CBSE Class 10 Chemistry - Carbon and its compounds Notes. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
Carbon and its compounds
1. Covalent bond: A covalent bond is a bond formed by sharing of electrons between atoms. In a covalent bond, the shared pair of electrons belongs to the valence shell of both the atoms.
2. Conditions for formation of covalent bond:
a. The combining atoms should have 4 to 7 electrons in their valence shell.
b. The combining atoms should not lose electrons easily.
c. The combining atoms should gain electrons readily.
d. The difference in electronegativities of two bonded atoms should be low.
3. Properties of covalent compounds:
a. Physical states: They are generally liquids or gases. Some covalent compounds may exist as solids.
b. Solubility: They are generally insoluble in water and other polar solvents but soluble in organic solvents like benzene, toluene etc.
c. Melting and boiling point: They generally have low melting and boiling points.
d. Electrical conductivity: They do not conduct electrical current.
4. Steps for writing the Lewis dot structures of covalent compounds:
a. Write the electronic configuration of all the atoms present in the molecule.
b. Identify how many electrons are needed by each atom to attain noble gas configuration.
c. Share the electrons between atoms in such a way that all the atoms in a molecule have noble gas configuration.
d. Keep in mind that the shared electrons are counted in the valence shell of both the atoms sharing it.
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