CBSE Class 9 Social Science The French Revolution Notes

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French Revolution Class 9 Social Science Revision Notes

Class 9 Social Science students should refer to the following concepts and notes for French Revolution in standard 9. These exam notes for Grade 9 Social Science will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks

French Revolution Notes Class 9 Social Science

 

CBSE Class 9 Social Science- French Revolution. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.

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THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

French revolution is considered as the most important landmark in human history. The revolution occurred in 1789 and swept away the existing political institutions, overthrew the French Monarchy and aimed at establishing an egalitarian society and responsible government. The revolution began with the siege of Bastille on July 14, 1789 and continued until the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte to power.

FRENCH SOCIETY DURING THE LATE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY

The term ‘Old Regime’ is usually used to describe the society and institutions of  France before 1789 French society before 1789 .French society before 1789 was divided into three estates; it was called a society of estates . The estates constituted as follows:

(i) The First Estate - the First Estate consisted of the clergy. The clergy were exempted from paying taxes to the king.

(ii) The Second Estate - the Second Estate consisted of nobility was also exempted from taxes. The nobles further enjoyed feudal privileges. These included feudal dues, which they extracted from the peasants.

(iii) The Third Estate - the Third Estate consisted of big businessmen, merchants, court officials, lawyers, peasants and artisian , landless labor , servants, etc. the Third Estate comprised both  rich and poor persons.

(a) Causes of the French Revolution:

Political Causes:

(i) The political structure of the French state was highly unpopular with the people who were burdened with heavy taxes and insecure conditions of life and property.

(ii) Divine rights of the kings, despotism and tyranny of the French monarchs topped by the  extravagance and inefficiency of the Bourbon Kings.

(iii) Louis XV indulged in a life of ease and pleasure, was not interested in administrative reforms or the welfare of the people.

(iv) Louis XVI though good natured was completely under the influence of incompetent and corrupt ministers and a domineering queen, Marie Antoinette.

(v) Absence of any representative body to voice the need of the people . local bodies called Parliament were courts of justice rather then voices of people.

Social Forces:

(i) The unfair division of French society and its feudal nature were also responsible for the revolution.

(ii) The first two estates enjoyed all the privileges and benefits in the society. the third estate was fraught with inequalities and discriminations. most of the burden of taxation was borne by the least privileged and most impoverished third estate.

(iii) Middle class was most receptive to new ideas and values as they were educated and had a  broader outlook , denied the whole ideas, rights and privileged existence where the main qualification is that of birth and instead favoured the criterion of merit.

Economic Unrest:

(i) In the 18th century the condition of common man had become pathetic, problem of subsistence due to failure of crops, increase in the prices of food grains

(ii) In the second half of the 18th century the French economy had started expanding. but its financial impact was uneven, hardest hit were the Third Estate

(iii) Between 1689 and 1783 French fought several long and exhausting wars which proved to be disastrous both in terms of French Manpower and finances, not only led to mounting debts but interest on these debts also multiplied.

(iv) To meet its mounting costs the government increased taxes. Peasantry was the hardest hit who owned the minimum land and paid the maximum taxes.

(v) Taxes were Taille the direct land tax, salt tax known as Gabelle, feudal dues or payments were  taken by nobility and taxes know as Tithe was taken by the Church.

A growing middle class envisages an end to Privaleges:

(i) The French Revolution drew its strength from the ideas of philosophers and thinkers of the time, groups of intellectuals classified by scholars according to their thinking,

(ii) Physiocrates, Philosophers and some others were grouped as liberals depending on their ideologies.

(iii) Greatest thinkers were  Francois Marie, Arouet de Voltaire, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Charles Louis Montesquieu, John Locke and Diderot to name a few.

(iv) Through their teachings and writings they stirred the people to action, revolutionized the  minds of the people and prepared them for the great changes ahead.

Contribution of the thinkers:

(i) Charles Montesquieu – A noblemen by birth, he become a lawyer and a judge. He preferred constitutional monarchy in France, he popularized the theory of powers within the government between the legislative , the executive and the judiciary in his book “The Spirit of the Laws”

(ii) Francis Aronet Voltaire – he was another outstanding philosopher of the revolution. He wanted the people to think about their material life on earth and forget about heaven. He condemned the Church which supported the ignored the poor.

(iii) Jean Jacques Rousseau – he is regarded as the architect of the French Revolution . In the  famous book “The Social Contract”, he proved that the government was the result of a social  contract between the people on one hand and ruler on the other. So if the ruler didn’t fulfill  the contract, the people had the right to withdraw their loyalty to him and bring down the  tyranny of the ruler by revolting against him.

(iv) John Locke – he was a great political thinker. He wrote “Two Treatises of Government “in which he sough to refute the doctrine of the divine and absolute right of monarch.

THE OUT B REAK OF THE REVOLITION

On 5 may 1789, Louis XVI called together an assembly to the Estate General to pass proposals for new taxes. The Estate General was a political body. The three estates sent their representatives to his body. Each of the three estates had a one vote each. The first estate and the second estate had sent 300 representatives each. They were seated in rows facing each other on two sides. The third estate had sent 600   representatives. They required standing at the back. Peasants, artisans and women were denied entry to the assembly. New taxes could be proposed only after the Estate General gave its approval to the king’s proposal.
Since the first estate and the second estate were exempted from paying taxes, it was a foregone conclusion that the king’s proposals on new taxes would get the approval of the Estate General.

(a) The Tennis Court Oath:

Voting in the Estate Generalin the past had been conducted according to the principle that each estate had one vote. Members of the third Estate demanded that voting now be conducted by the assembly as a whole, where each member would have one vote. When the king rejected this proposal, members of the third Estate walked out of the assembly in protest.

The representatives of the Estate on 20 June assembled in the hall of an indoor tennis court in the grounds of Versailles. They declared themselves a National Assembly and swore not to disperse till they had drafted a constitution of France that would limit the powers of the monarch. While the National assembly was busy at Versailles the rest of France seethed with turmoil, on 14 July the agitated crowd stormed and destroyed the Bastille.

(b) ‘Storming of the Bastille’:

On the morning of July 14, 1789 the city of Paris was in a state of alarm. a severe winter had meant a bad harvest; the price of bread rose. Bakers exploited the situation and hoarded supplies. Crowds of angry women stormed into the shops.

 The army was ordered   by the king to move into the city. It was rumored that the army would be ordered to open fire upon the citizens. Thousands of persons gathered and decided to from a people’s militia. They broke into a number of government buildings in search of arms. Bastille was a dreaded fortress-prison. it was hated by all because it stood for the despotic power of the king. Protestors stormed into the Bastille in search of arms. The commander of Bastille was killed; the prisoners were released. The fortress was demolished .Louis XVI finally accorded recognition to the National Assembly and accepted the principle that his powers would from now on be checked by a constitution. On the Night of 4 August 1789, the Assembly passed a decreed abolishing the feudal system of obligations and taxes.

(c) France becomes a Constitutional Monarchy:

(i) The National Assembly completed the drafting of the constitution in 1791. Power was now separated and assigned to different institutions-the legislature, executive and judiciary making France a constitutionally monarchy.

(ii) The Constitution of 1791 vested the power to make laws in the National Assembly, which was indirectly elected.

(iii) The Constitution   began with a Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. Rights such as the Right of life, freedom of speech, freedom of opinion, equality before law were established as ‘natural and inalienable’ rights.

(d) The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen:

(i) Men are born and remain free and equal in rights.

(ii) The aim of every political association is the preservation of the natural and inalienable rights of man; these are liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression.

(iii) The source of all sovereignty resides in the nation; no group or individual may exercise authority that does not come from the people.

(iv) Liberty consists of the power, to do whatever is not injurious to others.

(v)  The law has the right to forbid only actions that are injurious to society.

(vi) Law is the expression of the general will. All citizens have the right to participate in its formation, personally or through their representatives. All citizens are equal before it.

(vii) no man be accused, arrested or detained, except in cases determined by the law.

(viii) every citizen may speak, write and print freely; he must take responsibility for the abuse of such liberty in cases determined by the law.

(xi) for  the maintenance of the public force and the expenses of administration a common tax is indispensable ; it must be assessed equally on all citizens in proportion to their means.

(x) since property is a sacred and inviolable right, no one may be deprived of it, unless a legally established public necessity requires it. in that case a just compensation must be given in advance

Le-Barbier painted the declaration of the rights of man and citizens in 1790. Majority of people at that time could not read and write, so he used many symbols to convey the content of the declaration of rights.

(i) Figure on the right represented France and figure on the left symbolized the law

(ii) The broken chain – Stands for the act of becoming free.

(iii) The bundle of rods - it implies that strength lies in unity as one can be easily broken but not an entire bundle.

(iv) The eye within a triangle radiating light – Eye stand for knowledge, the rays of sun will drive away the clouds of ignorance

(v) Scepter – It is a symbol of royal power.

(vi) Snake biting its tail to form a ring, a symbol of eternity.

(vii) Red cap – Cap worn by a slave upon becoming free.

(viii) Blue, White, Red – these are National colours of France.

(xi) winged woman – Personification of the law.

(x) The law tablet – the law is same for all.

FRANCE  ABOLISHES MONARCHY AND BECOMES A REPUBLIC

(i) Although Louis XVI had signed the Constitution, he entered into secret negotiations with the King of Prussia.

(ii) The National Assembly voted in April 1792 to declare war against Prussia and Austria. People saw this as a war of the people against kings and aristocracies all over Europe.

(iii) The revolutionary wars brought losses and economic difficulties to the people. Political clubs became an important rallying point for people who wished to disuses government policies and plan their own form of action. The most successful of these clubs was that of the Jacobins, which got its name from the former convent of St. Jacob in Paris.

(iv) In the summer of 1792 the Jacobins planned an insurrection of a large number of Parisians who were angered by the short supplies and high prices of food. On the morning of august 10 they stormed the Palace of the Toiletries and held the king himself as hostage for several hours.

(v) Elections were held. The newly elected assembly was called the Constitution. On 21 September 1792 it abolished the monarchy and declared France a Republic.

(vi) Louis XVI was sentenced to death by a court on the charges of treason. On 21 January 1793 he was executed publicly at the Place de la Concorde.

(a) The Reign of Terror:

The period in between 1793-94 is referred as the “Reign of Terror”.

(i) During this period Robespierre, who was the government of France followed a policy of severe control and punishment.

(ii) Ex-nobles and clergy, even members of his own party who did not agree with his methods were arrested, impressments.

(iii) France witnessed the guillotine of thousands of nobles and innocent men who supported.

(iv) Robespierre issued laws placing a maximum ceiling on prices. Churches were shut down.

(v) Finally Robespierre was guillotined in July 1794.

(b) A directory Rules France:

The reign of terror ended in 1794. The Jacobin government fell, and a new constitution was prepared by an elected convention providing for a republican from a government with a legislature and an executive body called the Directory. Directory was an executive made up of five members. Directors often clashed with the legislative councils, who then sought to dismiss them. The political instability of the Directory paved the way for the rice of a military dictator, napoleon Bonaparte.

DID WOMAN HAVE A REVOLUTION 

(i) Most women of the third estate had to work for a living, did not have a access to education or job training. Working women had also to for their families; their wages were lower then those of men.

(ii) In order to discuss and voice their interests woman stated their own political clubs and newspapers. about sixty women’s clubs came up in different French cities. One of their main demands was that women enjoy the same political rights as men.

(iii) In the early the revolutionary government did introduce laws that helped to improve the lives of women, creation of state schools, schooling made compulsory for all girls, could be no longer forced to get into marriage against their will, Divorce could be applied for by both women and men. Women could now train for jobs, could become artists or run small businesses.

(iv) During the Region of Terror, the new government issued laws ordering closure of women’s clubs and banning their political actives.

(v) The fight for the vote was carried out though an Intemational suffrage movement during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It was finally in 1946 that women in France won the right to vote.

(a)  The Abolition of Slavery:

(i) Slavery was rampant in the European colonies of the Caribbean and the Americans. The slaves were mostly used on sugar, coffee, indigo and tobacco plantation. Their demand was because of their availability and low costs

(ii) in a debate in the Constituent Assembly in October 1790, to safeguard commercial interests of ‘planters’ two parties holding opposite views emerged . The group that safeguarded planters’ interests but pledged to maintain order in the colonies came up around the Massaic Club founded in August 1789 and their adversaries were he Society of the Friends of the Blacks founded in 1783. The outcome of the debate was that I served the purpose of drawing attention to the condition of slaves and sowed seeds of future political divisions.

(iii) On February 4, 1794 the Convention (National Assembly) ended slavery in the France Colonies. Napoleon Bonaparte revoked the decree in 1802, slavery was finally abolished from the France Colonies in 1848.

THE ABOLITION OF SLAVERY:

The France Revolution produced great effects not only in France but also on the whole of Europe.

(a) Effect on France:

The France Revolution put on end to the arbitrary rule in France and paved the way for the establishment of a republic there. The special privileges of the high order were abolished and lead to the regeneration of France on the basis of social equality. The declaration of the right of man granted freedom and individual liberty to all without any distraction of class or creed. Many reforms were introduced in the administration. The higher and important posts in the state were opened to talented people. All were granted religious freedom. The Napoleonic code introduced an uniform system of law for France and made it quite clear and simple.

(b) Effects on Europe:

(i) Equality - the France Revolution had a great influence on Europe. Equality was one of the main principal of France Revolution. it implied the equality of all before law and abolition of privileges enjoyed by the upper order in the society. it established social, economic and political equality in the European countries.

(ii) Liberty - Revolutionary idea of liberty was hailed all over Europe. it implied social, political and religious freedom. the declaration of rights of made people understand the importance of personal liberty and rights.

(iii) Sovereignty – the France revolution emphasized the fact that sovereignty recites in the general public and law should be based on the will of the people. It infused the spirit of nationalism and patriotisms in the people.

(c) Globat impact:

(i) The France Revolution had a global impact which was felt equality in India.

(ii) The UN charter of Human Right also embodies the principles of the Revolution as laid down in the Declaration of Right of Man and Citizens.

THE RISE AND FALL OF NAPOLEON  

In 1804, Napoleon Bonaparte himself Emperor of France. He set out to conquer neighbour ing European countries, dispossessing dynasties and creating kingdoms where he placed members of his family. Napoleon saw his role as a moderhiser of Europe. He introduced many laws such as the protection of private property and a uniform system of weight and measures provided by the decimal system .initially, many saw Napoleon as a liberation who would bring freedom for the people. But soon the Napoleonic armies came to be viewed everywhere as an invading force. He was finally defeated at Waterloo in 1815. 

Some Important Dates:

1774 – Louis XVI becomes king of France, faces empty treasury and growing discontent within society of the Old Regime.

1789 – Convection of Estates General, Third Estate forms National Assembly, the Bastille is stormed, and peasant revolts in the countryside.

1791 – A constitution is framed to limit the powers of the king and to guarantee basic rights to all human beings. 1792-93 France becomes a republic, the king is beheaded. Overthrow of the Jacobin republic, a Directory rules France. 1804- Napoleon becomes emperor of France, annexes large parts of Europe. 1815- Napoleon defeated at Waterloo

Revolution

• A recognised momentous change in any situation.
• A revolution may result in sudden overthrow of an established govt or system by force and bloodshed, e.g., French Revolution. 
• It can also be a great change that comes slowly and peacefully, e.g., Industrial Revolution.

French Revolution

• French Revolution was the mass uprising of the people of France against the dictatorial and antipeople policies of the monarch.
• It started on 14th July 1789 with an incident known as Storming of Bastille.

INTRODUCTION 

• Today we often take the ideas of liberty, freedom and equality for granted.
• But we need to remind ourselves that these ideas also have a history.
• This history can find its origin in French Revolution.
• It led to the end of monarchy, end of society based on privileges and gave way to a new system of governance.
• It declared the idea that all individuals had rights and could claim equality.
• These notions of equality and freedom emerged as the central ideas of a new age.

Political Condition in France

• In 1774, Louis XVI of the Bourbon family of kings ascended the throne of France.
• He was 20 years old and married to the Austrian princess Marie Antoinette.
• He ruled as an absolute monarch and believed in divine powers of king.
• He was pleasure loving and extravagant.

• He had maintained a huge army and built a big extravagant court at the immense palace of Versailles.
• Louis XVI was devoted to his wife who constantly interfered with the administration.
• Common people had no say in the affairs of the government.
• All bureaucratic posts were occupied by the aristocrats and from the family of kings.

• There was a political body, known as Estate General to which three estates sent their representatives to discuss contemporary issues.
• However, the monarch alone could decide when to call a meeting of this body. The last time it was done was in 1614.
• Each estate had one vote, irrespective of the number of representatives.
• The Estate General had power to increase the taxes.

French Society

• French society in the eighteenth century was divided into three estates or Classes.
• The society of estates was part of the feudal system that dated back to the middle ages. The term Old Regime is usually used to describe the society and institutions of France before 1789.

• The first estate comprised of clergy, second of king and his family and third of common people.
• Peasants made up about 90 per cent of the population.
• However, only a small number of them owned the land they cultivated.
• About 60 per cent of the land was owned by nobles, the Church and other richer members of the third estate.

• Which they leased to peasants for huge share in the production.
• Peasants were obliged to render services to the lord – to work in his house and fields – to serve in the army or to participate in building roads.
• The members of the first two estates, that is, the clergy and the nobility, enjoyed certain privileges by birth.

French Economy

• French economy was struggling under Louis XVI.
• It was still based on serfdom and feudal system.
• The government charged huge taxes from third estate.
• These included a direct tax, called Taille, and a number of indirect taxes which were levied on articles of everyday consumption like salt or tobacco.

• The burden of financing activities of the state through taxes was borne by the third estate alone.
• First two estates were exempted from paying taxes to the state.
• The Church too extracted its share of taxes called tithes from the peasants, and finally.
• Louis XVI drove France into useless wars bringing the country to the verge of bankruptcy.

• France was always at war with its conventional rival Britain.
• Under Louis XVI, France helped the thirteen American colonies to gain their independence from the common enemy, Britain.
• The war added more than a billion livres to a debt that had already risen to more than 2 billion livres.
• Lenders, who gave the state credit, now began to charge 10 per cent interest on loans.

• So the French government was obliged to spend an increasing percentage of its budget on interest payments alone.
• To meet its regular expenses, such as the cost of maintaining an army, the court, running government offices or universities, the state was forced to increase taxes.

GROWING MIDDLE CLASS

• The eighteenth century witnessed the emergence of social groups, termed the middle class, who earned their wealth through an expanding overseas trade.
• The third estate included professions such as lawyers or administrative officials.
• All of these were educated and believed that no group in society should be privileged by birth.
• Rather, a person’s social position must depend on his merit.
• These ideas demanded a society based on freedom and equal laws and opportunities for all. 

Subsistence crisis

• An extreme situation where the basic means of livelihood are endangered
• The population of France rose from about 23 million in 1715 to 28 million in 1789.
• This led to a rapid increase in the demand for foodgrains.
• Production of grains could not keep pace with the demand. So the price of bread which was the staple diet of the majority rose rapidly.

• Most workers were employed as laborers in workshops whose owner fixed their wages.
• But wages did not keep pace with the rise in prices. So the gap between the poor and the rich widened.
• Things became worse whenever drought or hail reduced the harvest.
• This led to a subsistence crisis, something that occurred frequently in France during the Old Regime.

French philosophers

• The ideas envisaging a society based on freedom and equal laws and opportunities for all, were put forward by philosophers such as John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau.
• In his Two Treatises of Government, Locke sought to refute the doctrine of the divine and absolute right of the monarch.
• Rousseau carried the idea forward, proposing a form of government based on a social contract between people and their representatives.
• In The Spirit of the Laws, Montesquieu proposed a division of power within the government between the legislative, the executive and the judiciary.
• This model of government was put into force in the United States of America.
• The ideas of these philosophers were discussed intensively

Increase in Taxes

• Louis XVI had to increase taxes for reasons you have learnt in the previous section.
• How do you think he could have gone about doing this?
• In France of the Old Regime the monarch did not have the power to impose taxes according to his will alone. 
• Rather he had to call a meeting of the Estates General which would then pass his proposals for new taxes.
• The last time it was done was in 1614. Some 200 years back.

Session of estates General

• On 5 May 1789, Louis XVI called together an assembly of the Estates General to pass proposals for new taxes.
• A resplendent hall in Versailles was prepared to host the delegates.
• The first and second estates sent 300 representatives each, who were seated in rows facing each other on two sides, while the 600 members of the third estate had to stand at the back.
• The third estate was represented by its more prosperous and educated members.
• Peasants, artisans and women were denied entry to the assembly.
• However, their grievances and demands were listed in some 40,000 letters which the representatives had brought with them.
• Voting in the Estates General in the past had been conducted according to the principle that each estate had one vote.
• This time too Louis XVI was determined to continue the same practice.
• But members of the third estate demanded that voting now be conducted by the assembly as a whole, where each member would have one vote.
• This was one of the democratic principles put forward by philosophers like Rousseau in his book The Social Contract. 
• When the king rejected this proposal, members of the third estate walked out of the assembly in protest.

Formation of national assembly

• The representatives of the third estate viewed themselves as spokesmen for the whole French nation.
• On 20 June they assembled in the hall of an indoor tennis court in the grounds of Versailles.
• They declared themselves a National Assembly and swore not to disperse till they had drafted a constitution for France that would limit the powers of the monarch.
• They were led by Mirabeau and Abbé Sieyès.
• Mirabeau was born in a noble family but was convinced of the need to do away with a society of feudal privilege.
• He brought out a journal and delivered powerful speeches to the crowds assembled at Versailles.
• Abbé Sieyès, originally a priest, wrote an influential pamphlet called ‘What is the Third Estate’?

Outbreak of revolution

• While the National Assembly was busy at Versailles drafting a constitution, the rest of France seethed with turmoil.
• A severe winter had meant a bad harvest; the price of bread rose, often bakers exploited the situation and hoarded supplies.
• After spending hours in long queues at the bakery, crowds of angry women stormed into the shops.
• On the morning of 14 July 1789, the city of Paris was in a state of alarm.
• The king had commanded troops to move into the city.
• Rumours spread that he would soon order the army to open fire upon the citizens.
• Some 7,000 men and women gathered in front of the town hall and decided to form a peoples’ militia.
• They broke into a number of government buildings in search of arms.
• Finally, a group of several hundred people marched towards the eastern part of the city and stormed the fortress-prison, the Bastille, where they hoped to find hoarded ammunition.
• The fortress was demolished and its stone fragments were sold in the markets to all those who wished to keep a souvenir of its destruction.
• Meanwhile, in the countryside too there were riots and attacks on nobles. 
• Nobles were forced to flee the country.

Constitutional Monarchy

• In a mean time national assembly had prepared a draft of constitution that would limit the powers of king.
• Faced with the power of his revolting subjects, Louis XVI finally accorded recognition to the National Assembly and accepted the principle that his powers would from now on be checked by a constitution.
• On the night of 4 August 1789, the Assembly passed a decree abolishing the feudal system of obligations and taxes.
• Members of the clergy too were forced to give up their privileges.
• Tithes were abolished and lands owned by the Church were confiscated.
• As a result, the government acquired assets worth at least 2 billion livres.

Features of new constitution

• The National Assembly completed the draft of the constitution in 1791.
• Its main object was to limit the powers of the monarch.
• These powers instead of being concentrated in the hands of one person, were now separated and assigned to different institutions – the legislature, executive and judiciary. This made France a constitutional monarchy.
• The Constitution of 1791 vested the power to make laws in the National Assembly, which was indirectly elected i.e., citizens voted for a group of electors, who in turn chose the Assembly.
• However, not all citizens had the right to vote.
• Only men above 25 years of age who paid taxes equal to at least 3 days of a labourer’s wage were given the status of active citizens, that is, they were entitled to vote.
• The remaining men and all women were classed as passive citizens.
• To qualify as an elector and then as a member of the Assembly, a man had to belong to the highest bracket of taxpayers.
• The Constitution began with a Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen.
• Rights such as the right to life, freedom of speech, freedom of opinion, equality before law, were established as ‘natural and inalienable’ rights, that is, they belonged to each human being by birth and could not be taken away.
• It was made the duty of the state to protect each citizen’s natural rights.

The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen

• Men are born and remain free and equal in rights.
• The aim of every political association is the preservation of the natural and inalienable rights of man; these are liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression.
• The source of all sovereignty resides in the nation; no group or individual may exercise authority that does not come from the people. 
• Liberty consists of the power to do whatever is not injurious to others.
• The law has the right to forbid only actions that are injurious to society.
• Law is the expression of the general will.
• All citizens have the right to participate in its formation, personally or through their representatives.
• All citizens are equal before it.
• No man may be accused, arrested or detained, except in cases determined by the law.

Revolutionary wars

• The situation in France continued to be tense during the following years.
• Although Louis XVI had signed the Constitution, he entered into secret negotiations with the King of Prussia.
• Rulers of other neighbouring countries too were worried by the developments in France and made plans to send troops to put down the events that had been taking place there since the summer of 1789.
• Before this could happen, the National Assembly voted in April 1792 to declare war against Prussia and Austria.
• The French army sang Marseillaise, song composed by the poet Roget de L’Isle.
• The Marseillaise is now the national anthem of France.
• The revolutionary wars again brought losses and economic difficulties to the people.
• While the men were away fighting at the front, women were left to cope with the tasks of earning a living and looking after their families.
• Large sections of the population were convinced that the revolution had to be carried further, as the Constitution of 1791 gave political rights only to the richer sections of society.
• Political clubs became an important rallying point for people who wished to discuss government policies and plan their own forms of action.
• The most successful of these clubs was that of the Jacobins, which got its name from the former convent of St Jacob in Paris.

French Republic

• In the summer of 1792 the Jacobins planned an insurrection of a large number of Parisians who were angered by the short supplies and high prices of food.
• On the morning of August 10 they stormed the Palace of the Tuileries, massacred the king’s guards and held the king himself as hostage for several hours.
• Later the Assembly voted to imprison the royal family.
• Elections were held. From now on all men of 21 years and above, regardless of wealth, got the right to vote.
• The newly elected assembly was called the Convention.
• On 21 September 1792 it abolished the monarchy and declared France a republic.
• On 21 January 1793 Louis XVI was executed publicly at the Place de la Concorde on the charge of treason. 
• The queen Marie Antoinette met with the same fate shortly after.

Robespierre’s state policy

• Robespierre’s government issued laws placing a maximum ceiling on wages and prices.
• Meat and bread were rationed.
• Peasants were forced to transport their grain to the cities and sell it at prices fixed by the government.
• The use of more expensive white flour was forbidden.
• All citizens were required to eat the bread made of wholewheat.
• Equality was also sought to be practised through forms of speech and address.
• Instead of the traditional Sir and Madam, all French men and women were henceforth Citoyen and Citoyenne (Citizen).
• Churches were shut down and their buildings converted into barracks or offices.

The Reign of Terror

• The period from 1793 to 1794 is referred to as the Reign of Terror.
• Robespierre followed a policy of severe control and punishment.
• All those whom he saw as being ‘enemies’ of the republic – exnobles and clergy, members of other political parties, even members of his own party who did not agree with his methods – were arrested, imprisoned and then tried by a revolutionary tribunal.
• If the court found them ‘guilty’ they were guillotined (The guillotine is a device consisting of two poles and a blade with which a person is beheaded.
• It was named after Dr Guillotin who invented it).
• Robespierre pursued his policies so relentlessly that even his supporters began to demand moderation.
• Finally, Robespierre was convicted by a court in July 1794, arrested and on the next day sent to the guillotine.

Directory Rules France

• The fall of the Jacobin government allowed the wealthier middle classes to seize power.
• A new constitution was introduced which denied the vote to nonpropertied sections of society.
• It provided for two elected legislative councils.
• These then appointed a Directory, an executive made up of five members.
• This was meant as a safeguard against the concentration of power in a one-man executive as under the Jacobins.
• However, the Directors often clashed with the legislative councils, who then sought to dismiss them.
• The political instability of the Directory paved the way for the rise of a military dictator, Napoleon Bonaparte.
• Through all these changes in the form of government, the ideals of freedom, of equality before the law and of fraternity remained inspiring ideals that motivated political movements in France and the rest of Europe during the following century.

France under Dictatorship

• An Army chief under king Louis XVI namely, Napoleon Bonaparte crowned himself Emperor of France In 1804.
• He set out to conquer neighbouring European countries, dispossessing dynasties and creating kingdoms where he placed members of his family.
• Napoleon saw his role as a moderniser of Europe.
• He introduced many laws such as the protection of private property and a uniform system of weights and measures provided by the decimal system.
• Initially, many saw Napoleon as a liberator who would bring freedom for the people.
• But soon the Napoleonic armies came to be viewed everywhere as an invading force.
• He was finally defeated at Waterloo in 1815.
• Many of his measures that carried the revolutionary ideas of liberty and modern laws to other parts of Europe had an impact on people long after Napoleon had left.

Consequences

• One important law that came into effect soon after the storming of the Bastille in the summer of 1789 was the abolition of censorship.
• Freedom of the press also meant that opposing views of events could be expressed.
• the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen proclaimed freedom of speech and expression to be a natural right.
• The ideas of liberty and democratic rights were the most important legacy of the French Revolution.
• These spread from France to the rest of Europe during the nineteenth century, where feudal systems were abolished.
• Colonised peoples reworked the idea of freedom from bondage into their movements to create a sovereign nation state.
• Tipu Sultan and Rammohan Roy are two examples of individuals who responded to the ideas coming from revolutionary France.

Abolition of slavery

• The slave trade began in the seventeenth century. 
• French merchants sailed from the ports of Bordeaux or Nantes to
• the African coast, where they bought slaves from local chieftains.
• In Caribbean. they were sold to plantation owners.
• Throughout the eighteenth century there was little criticism of slavery in France.
• The National Assembly held long debates it.
• But it did not pass any laws, fearing opposition from businessmen whose incomes depended on the slave trade.
• One of the most revolutionary social reforms of the Jacobin regime was the abolition of slavery in the French colonies in 1794.
• This, however, turned out to be a short-term measure: ten years later, Napoleon reintroduced slavery.
• Slavery was finally abolished in French colonies in 1848.

Role of women

• From the very beginning women were active participants in the events which brought about so many important changes in French society.
• They hoped that their involvement would pressurize the revolutionary govt to introduce measures to improve their lives.
• In order to discuss and voice their interest’s women started their own sixty political clubs and newspapers.
• From the very beginning they demanded the right to vote to be elected to the assembly and to hold political offices.
• As a result, the govt made schooling compulsory for all girls.
• Their fathers could no longer force them into marriages against their will.
• Divorce was made legal.
• It was finally in 1946 that women in France won the right to vote.

Question. Explain the following terms:- 

a) Guillotine
Answer : The guillotine is a device consisting of two poles and a blade with which a person is beheaded. It was named after Dr .Guillotine who invented it. 

b) Subsistence crisis
Answer : the population of France rose fromabout 23 million in 1715 to 2 8million in 1789.This led to a rapid increase in the demand for food grains. Production of grains could not keep pace with the demand. So the price of bread which was the staple diet of the majority rose rapidly. Most workers were employed as labourers in workshops whose owners fixed their wages. But wages did not keep pace with the rise in prices so the gap between poor and rich widened .Things became worse whenever drought or hail reduced the harvest. This led to subsistence crisis:- an extreme situation where the basic means of livelihood is endangered. 

c) Declaration of the rights ofman and citizen
Answer : The Constitution of 1791 began with the declaration of the rights of man and citizen. Rights such as the right to life, freedomof speech, freedom of opinion, equality before the law, were established as 'natural and inalienable' rights, that is, they belonged to each human being by birth and couldn’t be taken away. it was the duty of the state to protect each citizen's natural rights.

d) Directory
Answer : The fall of Jacobin govt. allowed the wealthier middle classes to seize power. A new constitution was introduced which denied the vote to non prosperous sections of the society.it provided for two elected legislative councils. These then appointed a directory an executive made up of five members. This was meant as a safeguard against the concentration of power in a one man executive as under the Jacobins. 

Question. Explain the ideas put forward by the following philosophers in their books? 
Answer : (a) Jean Jacques Rousseau- Rousseau proposed a form of government based on a social contract between people and their representatives in his book 'The Social Contract'. 
(b) Montesquieu-in the 'Spirit of the laws, Montesquieu proposed a division of power within the govt between the legislative, the executive and the judiciary. This model of government was put into force in the USA after the thirteen colonies declared their independence from Britain.
(C) John Locke- In his 'Two Treatises of government', Locke sought to refute the doctrine of the divine and absolute right of the monarch. 

Question.What were the taxes that the middle class had to pay during the Old Regime? 
Answer : The two types of taxes were:- 
1. Tithes: - A tax levied by the church, comprising one-tenth of the agricultural produce.
2. Taille: - All the members of third estate had to pay taxes to the state. These included a direct tax, called Taille,and a number of indirect taxes which were levied on articles of everyday consumption like tobacco or salt.

Question.Write a short note on 'Reign of Terror'? 
Answer : The period from 1793-94 is referred to as the Reign of Terror. Robespierre followed a policy of severe control and punishment. All those whom he saw being the 'enemies' of the republic-ex nobles and clergy, members of his own partywho did not agree with his methods-were arrested, imprisoned and then tried by a revolutionary tribunal. If the court found them guilty they were guillotined. The govt. issued laws placing a maximumceiling on wages and prices. Meat and Bread were rationed. Peasants were forced to transport their grain to the cities and sell it at the prices fixed by the government. The use of more expensive white flour was forbidden ,all citizens had to eat plain d'egalite. Instead ofMonsieur(sir) andMadame(madam)all French men and women were henceforth citoyen and citoyenne. Churches were shut down and their buildings were converted into barracks or offices. 

Question. Describe the legacy of French Revolution for the people of the world during 19th and 20th century?
Answer : The ideas of liberty and democratic rights were the most important legacy of French revolution. These spread from France to the rest of Europe during the nineteenth century, where feudal systems were abolished. Colonised people reworked the idea of freedom from bondage into their movements to create a sovereign nation state.

Question. Who were allowed to vote for the formation of the National Assembly ?
Answer : Only men above 25years of age who paid taxes equal to at least 3 days of a labourers wage were given the status of active citizens, that is they were entitled to vote. The remaining men and women were classified as passive citizens. The active citizens voted for a group of electors ,who in turn choose the assembly.
To qualify as an elector and then as a member of the assembly, a man had to belong to the highest bracket of tax payers.

Question. What was the immediate cause of French Revolution ?
Answer : The population of France rose fromabout 23million in 1715 to 28million in 1789.This led to a rapid increase in the demand for food grains. Products of grains could not keep pace with the demand, so the price of bread which was a staple diet of the majority rose rapidly. Most workers were employed as labourers in workshops whose
owner fixed their wages.
But wages did not keep pace with the rise in prices .So the gap between rich and poor widened. Things became poorer whenever drought or hail reduced the harvest. This led to subsistence crisis.

Question. What were the main objectives of the constitution of 1791 of France ?
Answer : The main objectives of the constitution of 1791 were:-
1. It vested the powers tomake laws in the National Assembly which was indirectly elected. That is, citizens voted for a group of electors who chose the assembly, only
ACTIVE CITIZENS:- Men above 25 years of age who paid taxes equal to at least 3 days of a labourers wage could vote. The others PASSIVE CITIZENS-Remaining men and all women couldn’t vote.
2. The constitution began with a Declaration of rights Man and Citizens. Rights such as right to life, freedom of speech, freedom of opinion, equality before the law, were established as natural and inalienable right, that is , they belonged to each human being by birth and couldn't be taken away. It was the duty of state to protect each citizen's natural rights.

Question. Describe the causes leading to the French Revolution?
Answer : POLITICAL CAUSE:- =>In 1774,Louis XVI of the Bourbourn family of kings ascended the throne of France. Upon his accession he found an empty treasury. Long years of war had drained the financial resources of France.
=) Added to this was the cost of maintaining an extravagant court at the immense palace of Versailles.
=) Under Louis XVI ,France helped the 13 American colonies to gain independence from Britain. The war added more than a billion livers to a debt that had already risen to 2 billion lives.
=) To meet its regular expenses-cost of maintaining an army, the court, running government offices, universities, the state was forced to increase the taxes.

SOCIAL CAUSES:-
=) French society in the 18th century was divided into three estates, and only the members of the third estate had to pay taxes.
=) In France about 60%of land was owned by nobles, the church and other rich members of the third estate while very little land was owned by peasants who made up about 90%of the population.
=) The members of the first two estates i.e.: the clergy and nobility, enjoyed certain privileges bybirth like exemption from paying taxes to the state.

ECONOMIC CAUSES:-
=) Only the members of the third estate paid taxes. The church extracted its share of taxes called Tithes from the peasants comprising one-tenth of the agriculture produced. Also, all members of the third estate had to pay taxes to the state. These included a direct tax called Taille, a number of indirect taxes levied on articles of everyday consumption like salt or tobacco.
=) The members of the 1st two estates i.e.-the clergy and nobility enjoyed certain privileges bybirth. The most important of these was exemption from paying tax to the state. The nobles further enjoyed feudal privileges including feudal dues, which they extracted from peasants. Peasants were obliged to render services to the lord-work in his house, fields-serve in army.

GROWING MIDDLE CLASS AND PHILOSOPHERS:-
=) The 18th century witnessed the emergence of social groups termed middle class, who earned their wealth by expanding their overseas trade and manufacturing goods.
=) The third estate included professionals-lawyers, or administrative officials .All of these were educated and believed that no group in the society should be privileged by birth.
=) There were ideas put forward by philosophers .In his' Two Treaties ofGovernment' John Locke sought to refute the doctrine of divine and absolute right of monarch.
=) Jean Jacques Rousseau carried the idea forward, proposing a form of govt. based on social contract between people and their representatives.
=) In 'The Spirit of the Laws' Montesquieu proposed a division of power within the government between legislative, executive and judiciary.

IMMEDIATE CAUSE:-
=) The population of France rose from 23million in 1715 to 28million in 1789.This led to a rapid increase in demand for food grains .Production of grains couldn't keep pace with demand. So the price of bread, the staple diet of majority rose rapidly.
=) Most workers were employed as labourers in workshops whose owners fixed their wages. But wages did not keep pace with the rise in prices.
=) So the gap between the poor and rich widened. Things became worse whenever a drought or hail occurred which reduce the harvest. This led to subsistence crisis.

Question. Describe the role of middle class in the French Revolution ?
Answer : The 18th centurywitnessed the emergence of social group termed the middle class, who earned their wealth by expanding overseas trade and from manufacture of goods like woolen and silk textiles that were either imported or brought bythe richer members of the society.
The third estate also included professionals such as lawyers, administrative officials, merchants and manufacturers. Theywere educated and believed that no group in society should be privileged bybirth. Rather, a person's social position must depend upon hi merit.

Question. Who were Mirabeau and Abbe Sieyes ?
Answer : The representatives of the third estate declared themselves a National Assembly and swore not to disperse till they have drafted a constitution for France that would limit the powers of the monarch. They were led byMirabeau and Abbe' Sieyes.
=) Mirabeau was born in a noble family but was convinced of the need to do awaywith a society of feudal privilege. He bought out a journal and delivered powerful speeches to the crowd assembled Versailles.
=)Abbe Sieyes, originally a priest, wrote an influential pamphlet called'What is the Third Estate'.

Question. What is Marseillaise ?
Answer : The National Assembly voted in April 1792 to declare war against Prussia and Austria. Thousands of volunteers thronged from the provinces to join the army. They saw this as a war of the people against kings and aristocrats all over Europe.
=) Among the patriotic songs the song was theMarseillaise composed byRoget de L'Isle. It was sung for the first time by volunteers fromMarseilles as theymarched into Paris.
=)Marseillaise is now the national anthem of France.

Question. Desribe the role of women in the French Revolution ?
Answer : =)In order to discuss and voice their interests women started their own clubs and newspapers.
=) About sixtywomen's clubs came up in different French cities. The society of Revolutionary and republican women was the most famous of them.
=) One of their main demands was that women enjoy the some political rights as men.
Women were disappointed that the constitution of 1791 reduced them to passive citizens.
=) They demanded the right to vote, to be elected to Assembly and to hold political office. Only then, they felt, would their interests be represented in ,the new govt.
=)Women's movements for voting rights and equal wages continued through the next 200 years. It was finally in 1946 that women in France won the right to vote.

Question. What did the third estate women do for their living? Briefly describe the laws introduced to improve their lives?
Answer : =)Most women of the third estate had to work for living. They worked as seamstresses, old flowers, fruits &vegetables in market or were employed as domestic servants in the houses of prosperous servants.
=) Most women didn't have access to education, job training. Only wealthier members sent their daughters to convent after which they were married.
=)Working women also had to care for their families, cook, fetch water, queue up for bread. Their wages were lower that of men.
=)With the creation of state schools. Schooling was , made compulsory for all the girls.
=) Their fathers could no longer force them into marriage which was made a contract entered into freely and registered under civil laws.
=) Divorce was legal.Women could be trained for jobs, become artists or run small business.

Question. Name one important law that came into effect soon after the storming of Bastille in the summer of 1789?
Answer : The Abolition of censorship.

Question. How would you explain the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte?
Answer : In 1804, Napoleon Bonaparte crowned himself as an emperor of France. He set out to conquer the neighbouring European countries, dispossessing dynasties & creating kingdoms where he placed members of his family.
=) He saw his role as a moderniser of Europe. He introduced many laws such as the protection of private property & a uniform system of weights and measures provided by decimal system.
=) Initially many saw him as a liberator but soon his armies came to be viewed as an invading force.
=) He was finally defeated at Waterloo in 1815. Many of his measures had an impact on people long after Napoleon had left.

 

Questions
 
Question. Describe the circumstances leading to the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France.
Answer : The circumstances that causes outbreak of revolutionary protest in France were:
→ Social Inequality: French society in eighteenth century was divided into three estates namely The Clergy, The nobility and third estates which comparises peasants, officials and small business. It was only third estates only pay taxes. Clergy and nobility were exempt from taxes.
→ Subsistence Crisis: The population of France also increased from 23 million in 1715 to 28 million in 1789. Food grains were now in great demand. Price of bread shot up. Wages did not keep pace with rising prices. This led to subsistence crisis.
→ Economic Problems: Long years of war had drained the financial resources of France. To meet its regular expenses, such as the cost of maintainingan army, the court, running government offices or universities, the state was forced to increase taxes.
→ Strong Middle Class: The middle class emerged educated and wealthy during eighteenth century. They believed that no group in society should be given privileges by birth. Ideas of equality and freedom were put forward by philosphers. The ideas of these philosophers were discussed intensively in salons and coffee houses
and spread among people.
→ Immediate Causes: On 5 may, 1789, Louis XVI called together an assembly os Estates General to pass proposals for new taxes. Third estates protested against this proposal but as each estates have one vote the king rejected this appeal. They walked out of assembly.
 
Question. Which groups of French society benefited from the revolution?  
Which groups were forced to relinquish power? Which sections of society would have been disappointed with the outcome of the revolution?
Answer : The richer members of the third estate (the middle class) benefitted the most from the French Revolution. The clergy and the nobility were forced to relinquish power. The poorer sections of society and women would have been disappointed with the outcome of the revolution as the promise of equality was not fulfilled in full measure at the end of the revolution.
 
Question. Describe the legacy of the French Revolution for the peoples of the world during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Answer : The ideas of liberty and democratic rights were the most important legacy of the French Revolution. These spread from France to the rest of Europe during the nineteenth century, where feudal systems were abolished. It inspired the Germans, Italians, and Austrians to overthrow their oppressive regimes. The French Revolution inspired the struggling nations of Asia and Africa who were groaning under the oppression of european colonialism. Tipu Sultan and Rajaram Mohan Roy are two examples of individuals who responded to ideas coming from french revolution.
 
Question. Draw up a list of democratic rights we enjoy today whose origins could be traced to the French Revolution.
Answer : We can trace the origin of the following democratic rights we enjoy today to the french revolution:
→ Right to Equity
→ Right to Freedom
→ Freedom of Speech and expression
→ Right to form associations
→ Right to justice and security
 
Question. Would you agree with the view that the message of universal rights was beset with contradictions? Explain.
Answer :  The message of universal rights was beset with contradictions: →
Many ideals in the "Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen" were replete with dubious meanings. For example, "the law has the right to forbid only actions injurious to society" had nothing to say about criminal offences against other individuals.
→ The declaration stated that "law is the expression of the general will. All citizens have the right to participate in its formation…All citizens are equal before it", but when France became a constitutional monarchy, almost 3 million citizens including men under the age of 25 and women were not allowed to vote at all.
Hence, by this universal rights poor were supressed. Constitution is only available for the rich. Women were totally neglected in decision making.
 
Question. How would you explain the rise of Napoleon?
Answer :  After France became a republic in 1792, the then ruler, Robespeirre, gave more privileges to the wealthier section of society. Further, he was a sort of autocrat himself. This led to reign of terror for the following many years. After Robespeirre’s rule came to an end a directory was formed to avoid concentration of power in one individual. Members of the directory often fought among themselves leading to total chaos and political instability. This created a political vaccum in France. This was a conducive situation and Napoleon Bonaparte took the reign of power as a military dictator.
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CBSE Class 9 Social Science Story Of Village Palampur Notes
Contemporary India Chapter 1 India Size and Location
CBSE Class 9 Social Science India Size And Location Chapter Notes
Contemporary India Chapter 2 Physical Features of India
CBSE Class 9 Social Science Physical Features Of India Chapter Notes
Contemporary India Chapter 3 Drainage
CBSE Class 9 Social Science Drainage Notes
Contemporary India Chapter 4 Climate
CBSE Class 9 Social Science Climate Chapter Notes
Contemporary India Chapter 5 Natural Vegetation and Wildlife
CBSE Class 9 Social Science Natural Vegetation And Wildlife Chapter Notes
Contemporary India Chapter 6 Population
CBSE Class 9 Social Science Population Chapter Notes
Democratic Politics I Chapter 1 What is Democracy?
CBSE Class 9 Social Science What Is Democracy Why Democracy Chapter Notes
Democratic Politics I Chapter 2 Constitutional Design
CBSE Class 9 Social Science Constitutional Design Notes
Democratic Politics I Chapter 3 Electoral Politics
CBSE Class 9 Social Science Electoral Politics Chapter Notes
Democratic Politics I Chapter 4 Working of Institutions
CBSE Class 9 Social Science Working of Institutions Chapter Notes
Democratic Politics I Chapter 5 Democratic Rights
CBSE Class 9 Social Science Democratic Rights Notes
India and the Contemporary World-I Chapter 1 The French Revolution
CBSE Class 9 Social Science The French Revolution Notes
India and the Contemporary World-I Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
CBSE Class 9 Social Science Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Chapter Notes
India and the Contemporary World-I Chapter 3 Nazism and the Rise of Hitler
CBSE Class 9 Social Science Nazism And The Rise Of Hitler Notes
India and the Contemporary World-I Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism
CBSE Class 9 Social Science Forest Society And Colonialism Chapter Notes
India and the Contemporary World-I Chapter 5 Pastoralists in the Modern World
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