.
=)Only the members of the third estate paid taxes. The church extracted its share of taxes called Tithes from the peasants comprising one-tenth of the agriculture produced. Also, all members of the third estate had to pay taxes to the state. These included a direct tax called Taille, a number of indirect taxes levied on articles of everyday consumption like salt or tobacco.
=)The members of the 1st two estates i.e.-the clergy and nobility enjoyed certain privileges bybirth. The most important of these was exemption from paying tax to the state. The nobles further enjoyed feudal privileges including feudal dues, which they extracted from peasants. Peasants were obliged to render services to the lord-work in his house, fields-serve in army.
GROWING MIDDLE CLASS AND PHILOSOPHERS:-
=)The 18th century witnessed the emergence of social groups termed middle class, who earned their wealth by expanding their overseas trade and manufacturing goods.
=) The third estate included professionals-lawyers, or administrative officials .All of these were educated and believed that no group in the society should be privileged by birth.
=)There were ideas put forward by philosophers .In his' Two Treaties ofGovernment' John Locke sought to refute the doctrine of divine and absolute right of monarch.
=) Jean Jacques Rousseau carried the idea forward, proposing a form of govt. based on social contract between people and their representatives.
=) In 'The Spirit of the Laws' Montesquieu proposed a division of power within the government between legislative, executive and judiciary.
=)The population of France rose from 23million in 1715 to 28million in 1789.This led to a rapid increase in demand for food grains .Production of grains couldn't keep pace with demand. So the price of bread, the staple diet of majority rose rapidly.
=) Most workers were employed as labourers in workshops whose owners fixed their wages. But wages did not keep pace with the rise in prices.
=) So the gap between the poor and rich widened. Things became worse whenever a drought or hail occurred which reduce the harvest. This led to subsistence crisis.
Q.10) Describe the role of middle class in the French Revolution ?
Ans) The 18th centurywitnessed the emergence of social group termed the middle class, who earned their wealth by expanding overseas trade and from manufacture of goods like woolen and silk textiles that were either imported or brought bythe richer members of the society.
The third estate also included professionals such as lawyers, administrative officials, merchants and manufacturers. Theywere educated and believed that no group in society should be privileged bybirth. Rather, a person's social position must depend upon hi merit.
Q.11)Who were Mirabeau and Abbe Sieyes ?
Ans)=)The representatives of the third estate declared themselves a National Assembly and swore not to disperse till they have drafted a constitution for France that would limit the powers of the monarch. They were led byMirabeau and Abbe' Sieyes.
=) Mirabeau was born in a noble family but was convinced of the need to do awaywith a society of feudal privilege. He bought out a journal and delivered powerful speeches to the crowd assembled Versailles.
=)Abbe Sieyes, originally a priest, wrote an influential pamphlet called'What is the Third Estate'.
Q.12) What is Marseillaise ?
Ans)=) The National Assembly voted in April 1792 to declare war against Prussia and Austria. Thousands of volunteers thronged from the provinces to join the army. They saw this as a war of the people against kings and aristocrats all over Europe.
=) Among the patriotic songs the song was theMarseillaise composed byRoget de L'Isle. It was sung for the first time by volunteers fromMarseilles as theymarched into Paris.
=)Marseillaise is now the national anthem of France.
Q.13) Desribe the role of women in the French Revolution ?
Ans)=)In order to discuss and voice their interests women started their own clubs and newspapers.
=) About sixtywomen's clubs came up in different French cities. The society of Revolutionary and republican women was the most famous of them.
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