IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES
food is the combination of various organic and substances which is capable of providing
- energy for the various metabolic activates.
- materials for repair / replacement of worn-out tissues in the body.
- materials for growth & reproduction.
- regulatory substances, body secretions and metabolic activities etc.
(a)Agriculture :(Ager means field; cultural means cultivation). it is applied biological science which deals with the production of plants raising of animals useful to man, involving soil cultivation, breeding and management of crops and livestock.
(b)Horticulture :(Hortus-garden; culture-cultivation). It is the branch of agriculture and the science of growing vegetables, fruits and ornamental plants.
(c)Silviculture :(Sylvan-wood and trees) Cultivation of wood and trees e.g. –pine, teakwood, sesamum etc..
(d)sources of Food :plants provide us foods like cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fruits and vegetables, on this basis plants are classified as follows :
(e)Crop Seasons : Different types of crops require different climatic conditions like :
(i)Temperature (ii) Photoperiod (duration of light) (iii)Completion of life cycle
(f)Depending Upon the Growing Season, there are two Groups of Crops :
IMPROVEMENT IN CROP YIELD
- Varietals improvement of crop through genetic manipulation.
- Crop production management.
- crop protection management.
Improvement in Crop yield : in India, there has been a four times increase in the
production of food grains from 1960 to 2004. However, cultivable land area has increased by only 24 per cent. the yield of a crop can be increased by adopting number of improved agricultural practices, from sowing to harvesting. the various practices that are followed at various stages of production are as follows :
- preparation of soil Sowing
- Application of manures and fertilizers irrigation
- weed control Crop protection
- harvesting, threshing and winnowing Storage
- crop improvement Rotation of crops, mixed and multiple cropping.
(a)Varietal improvement of Crops Through Genetic Manipulation :
The principal aim Varietal improvement is to get many of the desirable & economic characters as possible in one variety.
(i)Aims of crop improvement are :
(A) Developing high yielding varieties (B) improved quality (C) Early and uniform maturity (D) insensitivity to light and temperature
(E) Wider adaptability (F) Lodging- resistant varieties (G) Desirable agronomic characters
(ii)Plant breeding : the technique of producing improved varieties of crop plants by the introduction of several desired characters into them is called as plant breeding. Scientists concemed with the improvement of crop varieties are called as plant breeders.
(iii)Aims of plant breeding : new varieties of crop plants have :
(a) higher yield. (b) resistance to heat, frost, drought
( c) pest resistance (d) early maturing varieties
(iv)Methods for the genetic improvement of crop plants :
(a)introduction (b) selection (c) hybridization
(A)introduction : it refers to the taking of superior varieties of crop plants from the place of their natural cultivation to the place where they were never grown earlier.
Green revolution was a process by which India’s production of wheat, rice, maize and several other food grains was tremendously increased in the late 1960s and early 1970s. India, which was due to the new agricultural technologies whereby high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice were grown in India. Fertilizers and pesticides were used. Irrigation facilities were improved. Dr. M.S.Swaminathan played a key role in bringing about the ‘green revolution’.
Padam Vidhuahan Professor, DR.M.S> Swaminathan, FRS(Fellow of Royal Society), is the Father of green revolution in India. he stressed the need for the reorientation of the breeding programme and his work led to the era of dwarf varieties in India. In 1967, he developed a high-yield dwarf variety of wheat, Sharbati Sonara. Being a plant geneticist, he has contributed to the development of agriculture in indica. He has held various important positions in India and abroad.
(B)Selection : it is the process in which economic plants having best desired characters are picked up from the given population and seeds of such plants are used for future cultivation.e.g. Maize & Cabbage are represented by their cultivated varieties only.
(C)Hybridization : it means the process of crossbreeding of two genetically dissimilar varieties of crop plants (each having a specific and better characteristics) to obtain a new crop plant having both the desired characteristics is called as crop plants produced in this way are called as hybrid varieties or high yielding varieties.
(b)Crop Production Management :in order to improve and manage our crop production system, we have to focus on cheaper and farmer friendly approaches. as there is direct co-relationship between the higher yields and input applications.
Successful crop Productions upon :
- Understanding how drops develop and grow.
- How various factors affect the growth and development of crops and
- How each factor can be modified and managed.
Approaches for crop production :
(i) Nutrient management (ii) irrigation (iii) Mixed cropping (iv) Inter cropping (v) crop rotation
Nutrient management : Plant nutrients are the mineral elements needed by the plants for their growth, development and maintenance. plants absorb a large number of elements from soil, besides water and air, only 16 elements are essential nutrients for plants, out of 40 elements in plant ash. they are :
(i) Carbon (ii) iron (iii) hydrogen
(iv) Manganese (v) Oxygen (vi) Phosphorus
(vii)Nitrogen (viii) Zinc (ix) Phosphors
(x) Copper (xi) Potassium (xii) molybdenum
(xiii)Magnesium (xiv) Chlorine (xv) Sulphur
Sources of plant nutrient : the plants obtain their nutrients mainly from the soil. out of the total 16 nutrients, as many as 13 are absorbed from the soil.
Characteristics of an essential plant nutrient :
- In the absence of such element, the plant is not complete its life cycle.
- Such element much have a direct influence on the plant nutrition and metabolism.
- The requirement of such element can be corrected or prevented only by supplying that Nutrient.
Classification of plant nutrients : On the basis of quantities required 13 mineral nutrients are obtained from soil needed for plant growth have been grouped into two categories.
(i) Macronutrients (ii) Micronutrients
out of the sixteen essential nutrients, some are required by plants in relatively large amounts than the others. the nutrients required in relatively large quantities are called macronutrients or major elements, while the ones required in very small quantities or traces are called micronutrients or minor elements. deficiency of the nutrients affects physiological process in plants as well as their reproduction, growth and susceptibility to diseases. to overcome the deficiency of nutrients, the soil can be enriched by adding manures and fertilisers.
Besides these, carbon, oxygen and hydrogen are called framework elements
MANURES & FERTLIZERS
A manure is a mixture of various decomposed organic substances like dead leaves, city garbage, agricultural wastes, animal dung, crop residue etc. thought the action of microbes. Manure increases the fertility and productivity of crops. As they contain plenty of organic compounds and almost all the essential elements required by the plants.
- Manures are organic substances obtained through the decomposition of plant wastes (like straw) and animal wastes (like cow dung). The decomposition is brought about by the action of microbes.
- Manures contain large quantities of organic matter.
- Manures contain nutrients in small quantities and therefore are needed to be supplied to crops in large quantities.
- Manures are not nutrient – specific. For this reason, manures are not of much help when a specific nutrient is required for a particular crop.
- Manures are bulky. So it is not convenient to store and transport manures.
- Manures are recycled and do not cause pollution.
- They enrich the soil with nutrients.
- Being rich in organic matter, manures improve soil texture and soil aeration. Water holding capacity in case of sandy soils and drainage in clay soil is increased.
Types of Manure : Manures are of three types.
These are commercially manufactured inorganic salts or an organic compound containing one or more essential plant nutrients like Nitrogen, Phosphorus or Potassium which are used for increasing soil fertility. Fertilizers usually contain higher amount of nutrients then manures hence required in small quantities.
- Fertilizers are inorganic or organic compounds containing the necessary plant nutrients.
- They contain much higher amount of nutrients in comparison to manures, and are therefore, required in very small quantities.
- They are manufactured commercially from chemicals, and are marketed in concentrated form.
- They are easy to use, store and transport.
- Being soluble in water, they are easily absorbed by the plants.
- Fertilizers are generally nutrient – specific i. e. these supply only one or more specific
Hazards of using fertilizers : Thought use of fertilizers has brought about significant increase in crop yields, however, the continued use affects soil quality and brings about pollution of water bodies.
Effect on soil quality : Continuous use of fertilizers leads to a loss of organic matter, a deterioration of soil structure and a decrease in porosity. As a result, the plant roots are deprived of oxygen and can not absorb the salt effectively. Further, the soil is more likely to become dry and powdery and can be blown away by the wind, when not protected by a plant cover.
Water pollution and eutrophication : Excessive use of fertilizers, in particular nitrogenous ones, causes build up of nitrates in the soil. From the soil, the nitrates as well as phosphates are washed by rain and carried to lakes, ponds and rivers. Here, they stimulate excessive growth of microscopic plants like algae resulting in the formation of blooms. The algae grow quickly then die and decomposed. During decomposition, the algae deplete the oxygen content of the water body, which ultimately results in the de4ath of fish and other aquatic animals. This excessive growth of algae and the subsequent depletion of oxygen content of water is called eutrophication. Fertilizers, therefore, must be used carefully and judiciously in limited quantity.
Application of fertilizers : fertilizers are applied before sowing, during irrigation or sprayed on standing crops. But fertilizers are never applied directly to soil if the crop is standing. It would bring about wilting of crop due to exosmosis because of increase in the osmotic pressure around the roots of the plants.
Only urea is an organic compound.
Composting with the help of earthworms is called vermcomposting. Earthworms help in breakdown of wastes. This activity along with the excreta of the worms makes the compost rich in nutrients.
Biofertilisers are micro-organisms(like bacteria, algae and fungi used and fungi used singly or in combination) or biologically active products which are used to enrich soil fertility.
Some of the Biofertilisers are given below :
- Legume – Rhizobium symbiosis
- Azolla – Anabaena symbiosis
- Free – living bacteria (Azotobacter) living in soil symbiotically.
- Cyanobacteria (Anabaena, Nostoc)
- Mycorrhiza (symbiotic association of fungi with roots of higher plants.)
Cultivation of land without conserving soil fertility and soil structure would lead ultimately to the development of deserts. Excessive and indiscriminate use of pesticides, fungicides and herbicides as is done in present day agriculture could lead to changes in biological balance ; population of soil organisms will be affected. increase in the occurrence of cancer and other diseases.
contamination of water (water pollution) and enrichment of water bodies with nutrients leading to excessive growth of phytoplankton). These are some of the problem due to the adoption of improved agricultural practice in order to increase food production for the ever increasing human population. Scientists are greatly concerned about these problems and attempts have been made to develop alternatives to chemical agriculture. The altematives consist of adopting “ green or ecofriendly technologies” or “ecologies farming” or organic farming is a farming system in which chemical fertilizers, herbicides or pesticides are minimally used or not used at all. Instead of , manures recycled farm wastes and biofertilisers are used in place of chemical fertilizers. Neem leaves or turmeric are used as biopesticide specifically in case of stored food grains.
Advantages of Organic Farming :
- Natural ecosystem is not disturbed, as organic farming is in harmony with the natural ecosystem.
- Soil fertility is preserved.
- Harmful effects of chemicals on the living organisms are avoided.
- Pollution of air, water and soil does not take place.
The basic objective of cropping is to achieve insurance against total crop failure under poor rainfall conditions and there by minimizing risk and monetary loses.
Process of supplying water to crop plants growing in the fields by means of canals, reservoir, wells, tube wells etc is know as irrigation. Water requirements of crop plants depends on two factors:-
- Crop-based irrigation : Water requirements of different crop plants varies at different stage oftheir growth & maturation e.g. paddy crop is transplanted in standing water and also requires continuous water supply whereas this is not so for wheat, gram, cotton, maize crops etc.
- Soil-based irrigation- irrigation also depends on the nature of soil in which crop is grown e.g. if two wheat crops are grow together one in sandy and another in clay soil, then in sandy more frequent irrigation is needed then clay soil.
(a)Irrigation systems :
Most commonly used irrigation systems in our country are as follows :
- Canal systems : Canals usually receive water from rivers and usually an elaborate, extensive network of irrigation systems.
Canal→ Branch canal→ field channels → then irrigate or a group of fields.
Rotation systems called water bandhi or intermittent water delivery method is followed in canal irrigated areas.
- Tanks : Tanks are usually small water storage reservoir, constructed at higher elevations in hilly areas. They intercept and store the run off water of small catchments areas.
- Wells are dug and constructed wherever ground water is exploitable. Wells are of two types:
- Dug wells : in which water is collected from water bearing strata i.e. bottom below the ground water table. In these wells water from lower strata slowly accumulates. Water from these wells is usually lifted for irrigation purpose by mechanical means such as bullock operated devices.
- Tube wells : They are dug in the deeper strata much below the ground water table. Deep bore tube-well can supply water continuously. Water from tube-well is pumped up directly from fields thought narrow lanes by using diesel or electrical pumps.
- River valley systems: In southern part of India particularly in Western Ghats, Kerala & Karnataka, the rainfall is heave but concentrated in 4-5 months of the year. Consequently many steep and narrow river valleys are found in these areas. This results in higher run off and discharge flows in the rivers. To prevent his, several perennial plants ( coffee, rubber, coconut, areca nut & tapioca) are cultivated on the slopes of these valleys. Bottom lands of valley are used for growing single rice crop.
- River lift systems : it is used in the area where either canal flow is insufficient or irregular due to insufficient reservoir water release. In this system, water is directly drawn from the rivers (using pumps) in order to supplement irrigation in the areas adjoining rivers.
- Sprinkler irrigation systems : it is water efficient systems and is being introduced in the canal irrigation areas of Haryana, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. A device having perforated ring or small stand with a revolving nozzle to which a base is attached for watering crop plants. This systems spreads water uniformly over crop plants and fields, required quantity of water is supplied.
- Drip- irrigation systems : modem systems being encouraged in Maharashtra, Karnataka, André Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu for fruit crops. Fertigation is an innovative method for applying fertilizers thought drip irrigation to maximize farm productivity with available water.
(a)Mixed cropping :
It is the practice of growing two or more types of crops simultaneously on the same piece of land. Different crops to be grown are selected in such a way that products & wastes from one crop can stimulate the growth of other crop.
(i)Crop combinations used in mixed cropping :
*Growing wheat crop + gram *Growing cotton crop + groundnut
*Growing groundnut +sunflower *Growing ragi + gram
*Growing turmeric + groundnut
(ii)Selection of crops for mixed cropping : Following criteria are taken into account :
*Duration of crops *Growth habit *Root pattern *water needs * Nutrient demands
(b)Intercropping : improved version of traditional mixed cropping in which two or more crops are grown simultaneously in the same field but in a definite row pattern is called intercropping.
(i)Criteria to accomplish intercropping :
spatial arrangement plant density
maturity dates of crops plant architecture
(ii)Types of intercropping :
- Row Intercropping : in this intercropping all crop combination of mixed cropping are used in definite row pattern 1:1, 1 : 2 or 1: 3.
- Strip Intercropping : growing two or more crops simultaneously in strips, wide enough to permit separate crop production using machines.
- Productivity is increased.
- It economises spaces and time of cultivating two or more crops.
- It helps to maintain soil fertility.
(c)Crop Rotation :
Practice of growing different crops on a piece of land in a preplanned succession. Depending upon the duration
(i)Crop rotation may be of three types :
- 1 years rotation : Rice-Wheat, Maize-Mustard
- 2 years rotation : Maize-potato-Sugarcane-Peas
- 3 years rotation : Maize- Mustard- Sugarcane-Methi-Rice-Wheat-Hing- Mustard.
(ii)Crop rotation confers following benefits :
- All crops do not require the plant nutrients in the same proportion. By growing crops in rotation, the fertility of the soil is utilized more evenly. The soil is not depleted in a particular nutrients.
- When different crops are grown, the operation concerned with the preparation of soil, manuring, sowing, harvesting and other operation are spread throughout the year, thereby reducing the work pressure at any particular time.
- When different crops are grown on the field one after another, the yields of product obtained are greater then the same crops are grown year after year.
- The incidence of weeds, pests and diseases is reduced.
CROP PROTECTION MANAGEMENT
It includes eradication of pests, pathogens, weeds and other organisms that cause harm to the crop plants.
- Pests : These are the organisms like insects, rats, mites, weeds, fungi etc. which damage or destroy cultivated plants or plant products and can even make them unfit for human consumption.
- Pathogens : These are disease causing organisms and include bacteria, fungi, virus etc.
- Weeds : These are unwanted plants that grow and live at the expense of main crop.
(a)Effective methods to control pests :
(i)Pesticides or biocides : Chemicals (poisons) used to kill pests of plants such as insects, fungi, weeds, mites, rats etc. are know as pesticides. They are of following types :
Fungicide : To kill fungi
Weedicide : To kill weeds
Rodenticide : To kill rodents like rats, moles
Nematicide : To kill nematodes
(b)Preventive measures should be adopted instead of using pesticides as :
- Use of pest & disease resistant hybrid varieties of crop plants.
- Selection of optimum time of cropping
- Crop rotation and multiple cropping
- Clean cultivation
- Summer ploughing
- Sowing of health seeds
(c) Insect – pest Control :
Some insects are serious pests of crop plants such as :
(i)Chewing insects : Locust, grasshopper, caterpillar larva destroy all sorts of crop plants.
Control : By mixing chlorophyriphos in the soil.
(ii)Sucking insects – Aphids (Aphis), leaf hoppers (Pyrilla) such cell sap from various plant parts.
Control : By Malathion, lindane & Thiodan
(iii)Borer insects : sugarcane borer, gain weevil, cotton boll worm. Internal feeders, live inside the parts of crop plants
Control : By metasystox.
(d)Weed Control :
It can be done by following ways :
- Mechanical methods – By weeding, removing weeds from crop fields by harrow, interculture ploughing, burning & flooding
- Chemical methods – Using chemicals called herbicides or weedicides e.g.2, 4-D, Nitrofen, Atrazine
- Biological methods – Employ living organisms to destroy weeds e.g. :
(A)Cassia plant prevents the growth of parthenium weed
(B)Herbivorous fish feed on aquatic weeds.
*Advantages of biological method
*It does not cause pollution.
*Organisms are harmless to the main crop.
(iv)Cultural methods : inclution.
(A)Proper seed & bed preparation (B) Timely seed sowing
(C)Inter cropping (D) Crop rotation (D) Mixed cropping
STORAGE OF GRAINS
9.3% food grain in our country are lost due to inadequate & improper storage. Factors responsible for such a great loss during storage are as follows :
(i)Biotic (living): Insects, rodents, birds, mites etc.
- Insect – pasts
- Common insect- pests include weevils, beetles, locusts, mites, aphids, grasshoppers, bugs and termites.
- Insect – pasts damage/ harm the plants in following ways :
- They cut root, stem and leaves.
- They suck the cell sap from various plant parts.
- They bore into stems and fruits.
- They from falls.
- They eat stored grains.
(ii)Abiotic (non-living) :
(A) Temperature (B) Moisture
(C) Humidity (D) Material of container in which grains are stored
- The above mentioned factors bring about :
- Infestation of food grains by insects and microorganisms.
- Degradation in quality.
- Loss in weight.
- Poor germination potential of grains.
- Discoloration of product.
- Unpalatable or even toxic food materials.
- Finally poor marketability and lower profits. Thus, it is essential that loss of food grains during storage is avoided. The attack on food grains by insects and micro-organisms is called infestation. A general rise in the temperature of the grain and presence of patches of white powdery material on the bags or on the floor also indicates infestation of grain by insects. Presence of rodents can be detected by the excreta or tell – tale holes in the bags.
(a)Preventive Measures :
- Drying before storage
- Maintenance of hygiene
- Plant – product treatment
- Prophylactic treatment
- Improved storage structures
- Pests are controlled by the use of chemicals called pesticides.
- Fumigation is the most convenient and method of pest control in stored grains inside godowns.
- Fumigation are volatile (gaseous) chemicals that quickly vaporize and the resultant fumes kill the insects without affecting the grains. Utmost care has to be observed in handling of pesticides as these are equally harmful to humans and domestic animals.
Science which deals with the scientific management of farm animals including their feeding, breeding, weeding and heeding (disease control) is called as Animal husbandry. Animal food mainly comes from:
- Milk : from cattle such as cow, buffaloes, goat, camel.
- Egg : from birds (poultry).
- Meat : animals like pigs, fishes, poultry etc.
- Honey : from honey bees.
There are four main practices involved in keeping of animals or animal husbandry.
- Breeding : it is done to obtain animals with desired characters. Through breeding, we can develop high milk – yielding and high meat- yielding cattle.
- Feeding : it deals with the study of proper food (called feed), mode and time or feeding of different animals
- Weeding : This concerns with the elimination of uneconomical animals.
- Heeding : It means the proper care and management of animals.
Most notable effort for dairy development & milk production in India isbeing carried out by NDDB (National Dairy Development Board) and is called “operation flood“ to increase milk production. It has resulted in white revolution in India
(a)White Revolution :
Just like the green revolution in case of crop plants, the increase in milk production has been possible just like the green revolution in case of crop plants, the increase in milk production has been possible due to the launching of countrywide programmecalled ‘operation flood’ which resulted which resulted in the white revolution in India. This operation involved use of New improved high milk-yielding crossbreeds of milch animals and following the practices of animal husbandry providing them proper feed and health care. Dr.V. Kurien is credited with the designing and implementation of the largest dairy development programme – the operation flood, and sharing in of the white revolution n India. He is know as the father of white revolution and is the founder chairman of the National Dairy, Development Board (NDDB). Silver revolution refers to the tremendous increase in egg production, while blue revolution to the fish production.
(b)Breeds of Cows :
(i)High milk – yielding indigenous ( desi ) breeds.
(A) Gir (B) Sahiwal (C) Red Sindhi
(ii)Dual purpose indigenous breeds ( cows for milk and bullocks for draught work )
(A) Haryana (B) Tharoarkar (C) Deoni
(iii)The exotic ( foreign ) breeds of cows that have been used for crossbreeding are :
(A) jersey from USA (B) Brown Swiss from Switzerland (C) Holstein – Friesian from Holland
Many high milk-yielding breeds of cows have been developed in India through crossbreeding of desi breeds with exotic breeds in recent years. These include Karan Swiss Friesian –Sahiwal or Frieswal Karan -Fries
(iv)High milk – yielding indigenous breeds of buffaloes :
(A) Murrah from Punjab and Haryana (B) Mehsana from Gujrat
(C) Surti from Gujrat (D) Nili from Punjab (E) Jaffarabadi from Gujrat
- Cattle like cows and buffaloes are normally housed in sheds, which possess following features
- The shed is properly roofed to protect the animals from rain, hat and cold.
- The floor of the shed is made sloping to facilitate cleaning, and kep their sitting space dry.
- The shed is airy, well – ventilated with adequate sunlight.
- The shed is spacious enough to provide sufficient space to each animal. a cow cow requires about six square meter space while a buffalo needs a little more space.
- The sheds are provided with feeding passage.
- Arrangement for clean drinking water is made.
- The sheds have proper arrangement for disposal of excreta.
(c)various types of animal farming are :
Cattle farming – (Milk producing or milch animals)
Poultry farming – (Egg yielding animals)
Fish farming – (Meat providing fishes)
Bee keeping- (Honey providing bees)
cattle farming : Farming of cattle for milk and labour is called cattle farming. it is done for two purposes :
(A)Milk : Milk providing animals are – cows, buffaloes, goats, camels.
(B)Draught : For labour. e.g. ox, camel etc.
cows & buffaloes are main providing animals in India. they are also used for bullock labour cow’s milk is highly nutritious, contains large amount of proteins and vitamin A which is best for infants. buffalo’s milk is rich in fats, proteins, vitamin E, calcium, phosphorous, contains low Na , K and cholesterol.
Types of breeds of cattle :
Cattle food is of two types :
- Roughage : rich in fibre content. It includes green fodder, silage, her.
- Concentrate : rich in all types of nutrients, lack fibre. It includes maize, oat, barley, jowar etc.
- Diseases of cattle
- Symptoms of diseased animals : a healthy animal is recognized by its regular feeding, normal posture, a definite body temperature and normal pulse and respiration rates. A sick animal shows following symptoms.
- The animal stops eating and becomes lethargic, looks tired and remains isolated.
- The animal shivers with high body temperature.
- the animal shows excessive formation of saliva which sometimes hangs from the mouth.
- Blisters appear on skin surface, eyes turn red, and the animal may have a running nose.
- The animal passes loose dung and Coloured urine.
- The lips and ears of the animal droop.
- Milk – yield, egg-laying capacity or working capacity of the animal is reduced.
- Diseases : diseases caused are broadly of three types :
Prevention and control :
- Providing proper shelter.
- Ensuring animal hygiene (frequent bathing and grooming) and proper disposal of dead animals and animal wastes.
- Periodic screening of animals for diseases and immediate isolation of diseased animals.
- Providing proper diet and suitable medicines under the advice of a veterinary doctor.
- Hygienic handling of all animal products and by products.
- Compulsory vaccinations.
poultry farming : Practice of raising chickens, ducks, geese & turkey for egg & meat. it provides best source of animal protein and fast. egg laying poultry is called egger or layer and poultry raised for meat is called broiler.
(A)Indigenous (desi) breeds of hen
- Aseel (Indian game)
- Ghagus (kadaknath)
- Basra (Burrsa)
- Chittagong (Chattisgarh)
(B)Exotic breeds used in India
i White Leghorn ii Rhode island Red iii Light Sussex
Silver Revolution : increase in egg producing at large scale.
(c)improvement of poultry breeds : It involves :
- Developing of new varieties. They have following advantages.
- Number & quality of chicks are increased.
- Summer adaptation capacity.
- Low maintenance requirements.
- Dwarf broilers present for commercial chick productions.
(D)Poultry diseases: These birds suffer from many diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites along with nutritional deficiencies. These can be prevented by proper cleaning sanitation and spraying of disinfectants.
- Poultry farming offers advantages like :
- Investment involved is small,
- Area required is small,
- Maintenance is easy, and
- Returns are quick.
- The egg – laying poultry birds is called hen (egg layer),while the one groomed for obtaining meat is called chicken or broiler.
Fish farming =Pisciculture : Cheap source of animal protein for human food. Various ways to obtain fishes:-
Capture farming – From natural resource :
- Culture farming – Fish farming in land water fishes, ponds lakes, marine fishes. Our freshwater edible fish include cat fishes such as wall ago, mystus etc. Indian major carps such as catla, rohu, mrigal (Cirrhina) and exotic varieties such as silver carp and grass carp. Catla is the fastest growing carp of great economic significance.
Bee farming = (Apiculture) : Rearing of bees for honey is called as apiculture. Different varieties of bees are used for commercial production of honey. They are :
- indica is called Indian bee
- mellifera ( Italian bee) is domesticated in India to increase the yield of honey.